You are on page 1of 6

.

.-,!',

(~:

,
*

-.i
r..:

~
"

..IND1AN

INSr,ITUTE
Mechanicai

OF TECHNOLOGY,BOMBAY
Department ,

~r'

.,

.If.

En~~erin9

FLUID MACHINES

E~!~!Y~_Q!~21~~~~!-E!~~~--~~~2!~~_~~~!~~~-~~q:
~9.?"!'!!y~_Q.!~2!~~e~~!_~g~2~ :
These 1. pumps are classified ty~e and (2) as : Rotary Type. Reciprocating

RECIPROCATING TYPE PUMPS:


A reciprocating plunger performing suction in with
to

puw.p consists inside and (Fig.!).


flow

primarily close fitting to the of


fluid.

of

a In

piston such as is
suction

or thlJS pumps, shown is


p'ipe

reciprocating the and suction diagram valve. ~.ater


a unidirectional

a deliver:y

cylinder, cylinder pipes non-return


the

strokes. the two the the

deliver"ypipes

are

connected Each of
of

schematic a non-return
ensure

provided valves while

The function only to only enter it~

T-hus

valve delivery

allows pipe

the

cylinder from

the

valve

permits

discharge

the/cylinder.

WORKING:
Movement atmospheric into cylinder water:.stroke.
t. into the

of

the

piston the with


.

or pipe

plunger a~d to the the stroke

~reates the

a ,vacuum suction of This primed, its volume

and pipe the is

pressure are first of closely th~ retL\rn


pipe.

forces Suction filled the or the pump.

water water Once or

up through clearance replace pump plunger water

the cylinde.r.

the air. has on is been pushed

~~nown as priming follows In


delivery

piston

for'ward upwards

QacKward

Here centrifugal
'8

it

is

to

be no~ed been r~Didly

that

during superseding

last the

few

years

the

pump has

reciprocating

..
...

.'

-2;

;; pumps.
'I,

The can be

advantages summarized

of as

centrifugal here under:

pump

over

the

recipr('1ca~;i.~'~'
:'c'

;~ype
if
i

:;,
'

