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Ceramic honeycomb filters and catalysts


Pronob Bardhan
Ceramic honeycombs are widely used as catalyst supports

and as particulate geometries

filters for vehicular emission control. New

and materials have been developed for both

mobile and stationary applications. Some recent examples are zeolite and carbon honeycomb adsorbers, low expansion heat exchangers, membrane-coated gas filters and finned monolithic reactors.

closer to the engine manifold (a close-coupled converter) or placing a smaller, lower mass converter in front of the larger main converter (a preconvetter); secondly, active promotion of light-off through the application of additional heat; thirdly, delaying the catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons by storing emitted hydrocarbons until the appropriate light-off temperatures are attained by the catalyst. Each approach has required the development of new honeycomb attributes that will be reviewed below. The evolution of honeycombs has moved from the initial considerations of the 197Os, of mechanical integrity, to current goals of improved back pressure, light-off and conversion efficiency. Thus, the early geometries of ceramic monoliths had 300 cells per square inch (cpsi) and 12 mils wall thickness (abbreviated to 300/12) and were replaced in the 1980s by 400/6 structures. The latter had the benefits of a higher surface area and a lower back pressure. Experimentation and designs for the 1990s have focused on reducing the remaining emissions, and recent literature has expanded beyond cell density and wall thickness to the more relevant systems view. The latter includes cell shape considerations, substrate size and mantle effects, and, in examining emission and durability performance, current studies also acknowledge washcoat, catalyst (for hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide oxidation or reduction of oxides of nitrogen) and packaging interactions. First, consider the ceramic honeycomb geometry. Considerable work is being undertaken in the study of high cell density and thinner wall configurations. Recent reports [ 1*,2,3,4*,5,6] have dealt with durability and hydrocarbon conversion with geometries such as 40014, 60013, and 900/Z. The higher cell density and thinner walls of the substrates helps to increase the geometric surface area. This increase in geometric surface area has been found to reduce the hydrocarbon emissions during all phases of conversion. However, surface area is not the only contributory factor to the reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. Its contribution is best understood in conjunction with the bulk density of the substrate. Cold start emissions are strongly dependent on the bulk density of the substrate. In thinner wall ceramic honeycombs, to avoid decreasing substrate strength, wall porosity may be reduced. The resulting increase in bulk density would adversely affect cold start emissions. In addition, it is found that for the same hydrocarbon emission, with higher cell density, substrate volume can be reduced. The resulting lower mass substrate will improve cold start emission by enabling the catalyst to light-off earlier and, hence, convert emitted hydrocarbons earlier. It is noteworthy that, because of the difficulty in achieving the legislated hydrocarbon targets, most discussions tend to reflect on the substrate effects

Address Cellular Ceramics Core Technology SP-DV-l-9, Coming, NY 14831, USA

Corning Incorporated,

Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science 1997, 2:577-583 Electronic identifier: 1359-0286-002-00577 (P Current Chemistry Ltd ISSN 1359-0286 Abbreviation EHC electrically heated catalyst

Introduction
The largest single use of honeycomb structures is as supports for catalysts for the control of emissions from automobiles (both gasoline and diesel engines). Honeycombs for automotive use, understandably, receive the most attention and the present review will reflect this activity and the recent innovations designed to meet new challenges. There is also interest in extending the use of honeycombs to a variety of industrial applications. Progress will be reviewed for a range of uses such as particulate filters, concentrators, catalytic combustors and catalytic reactors for chemical processes. Some of the applications are exploratory but are worth reviewing to encourage more research activity in these directions for the future. Other areas, for example, selective catalytic reduction of NO,, receive mention because of their environmental significance, even though the technology appears to be relatively stable.

