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Anatomy and Physiology

1. The knee in relation to the thigh is termed as: a) Distal b) Proximal c) Ventral d) Dorsal 2. To sustain life an individual must be able to function properly. Survival needs include the following apart from: a) Atmospheric pressure b) Oxygen c) Gravity d) None of these 3. An adolescent has been participating in a competitive sport game. Accidentally, he fell off and complains of pain in his coxal area. The adolescent has pain on: a) Posterior knee area b) Hip area c) Thigh area d) Point of shoulder 4. A patient is complaining of pain in the region at the right side of the hypogastric region. This area of the abdomen is also known as: a) Right Hypochondriac region b) Right iliac region c) Right lumbar region d) Umbilical region 5. A homogeneous mixture of two or more components is known as: a) Solutes b) Solvent c) Solution d) Interstitial fluid 6. If the located area is at pointing away from the midline of the body it is termed as: a) Caudal b) Distal c) Proximal

d) Lateral 7. Knowledge on body landmarks is essential to learn about anatomy and physiology. The posterior surface of the lower leg is known as: a) Sural b) Olecranal c) Crural d) Fibular 8. The genetic material , deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is contained in: a) Nucleus b) Nucleoli c) Chromatin d) Chromosome

9. The cells that fight disease is known as: a) Nerve cell b) Epithelial cell c) Fibroblast d) Macrophages

10. A frontal section divides the body into: a) Anterior and posterior parts b) Right and left parts c) Midsagittal and median section d) Superior and inferior parts 11. The abdominal region located at the left side of the umbilical area is called: a) Left Hypochondriac region b) Left iliac region c) Left lumbar region d) Epigastric area 12. A clinical instructor is discussing about the body planes and sections. When a section is made along a horizontal plane the body is divided into: a) Anterior and posterior parts

b) Right and left parts c) Midsagittal and median section d) Superior and inferior parts 13. The process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure is called: a) Filtration b) Diffusion c) Passive transport process d) Active transport process 14. While on duty, the student nurse notices that the clients crural area has lesions and abrasions. Crural area is also known as the: a) Posterior surface of the lower leg b) Posterior surface of the elbow c) Anterior leg area d) Lateral part of the leg 15. The plasma membrane in the body allows some substances to pass through it while excluding others. This type of barrier is termed as: a) Passive transport process b) Selective permeability c) Filtration d) Active transport processes

16. The substance present in the largest amount in a solution is which of the following? a) Solutes b) Solvent c) Solution d) Interstitial fluid 17. Which membrane junction is responsible for preventing the skin cells from pulling apart during a mechanical stress such as someone pulling a persons extremity? a) Gap junctions b) Desosomes

c) Tight junctions d) Microvilli 18. When the body is divided into right and left parts the cut is a: a) Frontal section b) Sagittal section c) Coronal section d) Cross section 19. The fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents is called: a) Nuclear membrane b) Cytoplasm c) Nucleoli d) Plasma membrane 20. The process by which molecules are moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration to become evenly distributed is called: a) Filtration b) Diffusion c) Passive transport process d) Active transport process 21. The cellular material outside the nucleus but is located inside the cell membrane is called: a) Nucleoli b) Chromatin c) Cytoplasm d) Plasma membrane 22. To maintain homeostasis the body function interacts. The homeostatic control mechanism that responds to environmental changes is called: a) Effector b) Receptor c) Control center d) Stimuli

23. The dorsal cavity of the body has two subdivisions. Select all dorsal body cavity. A. Thoracic B. Cranial C. Spinal D. Adbominopelvic a) A and B b) B and C

c) C and D d) B and D 24. A correct anatomical position is best exemplified by which of the following? a) Standing up with palms held unnaturally forward with thumbs pointing towards the body. b) Standing up with palms held backward with thumbs pointing towards the body. c) Standing up with palms held unnaturally forward with thumbs pointing away from the body. d) Standing up with palms held unnaturally forward with thumbs pointing towards the body. 25. Most school age children are having cuts or wounds at the anterior knee region because of the tendency to fall during extreme activity involvement. The anterior knee region is also known as: a) Popliteal b) Patellar c) Antecubital d) Tarsal