,
~~~!'3.!.~~~'=-~~':!~ ., Smooth and even cost flow~ 1. 2. Pulsating Initial
as four centrifugal
-.

: ff ; ,:t. ;~.
, !

13:~~!.~'3.Q~~!!'~-~~~~

flow. cost
times

~. as high
that pLtmp. of

~~

Low initial

Ii : ..':!
.:

, !

3. , t
:l

Construction
& compact

is

simplified .
by elimination

3.
,-,

Complicated
and

construinstallat.,-

ction

J
,

~
oj

of and

many parts
valves,

such
glands

as is

nonetc.

ion

is

more

difficult :
t~...

, ::

return

':

, 1

i"stallation

easy.

!4.

Low maintenance
..".

cost

.-.~., 0"

4.

Maintenance
are high.

charges
: !i

i
,High speed directly
coupling

;!:.~~~
be coupled flanged
IDotors

can

5.

.-

Low speed. indispensable.

Belt

drive ;;

through
to
.~

electric

or

steam

turbines.

..

,
Easy handling of highly 6... Valves and glands

viscous
.muddy pulp,

fluids
a.nd sewage
..

such

as oils,
paper

cause
required viscolJS

.trouble
to fluids.

when
transmit

water, etc.

chemicals

But following

.still reciprocating reasons:

pump is

used

far

few

applications '

) The 700 (2) The

reciprocating Kg/cm
2

pump can even of more. reciprocating handle


.','
"

build

Ltp very pump is

high more at

pressure, than a high "that head.

upto of

or

efficiency

centrifugal
~
.,

pump to

small

discharge

"
,

.I

i:

..

if
..,1Yo ' " ..':;' .,

~ i .":.

..

-~-'

ROTARY PUMPS:, Reciproca,ting water the oil lifting devices field,


pressure. on the named as construction gear ~ rotary pump s vane posj_tiv4 pt.(mp!

and centrifugal wher-e'large however~

pumps are vo1ume,:; have rotary

usually to used~

.emplo,,~d for

B.~ In

be handled.

hydraulic
very higl,

pumps are

t;hey

develope

Depending displacement

ptJ.mps are

pump ~ screw

lobed

pump,

etc.

GEARPUMP:
A single
identical

stage shape a motor spaces


It

external
spur

type (Fig.2) other the from


b-3ck

gear

pump
with a

consists
fine

of to Oil

t~ tl,e is an~ th(;


tt

intermeshing

wheels

worJ.:-.ing

c 1.eara.nce

inside driving entrained carried


discharge

a suitably shaft in round


part.

casing and the between gears


slip

One gear revolves teeth the


into the

is

keyed

of the

idly. the port


side

and suction
inlet

casing to
dL',=

between of gears.

the
ca.1"lnot

the

meshing

.Maximum 18 LPS straight bet~een difficulty and 300

flow
"1

and

pressure

that

~ gear Fig.2

pL\mp ca.n shows a the To gears

develop pump oi 1 avoid are havi~! trappe, thi: used.

al

r~g/cm~ wheels',

respectively. which teeth .r,a~~.~ noise c-3.n' t or easi!y

spur

because escape. teeth

intermeshing si."ple

hElical

doLc.ble

hel.i.cal

SCREW PUMP: It edge are lhese of in also delivery contact of gears of consists as are fluid they of two or mare the high Because pressure~ noise contali\i~ation. screw i,:; of screw For casing speeds~ o-f major like best fits and their rotors sealing, the ~ears produce quiet used that the mesh gear closel.y pressl.!re ~ stead at" extensivel The'y turn length, capable higher. under where of (Fig.~5j. and very

considerable and systems tolerantto

2~0 Kg/cmL hydraulic highly

pumps are

concern.

...

-4 If working fluid is

gas instead of oil, screw p\.(mps

called
"
0' ;0,

screw
range

compressors.
of -T.. 7
.,

Screw
.and .

compr~ssors
develops
1
'

are.
press~(res
,

available
Llp to

in
8.5

power
v r,

to ..c.:,-t".

3~~IH.P.
...;,

g I cm. 2

".'- .""; ."

'

,;~.

tJA\"(E PUMP: -Vane -..,. in'to which fit.

pump.

cons.i:s.t;~. blades

of

a or

rotor v~.nes

~,isc

~av~.ng

a The

n~l.mber rotor

of

slGt turn!:

sliding

I
i

in

a casinQ
are

which
free to

is
slide

boredeC=entric
radially with

to

(Fig.:4;.)~. _.0 ' ..,

the

driving
,-, "

shaft.
springs and

ThE
tl,u~

'"anes

the

help

of

form

the

-required

seal ro~or
is

between turns,
trapped.

the

suction
,i

and flows
~hich

discharg. in
force

connections.
.". its side and

When the
casing .'. and

.~he liquid,
~y the. , '. "c.," ya~es, '.

betwee(
i

"

from

inlet

to

discharg.e. " .' stage If in vane place

.0.'
'.;.;

0~ I. "

'-.;

., .to " vane 7~

Single Kg/cm2. c,ompressors.'

-c. pL\mpS of oil,