Honeycombs for automotive (gasoline engine)

applications

The dominant driving force behind recent advances in honeycomb catalysts for automotive emission aftertreatment has been the introduction of increasingly stringent legislations. Hydrocarbon conversions >98% may be required for low emission vehicles (e.g. nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions of 0.75 gms/mile [California Air Resources Board]). In order to attain such a conversion level, the general strategy is to focus on the emissions that occur on engine start-up, when the catalytic converter temperature is below the light-off temperature of the catalyst. Several approaches have been developed: firstly, passive promotion of light-off by locating a converter

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on hydrocarbon emissions. More attention of substrate contributions for NO, conversion will be needed in the future. Finally, an important contribution [4*] has been made in establishing experimentally that thinner wall ceramic honeycombs retain the thermal shock resistance of their thicker wall counterparts of the same cell density. A brief comment will be made here on metallic cellular structures. These are used occasionally and have continued to be examined [7,&10]. Early on, metal foil structures had poor physical durability. With improved brazing technology, reliable metal catalytic converters have been fabricated. The directions for metal substrate geometries are the same as those described for ceramics. A recent advance in this area deals with alloy formation [8]. Aluminum alloying agents, desired for high temperature oxidation durability, reduce the workability of the alloy foils, and hence a two-step process is being developed where a modified ferritic steel foil is roll bonded between aluminum sheets and then heat treated to produce a more durable metal surface. The performance of the honeycomb is increasingly being examined in the context of a system in terms of the support material, cellular geometry, washcoat, the catalyst, the insulating mat and/or the surrounding package. Progress in the analysis of the impact of the first three elements has been significant [ 1 l, 1Z, 13,141. A thorough understanding and comparison of honeycomb structure ceramics and metals has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive set of physical properties. This is now available [ll]. This information, along with a set of washcoat data, has led to a better assessment of the initial heat-up. Actual energy measurements showed that ceramics have lower energy requirements than their corresponding metal substrates because the latter have a mantle associated with them. Additionally, washcoat energy demand for heat-up is roughly a third of the total catalyst system need; hence the importance of a systems approach. Heat and mass transfer analysis for various cell shapes leads to the conclusion that they best describe catalyst conversion efficiency, rather than the simpler notion of geometric surface area. The appropriate analytical expressions for heat/mass transfer and pressure drop for a variety of channel-shapes can be used to optimize substrate for performance. For catalyst light-off to be initiated earlier, close-coupled converters are effective. These can either be the entire catalyst volume, such as a small main convertor or a small preconverter paired with a large main converter placed in the under-floor position. Temperatures as high as 1,OSOC can be experienced by the close-coupled converter [lS]. The round substrate contour is best suited for light-off [4*,16], and in the case of the ceramic, a highly insulating mat is used to facilitate durable packaging [16,17]. Note that improved durability of the support and catalyst is also

a requirement of the new legislationsthis again forces attention towards the durability of the system.

Alternative structures are proposed from time to time to replace the honeycomb structures for exhaust catalysis. Currently, ceramic honeycombs are the most widely used substrates, while metal supports find some specialized automotive applications. Recent suggestions are briefly discussed. A small monolith (Microlith) has been described for the preconverter function [18]. This monolith is comprised of a series of slices of a metal monolith-its fast light-off being facilitated by low mass, high cell density and improved flow through the channels. Another design [19] is based on a ferritic stainless steel foam structure where an increase in the pressure drop is circumvented with a set of axial holes. (A similar structure, this time made of ceramics to replace pellets, is reported for stationary processes requiring short contact times [20,21].) A high cell density (1,000 to 1,600cpsi) radial converter with low pressure drop has also been reported [ZZ], the good performance is attributed to high mass transfer. Durability and washcoating challenges are unclear. It is fair to say that the above designs are still in the early stages of study.

A new generation of honeycomb converters is being examined with a different strategy for reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions. This combines a novel geometry with zeolite coatings in addition to the use of platinum group metal catalysts. The systems approach (alluded to earlier) has led to the use of a series of substrates through which exhaust flow is appropriately guided to help reduce the automotive emission [23,24,25*,26-281. The first development involved a by-pass loop with a zeolite coating on a monolith. For a fixed initial period on start-up, exhaust flows through a main converter and then flows through a by-pass monolith. The flow is stopped while the second converter is heated and the by-pass adsorber is purged after the second catalyst attains its light-off temperature. The success of this design has led to more practical in-line adsorber designs. The in-line system is made up of 3 or 4 converters, depending on the design. In one form of the system, an adsorber is placed in between a front main converter (which in addition to oxidizing hydrocarbons also acts as a heat sink) and a rear light-off converter. The adsorber can be zeolite-coated onto a cordierite substrate (as reported above) or it can be extruded or it can be grown hydrothermally directly onto the cordierite. One key aspect of the system is its geometrythe adsorber body is a design where the honeycomb has a central hole. The catalyst-adsorber system is a flexible design with no mechanically moving components in the exhaust stream. Exhaust flow in a conventional (no center hole) adsorber would show a slight preference for higher flow through the center. With the center hole adsorber, there is a high preferential flow rate through the hole because it represents the path

