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General Chemistry 01

1. Complete the table. Name of compound calcium bromide Formula of cation Ca2+ Al3+ SO42NO3chromium(III) hydroxide OHFe(NO3)2 Formula of anion Formula of compound

(Total 8 marks) 2. Complete each of the statements. (a) The electron configuration of a calcium atom is (1) (b) The electron configuration of a sulphide ion, S2-, is (1) (c) The number of neutrons in an atom of the zinc isotope, 30Zn, is (1) (d) The number of electrons in the outer shell of an iodine atom is (1) (e) The number of moles of H2 molecules in 10 g of hydrogen gas is (1) (f) The number of moles of water produced by the complete combustion of one mole of butane, C4H10, is (1)

(Total 6 marks)

3.

There are two chlorides of phosphorus, PCl3 and PCl5. (a) A sample of one of these chlorides has the percentage composition by mass: P = 22.5% Cl = 77.5%

Calculate the empirical formula of this chloride.

(3) (b) Complete the diagram to show the outer shell electron arrangement in a molecule of PCl3.

Cl

Cl

Cl

(2)

Total 5 marks

4.

The diagram represents the structure of an atom of isotope A of an element. Z

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X X Y Y Y X Y Z

(a) (i) Name the particles X, Y and Z. X ... Y ... Z ... (3) (ii) Which of the particles X, Y and Z have approximately the same mass? (1) (iii) Give the atomic number and mass number of this atom. Atomic number

Mass number (2) (b) (i) This element has another isotope, B, with a mass number one less than isotope A. State the composition of the nucleus of an atom of isotope B. (1) (ii) Why do these isotopes have the same chemical properties? (1)

(Total 8 marks)

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5.

(a) Give the name of the physical change that occurs when steam is converted to water. (1) (b) Describe the spacing and the movement of particles in steam and in water. Steam ...

Water ...

(4) (c) Suggest why it requires more heat energy to turn a given mass of water into steam than to turn the same mass of ice into water.

(2) (Total 7 marks)


6. Complete the balancing

of each of the equations. (1) ... H 2O (1) (1) ... H 2O (1)

(a) 4Fe + ............... O 2 ................. Fe 2O3 (b) 4NH3 + ............... O 2 ................. NO + ... (c)................. AgNO3 2Ag + ............... NO 2 + O 2 (d) MnO2 + ............... HCl MnCl 2 + Cl 2 + ...

(Total 4 marks)

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7.

Rubidium is in the same group in the Periodic Table as sodium. Use your knowledge of the reactions of sodium to answer parts (a) and (b) below. (a) (i) Give two observations that would be made when a small piece of rubidium is dropped into cold water. 1 ... 2 ... (2) (ii) Write the equation for the reaction. (2)

8.

Write the formula for: (a) potassium nitrate ... (1) (b) calcium hydroxide ... (1) (c) ammonium sulphate ... (1) (d) iron(III) chloride. .. (1) (Total 4 marks)

9.

Complete the table. Particle


31

Number of protons

Number of neutrons Number of electrons 15

15P

27
13

14
3+

35

46

36

(Total 7 marks)

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10.

Give the number of: (a) atoms in one molecule of (CH3)2CHBr ... (b) electrons in the outer energy level of germanium (atomic number = 32) ... (1) (c) sulphate ions that would combine with two chromium(III) ions ... (1)
(Total 3 marks)

(1)

11.

Identify each of the following elements, using the Periodic Table where necessary. (a) A gas that occupies about 20% of the air by volume. .. (1) (b) An inert gas that is used in domestic light bulbs. .. (1) (c) A solid non-metal with a very high melting point. .. (1) (d) A metal that forms 2+ and 3+ ions. .. (1) (e) An element in the third period that has 16 neutrons in its atomic nucleus. .. (1) (f) The fourth member of Group 2. .. (1)

(Total 6 marks)

12.

Complete the sentences below, using words from the following list. Each word may be used once or not at all. solid molten aqueous ions anions cations atoms electrons bonds

Sodium chloride does not conduct electricity in the ................................ state because the .............................. are fixed in position. Sodium chloride does conduct electricity in the .............................. or .............................. state; current is carried to the negative electrode by the ... Sodium metal conducts electricity due to the movement of ... (Total 6 marks)

13.

(a) Two isomers have the percentage composition by mass: C = 24.24% H = 4.04% Cl = 71.72%

(i) Use these figures to show that the empirical formula of the isomers is CH2Cl.

(3) (ii) The relative molecular mass of the isomers is 99. Show that they have a molecular formula C2H4Cl2.

(1)

(Total 4 marks)

14.

Draw diagrams to show the shapes of the following molecules. Use lines to represent covalent bonds and do not show the electron arrangements. (a) Methane

(2) (b) Ammonia

(2) (c) Carbon dioxide

(2)

(Total 6 marks)