Answers to the questions!!! Anatomy and physiology Question 1 Explanation:The knee is distal (farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk) to the thigh. Proximal means closer to the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. Ventral means anterior or toward or at the front of a body. Dorsal means posterior or toward or at the backside of the body. Question 2 Explanation:Survival needs include water, food, oxygen, appropriate temperature, atmospheric pressure. Because of the word apart from the correct answer is letter D. (Source: Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology by Marieb 8th Ed. P 9) Question 3 Explanation:a. Posterior knee area popliteal b. Hip area coxal c. Thigh area femoral d. Point of shoulder acromial Question 4 Explanation:Right iliac region is located at the right side of the hypogastric region. Right hypochondriac lies beside the epigastric region while the right lumbar lies beside the umbilical area. Question 5 Explanation:a. Solutes tiny components present in small amounts. b. Solvent the substance present in the largest amount. c. Solution - A homogeneous mixture of two or more components d. Interstitial fluid the fluid that continuously bathes the exterior of the cells. Question 6 Explanation:a. Caudal inferior; away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body. b. Distal - farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk c. Proximal closer to the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. d. Lateral - pointing away from the midline of the body Question 7 Explanation:a. Sural - the posterior surface of the lower leg b. Olecranal posterior surface of the elbow c. Crucal anterior leg area/region d. Fibular lateral part of the leg Question 8 Explanation:The gene-containing nucleus acts as the control center for cells. It is the specific part of the cell where the DNA is found. Nucleoli, chromatin and chromosome are all found inside the nucleus. Question 9 Explanation:A phagocytic cell or macrophages are cells that crawl through tissue to reach infection sites. Epithelial cells are the ones that cover and lines body organs. Fibroblast connects body parts while nerve cells or neurons are for gathering information and controlling body function. Question 10 Explanation:A frontal section is a cut made along a lengthwise plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts. Question 11 Explanation:Left lumbar lies beside the umbilical area. Left hypochondriac lies beside the epigastric region. Left iliac region is located at the left side of the hypogastric region.

Question 12 Explanation:When a section is made along a horizontal plane (transverse section) the body is divided into superior and inferior parts. If a sagittal section is done (lengthwise/longitudinal plane) the body is divided into right and left parts. A frontal section is a cut made along a lengthwise plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts. Question 13 Explanation:Filtration is the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure. Diffusion is the process by which molecules are moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration to become evenly distributed. Passive transport processes substances are transported across the membrane without energy input from the cell. In active transport processes, the cell provides the metabolic energy ATP that drives the transport process. Question 14 Explanation:a. Posterior surface of the lower leg - sural b. Posterior surface of the elbow - olecranal c. Anterior leg area - crural d. Lateral part of the leg fibular Question 15 Explanation:The plasma membrane is a selective permeable barrier. Passive transport processes substances are transported across the membrane without energy input from the cell. In active transport processes, the cell provides the metabolic energy ATP that drives the transport process. Filtration is the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure. Question 16 Explanation:a. Solutes tiny components present in small amounts. b. Solvent the substance present in the largest amount. c. Solution - A homogeneous mixture of two or more components d. Interstitial fluid the fluid that continuously bathes the exterior of the cells. Question 17 Explanation:a. Gap junctions commonly seen in the heart and embryonic cells that functions mainly to allow communication. b. Desosomes anchoring junctions that prevent the skin cells from pulling apart during a mechanical stress c. Tight junctions impermeable junctions that bind cells together into leakproof sheets that prevent substances from passing through the extracellular space between cells. d. Microvilli tiny fingerlike projections that increases the cells surface area for absorption. Question 18 Explanation:a. Frontal section divides the body into anterior and posterior parts b. Sagittal section divides the body into right and left parts c. Coronal section other term for frontal section d. Cross section divides the body into superior and inferior parts Question 19 Explanation:Plasma membrane (or cell membrane) contains all cell contents and separates them from the surrounding environment. a. Nuclear membrane a double membrane barrier that binds the nucleus b. Cytoplasm the cellular material outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane. c. Nucleoli dark-staining, round bodies in the nucleus. Question 20 Explanation:Diffusion is the process by which molecules are moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration to become evenly distributed. Filtration is the

process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure. Passive transport processes substances are transported across the membrane without energy input from the cell. In active transport processes, the cell provides the metabolic energy ATP that drives the transport process. Question 21 Explanation:Cytoplasm is the cellular material outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane. a. Nucleoli - dark-staining, round bodies in the nucleus. b. Chromatin loose network of bumpy threads that is scattered throughout the nucleus. c. Cytoplasm d. Plasma membrane (or cell membrane) contains all cell contents and separates them from the surrounding environment. Question 22 Explanation:a. Effector produces the response b. Receptor responds to environmental change c. Control center assesses the changes present d. Stimuli the change itself Question 23 Explanation:Dorsal (posterior) body cavities are well protected by bones and consist of the cranial and spinal cavities. Ventral cavities are less protected and consist of thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. Question 24 Explanation:A correct anatomical position is similar to a standing at attention but is less comfortable because the palms held unnaturally forward with thumbs pointing away from the body. Question 25 Explanation:a. Popliteal posterior knee area b. Patellar anterior knee c. Antecubital anterior surface of the elbow d. Tarsal ankle region