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of least resistance for the gases. Using such a system alone and relying on the difference between exhaust flow on start-up and when accelerating, a significant reduction in the nonmethane hydrocarbons is obtained. Significant improvement in performance of the zeolite can be obtained with the above principles by adding another ahead of the central hole innovation - a fluidic diverteradsorber and behind the main converter. A fluidic diverter utilizes secondary air to block the central hole in the first few seconds. The fluidic diverter allows virtually all the cold exhaust to pass through the zeolite adsorber. Thus, more of the cold hydrocarbons can be adsorbed. At the same time, the central hole can be enlarged to allow the light-off converter to become active faster. With such a system, nonmethane hydrocarbons can be reduced to ultra-low emission levels. The combination of a catalyzed hydrocarbon trap and exhaust gas ignition has also provided a reduction in emission levels [29]. In this case, a medium pore size zeolite-coated honeycomb with a Pd/Rh catalyst is the first converter. The hydrocarbons adsorbed by the converter during the cold start up, desorb as the zeolite adsorber warms up. In the cold start phase, a flame chamber with a glow plug ignites an appropriately administered flammable fuel/air mixture. The heat evolved rapidly raises the temperature of the light-off catalyst to facilitate the hydrocarbon conversion process. Active cellular structures, such as electrically heated catalysts (EHCs) of wrapped metal foil or extruded and sintered metal powder, have also been developed [30-381. These are described here for completeness as well as to note the diffusion of honeycombs and ceramic techniques in a complementary application. The two types of EHC differ in their structure: the metal sheet EHCs have a coiled structure and the extruded EHCs have slots to build the desired resistance. Also, the extruded EHC alloy composition has a higher aluminum content than the foil EHC [35]. The goal of the EHC to reduce emissions using the minimum amount of power and energy with the necessary mechanical and thermal durability appears to have been met (e.g. 100,000mi1e durability on a vehicle [33]). Specifically, the mass of the EHC has been significantly reduced so that, in a cascade configuration with a conventional catalyzed monolith, catalytic oxidation is rapidly initiated to achieve ultra-low emission targets for hydrocarbons. An empirical model has also been developed that relates the hydrocarbon oxidized as a function of the EHC inlet temperature and power supplied to the EHC [38]. Little difference was observed in a recent comparison in the performance of foil and extruded EHCs [32]. It is worth noting that, just as in the case of the other passive structures, a systems approach has enabled the EHC to be a useful solution. A variation of the EHC is to be found with the dielectrically-heated catalytic converter [39]. In this approach, a refractory ceramic that has a high dissipation

factor at microwave frequency (in this case LaCo03) is coated on a cordierite honeycomb to overcome the intrinsic low microwave loss of cordierite. While rapid heat-up (15 sets to Tso [i.e. temperature at which 50% catalytic conversion is attained]) was demonstrated in a bench test, the approach is in its early stages with only a concept presented for an in-vehicle device.

Honeycombs (diesel)