0- ':' '; .. can, b:~ ..us~d ~~so ar:e


-?

for

oil they in

pressure are pO~'\Jer

of calle rang

~~-~sed, available

Vane

compressors.

of

1~ to

5~~ H.P.

developinq

pre:sures

t~p to

15 Kg/cffi-.

,
.,.c

LOBED

,PUMPS;
These

.'. --."',';' r.; '" r'


.unitsare '.

""
also

-, .'
called ,': as Root's ,'.. .."

...;,
pumps. They reseml

;-~: ".'..': ;.i11.! '. .;-

gear cavity fluid

pumps on to

(Fig.5).. the the inlet outlet

Motion side,:a side and

of

the,
r :.

t-otorcre~tes
, ': ':-

an c.C'.vity cavity that that

expandir carri. forc~

constant a

volume contracting

fluid years
system.

out. to often

In avoid
Lobed

some models, the


pumps

rotors for

are

driven

by

extern31 in the
sa

timi flu
th

necessity
I:ta.ve

rotor
l.argt:!

contact
displacements,

relatively

are

used
gases

for
or

shear
particles.
: , .:. r

sensitive
.,...

fluids,.ns
.

well

as flL\ids

wi

entrained

,.j ; :'".-='
i :.

, '
"

If

in

place

of

oil,

gas

,is.1

handled, .,

lobed

pLlmps

called to

lobed

compressors delive~ing

and

are

available up. to
.' ,

in 17.0

power

..,

range

of

30~0 H.P.,

pressures

Kg/cmk.

:CC,/j

.-

.-5rl-f:i CHARACTERISTICS ' -,- Theoretically, volume ~-nd hence conditions. 1 straight 1 ine per OF POSITIVE positive stroke o\f DISPLACEMENT displacement the piston is or UNITS: units per re'.,olutj_on at all' ~'i5pl-:o.-::-of ,..t:-,-..,'":

:on5tant , ;3 .rotor,

theoretical

flol,,:~ra.te -H-Q in Fig.

constan,t

oeiive'~,' b2 losnes, .?

..,:- -pre:=sure v~rt-:_c~

Tt~~oretical as shown

charac~~ristics 6. Due to

wi 11 leL;\kage

however rate
Theoretical

~~tual

flow

rate
pressure

will

be less will

th~n be
is

the as side

theoretical shot-ln to in limit


closure Hence it

flow Fig.b.
is

and actual to
to
!

H-O !::haracteristic have a relief


value, in

',~aximum

develope~

infinity.

necessary
.'. pressur~
f 1 ~~I.

valve
case

~n delivery
of accidental

the'
of

safe

sL\dden

JET

PU/":? :

Jet secondary converts


Jet entrains

pump nozzle,

(Fig.7) mixing of

Llnit chamber primary


air creating

comprises and flLtid line.a diffuser. into


vaCULlm.

of a high

primary Primary velocity


Hence

nozzle, nozzle j2t. there kinetic is


secondary

high is of
to

pr;-essure
s'Jrrounding

"fluid mixing
2oergy

sL\cked these

through two

suction

In

mixing

chamber converts

coa}:ial
energ'{.

streams.

Diffuser

preSSLtre

Efficiency
G

of
(H

the

jet

pump

is

defined

as

,~'.
#.

S
Q

d
(H

-H

s)
-H
d

I? =

.
Where, .shown primary for ~uction
~...,ctiGn

.m

Hand High Such or

Q represents pr~~sL're units are

head steam, us~d as

and air or These to

flow liquid are

rate can pump also their

at and

section~ as also in st~_tic

in

Fig.? fluid. oil line pipe


lift.

be used used

boiler-feed increase

pufnping

petroleu~ of ~entrifuq31
-

in mines. pump

(ie/=95
:--~

-._~..,.. C
C

""J'

-j)~, ",,~~.

-J;' 1, vea1J ripe Or-), Yr7J ~ fj (4 f'---! i ~/

j l
..::r

'

~ 6-:
PI :.t:.\J)1

:'

'4
,

C:. " '1 E"c.t'"~


tact

P'Sf_Oh --

--r-

/'

Yud'
---'\

:\
,"

j)e'ive.,~
_..'

Vqlve
, ',-

---'/ .I,
'T

' <.'jl,-nde"t-

.,'..

" ..' '

S4< t;iO}1' \f~I\'E ..,',


Fi9i

T 1,-,

, , 1.1 ,~:,t

'

:== (UK~ -~,-..,

'.. 1 'i I __I}J !_-~


I ;"'

.-;::..~...,
',,

~
'..

,,
I,, "

-I p;pe

CYG.l1K",

--

'.

: """"""S\t'O1-1
qct';~~
.~ i

Si-r131e

'

'.

"rpc,

t':>")-ocCcti"}1<]

,J

P""\-)1P
r """t'

'De-';ve'Y.'1~~
./~
Dive'tJI

'

.C4~;)1.9

SC1'E"WS

-,!

~eqr
; v i -rt9'

-l'

;:

Seqli-n~

'fT

0..

F:3.2

E.~t('-Y'11qf
~ E"q,"r

t'jpe

~.~- '3 S<-yew

P'C"tY1p
e

P 't 1')1P

--E ~"t1 t,-f';< .,. , '"10 tGY,,:: '; .l) i.schG'Y3


Q.

,VQ.'t1e' ,
./

QJ
0')

'" ..c.
'IJ .A t...;

to 'G'

S'~<t:iC"}1

, ..3 fij.4 H I Vq)1e PCC1'1')P -i) ~ Canst,


I -=:-;. -r"Q~
:!-

-~~~.?

~~.!:::_~~_~.::!:~~

Se<.o"'t1<;1GY)
Ie

'-

:DE'I'V{>T'j

Th ('0")' e ti c"j ~
~
'-'( '"

;--I
I
f
I

f"i1i'
t
, ,

IQ.-m+QS
I -+ .-I

:.-:;..-

I
-t'*IQ I

'1) >" v; 11CJ i ,


._

, .-1

~- .I d' OJ
t
--J,

Q
OY
.../J

PoS:

~;...~~~~~~~~~~~.!~ t Q s 'ive d;SfIG( E'")"'t\.(i-n


---F 't -.1,r:$

I :} .'1

Jet

t 't ~ n r

...I

'I
~

l'

/
)