for automotive

applications

Diesel engine emissions have different characteristics from gasoline engines in that they have soot particles in addition to the products of incomplete combustion. Honeycomb structures find application in exhaust after-treatment for both types of diesel emissions [40*,414]: as oxidative catalytic converters and particulate traps. Flow-through oxidation catalysts are similar in design to those reviewed in the previous section. Systems engineering is again emphasized for durability. The filters have alternate channels blocked in a chequerboard pattern [41,43]. The chequerboard plugs on opposite faces are displaced by one cell so that the exhaust species entering one end are forced to flow through the channel wall to egress out of the opposite end. The key requirements for these filters are: high filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, a high thermal shock resistance and high surface area per unit volume. In recent years, advances in trap technology have concentrated on the materials used for honeycomb filters. An ultra-low thermal expansion cordierite ceramic (coefficient of thermal expansion, 25-800X -3.3 x 10-7/C) with SO-250% better thermal shock parameter than previous cordierite compositions; is claimed to have a higher fatigue resistance, than conventional or standard cordierite ceramics, that allows higher threshold stresses for desired long-term thermal durability [40*]. The high thermal stresses encountered during regeneration cycles have also spawned research on alternative materials such as SIC (and even porous alloys [47,48] and knitted fiber traps [49] not discussed here). The SIC traps are often compared with the cordierite traps. The Sic traps appear to have a similar pressure drop as cordierite (with thicker walls, lower cell density and lower surface area/volume) and similar particulate layer permeability The regeneration efficiency of the Sic traps is generally lower than for the cordierite traps. The peak temperatures during regeneration of the Sic trap are also lower than those observed for ceramics so that the thermal stresses on the latter can be higher, although for both materials cracking can occur when temperature excursions are too large. The key lesson for soot filters is that thermal integrity and regeneration efficiency must be balanced in the system. In this regard, where continuous soot destruction is possible, the cordierite trap with its higher efficiencies would be preferred, an example might be a recent strategy [42] where, in the first step, NO is catalyzed to NO2 and, subsequently, the NOz is used to oxidize the soot. Again, this systems solution works because, at the temperatures used, 25X, NOz can oxidize

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soot. This is to be contrasted to those temperatures (>SSOC) needed when soot oxidation is limited to the use of oxygen. This ingenious combination of a honeycomb oxidation catalyst and a honeycomb particulare trap is, however, limited to low S diesels (to avoid SO+SOJ oxidation by the catalyst), but the advantage is that soot trapping and destruction is continuous. The significant problem that needs to be addressed with diesel engine exhaust emissions and where the honeycomb, or substrate in general, could be a part of the solution is the reduction of NO,. While this area of emission control is receiving worldwide attention, an answer, despite intriguing leads, has eluded researchers. To date, the honeycomb has been merely a carrier for zeolite or y-Al203 or other adsorbing materials-in the future, more advances can be expected for an increased role of the support in the reduction diesel of NO, emissions.

Other transportation

applications

A report on the very high cell density monolithic heat exchangers for automotive gas turbines has identified two suitable ceramics [SO]: magnesium-alumino-silicate (cordierite) as well as lithium-alumino-silicate are now candidate materials. While the extruded cordierite-based monoliths are built from existing materials and process know-how, the lithium-based material has required the development of a unique glass and mineral composition system. Cell densities of the order of 1,100 rectangular cells per square inch have been demonstrated. The new technology could play a significant role in the progress towards extremely low emission transportation technology, by facilitating the introduction of a hybrid vehicle.

adsorption, separation and catalysis. However, mechanical strength is a serious drawback that limits their wider consideration. New types of activated carbon honeycomb, that are mechanically strong and have good adsorption properties, have recently been reported [53-551. In one version, a porous ceramic honeycomb is completely impregnated with a carbon precursor and converted co a coating of activated carbon on all surfaces. In this form, strength is derived from the ceramic backbone. In another form, the activated carbon honeycomb consists entirely of a strong continuous network of carbon that is absent of any binders but can have varying amounts of fillers so that mechanical properties can be varied. Pressure drop is low and cell density can be varied -as is usual for other honeycombs. Porosity and surface area can also be tailored in both cases, but the second type of carbonaceous honeycomb has the superior adsorptive capacity. Air and volatile organic compounds filtration applications are being evaluated. Additionally it is anticipated that the next stage of development for cellular carbons will be in their use as catalyst supports.
Particulate In an earlier filtration

Industrial

applications

A number of current and future uses of honeycomb catalysts and filters have been described in the literature for stationary applications. As an example, selective catalytic reduction of exhaust NO, using a monolithic vanadia/titania catalyst has been deployed by power plants for several years. Additional potential uses of high surface area, low pressure drop structures are being reported, and progress in some of these technologies is reviewed below.
NO, reduction

section, the structure of the diesel particulate filter was described. The same monolith with additional processing has been used to fabricate a membrane hot gas filter [56]. A microporous membrane in the form of a chin coating is applied on a macroporous substrate wall; the process results in a membrane honeycomb filter. It is claimed that, because the membrane is thin ( e50pm), the pressure drop across the membrane is low and the coarse porosity of the support does not affect particle retention. As before, however, built-up particulate matter causes the pressure drop to rise, but this is readily reduced and the filter is regenerated with an on-line back pulse. The challenge for this type of hot gas filter is, of course, to demonstrate long term physical and chemical durability.
Catalytic combustion
Monolithic catalysts are being evaluated for catalytic combustion processes to reduce NO, emissions in utility flue gas. A large variety of materials have been applied and characterized, for example, perovskites [57], SIC [SS], alkaline earth hexaluminates [59,60], Zr02 on cordierite (611, mullite [62] and so on. The application remains a significant challenge, high temperatures (up to 1,400C) and high thermal shock resistance for monolith durability are not the only issues; retention of the catalyst washcoat surface area and catalyst life at these temperatures are also problems that continue to need solutions. Chemical

For the selective catalytic reduction of NO,, progress has been made with geometry, such as thinner walls, as well as by altering microstructure compositionally [51,52]. High void fraction monoliths that strongly affect kinetics can be obtained by firing catalytic monoliths at lower temperatures and compensating for potential loss in mechanical strength by adding fibers to the ceramic matrix. A similar strategy has been the recent use of a natural mineral, a-sepiolite, with TiO2 supports (for VzOcJWO3) to improve handling characteristics without affecting activity or selectivity.
Effluent Carbon concentrators honeycombs,

processes

eycombs,

like other high surface area honhave attractive possibilities for applications in

Monoliths can facilitate chemical processes because of their geometry. The benefits and drawbacks of monoliths over conventional fixed and fluidized bed reactors have been thoroughly reviewed [63]. Low pressure drop, high surface area-co-unit volume, uniformity in heat/mass transfer, lower transport resistance with thin catalyzed

Ceramic

honeycomb

filters

and catalysts

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layers that could improve conversion and selectivity, potential for large liquid-gas contact areas and easier reactor scale-up are some of the advantages cited in favor of monolith reactors. Examples of several three-phase reactions using monoliths include hydrogenation reactions, hydroprocessing, methanol synthesis and catalytic wet air oxidation [64]. An interesting and potentially significant advance in monoliths for chemical processing is their applicability in the form of internally finned monoliths for reactions such as counter current gas-liquid processes (651. These structures consist of parallel channels within which longitudinal fins project some distance into the channel -thereby increasing the external surface area of a lower cell density monolith. Additionally, there is reduced formation of a liquid slug in the channel and promotion of a liquid film so that annular counter current flow of liquid and gas can occur. (In existing catalytic bed reactors, counter current operation leads to flooding of the downward flowing liquid by the upward flowing gas. This can be disrupted odly at unacceptably low velocities of liquid and gas.) The development of this new generation of cellular structures should have a particularly large impact on oil processing. As in the case of monoliths for automotive applications, there is interest in the use and characterization of different materials for these monolithic reactors. Both metals and ceramics are being tested. For ceramics, examples range from high surface area y-Al203 substrate [66], traditional monolithic cordierite and mullite [67] to binderless coated zeolites 168). Ultimately, the specific catalytic process will dictate the chemistry and morphology (surface area) of the monolith material.

Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank J Paul Day for reviewing the manuscript
and making many useful suggestions.

References

and recommended

reading

Papers of particular interest, published within the annual period of review, have been highlighted as:

. ..
1. .

of special interest of outstanding interest

Umehara K, Yamada T, Hijikata T, lahikawa Y, Katsube F: Advanced ceramic substrate: catalytic parforrnance improvetnant by high geometric surhca area and tow heat cspactty. In Low Emission Vehicle Technologies. Wanendate, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc; 1997, SP-1260:115-122. A comprehensive study of a range of thin wall and high cell density aubstrates noting the impact of location and support size on performance. 2. Umehara K, Hijikata T, Katsube F: Catalytic parfomunce improvement by high call density/thin wall cersmk substrata. In Proceedings of 29tfr ISATA fhrternationaf Symposium on Automotive fecfrnology & Automation): Tfte M&t& Vehickr & The Environment - Demand of tfte Nineties 6 Beyond: 1996; Fforence, Italy. Ediied by Rdler D. Croydon, UK: Automotive Automation Ltd; 1996, 96EN044:77-64. Umehara K, Yamada T, Hijikata T, Makino M, Katsube F: Design development of high temperature manffold converter using thin wall ceramic substrate. In Low Emission Vehicfe Technologies. Wanendaie, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc; 1997, SP-1260:123-129.

3.

Tamura N, Mataumoto S, Kawabata M, Kojima M, Machida M: The development of an automotive catsfyst usin a thin wall (4 mil/400 cpsi) substrate. In Cofd-Start Emissions Control 6 Catalyst Technologies. Warrendais, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc; 1996, SP-1173:149-166. This paper demonstrates effect of material and thin wall geometry on improved conversion efficiency and thermal shock resistance. 4. . Umehara K, Yamada T, Hijikata T, Makino M, Katsube F: Design development of high temparature manffold converter using thin wall ceramic subsbats. In Low Emission Vehicfe Technologies. Warrendaie, PA: Society of Automotive Engineera, Inc; 1 Q97, SP-1260:123-219. Locker RJ, Then PM, Zink U: Emlssiort performance of cemmk preconverters evalueted by FrP & Euro stete Ill emission test cycle. In Cold-Start Emission Control d, Catafyst Tecfrnologies. Warrendaie, PA: Society of Automotive Engineera, Inc; 1996, SP-1173:1-16. Maus W, Brflck R, Bestenreiner 0: Catelytk converter concepts for future exhaust gas legislation 6 their effects on engine 6 vehkle. In Proceadings of 29tfr ISATA (International Symposium on Automotive Technology & Automationk Tfre Motur Vehicfe & the Environment - Demand of tfm Nineties L Beyond: lQ96; Florence. Edited by Roller D. Croydon, UK: Automotive Automation Ltd; 1996, 96ENO39:9-22. Reviews the effects of celt density and wall thickness in metal foil structurea. Notes the importance of balancing surface area heat capacity and pmaaure drop. 6. clad Crrftfc stainless steel foil for metallk catalytic convetir substrate l pplkations. In Cold-Statt Emissions Control & Catafvst Technolocies. Chang Cs, Pandey A, Jha 9: Aluminum Warrendaie, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, In& 1996, SP-1173:141-146. 9. Harkonen M, Kirioja M, Slotte T. Lappi P, Lyfykangae R, Vakkilainan A, Torkkell K: Advancad metallic lhrea-way catafysts with optimized washcoat parformsnca In CoM-Starr Emissions Contrvl & Catalyst kftnologias. Warrendaie. PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc; 1996, SP-1173:169-177 Reck A Bergmann A, Kaiser FW, Daia C:Metallk substraMs and hot tubas for catalytfc converters in pasungar cars - two and three whestsrs. In Symposium on fntemationaf Automotive Technofogy. Edited by Raju S. Pune, India: ARAI (Automotive Raeearch Association of Indii; 1996:67-93.

Conclusions
Over the past few years, many advances have been made in the basic ceramic honeycomb used for automotive pollution control and honeycombs used for industrial applications. Some directions may be noted from the above discussion. First, there is increased emphasis on a systems approach in the evaluation of the performance of honeycomb catalysts. Second, there is a trend towards taking greater advantage of the flexibility of honeycomb processing. For example, striving for high geometric surface area by reducing cell wall thickness and increasing cell density, or extruding and sintering metal alloy powders using ceramic particulate processing or forming finned monoliths. Third, the search for and application of new materials continues: materials with lower thermal expansion and improved thermal shock resistance (like that shown for diesel particulate filters) or more refractory materials (a current unfulfilled need for catalytic combustion). In the future, it is possible that honeycombs will facilitate new functions, say for the significant issue of NO, reduction in diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines or enable high efficiency membrane separations in high temperature chemical processes.

10.

Day JP: Substrata effects on light-off - part I thermal energy requirements. In Emissions & Emissions Control. Warrendate, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. Inc; 1996, SP-1207:99-111. A thorough study whare metal and caramic structures are compared with appropriate discussion of all physical properties used. Uses measured en..

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ergy requirements to compare initial heat up. Also, considers washcoat and substrate as a system significant because it shows that heat capacity of coated honeycomb can be as much as 40% higher than uncoated substrate. Day JP: Substrate effects on light-off - part II cell shape contributions. In Low Emission Lehicle Technologies. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc 1997; SP-1260:65-74. An important contribution that highlights the effects of honeycomb cell shape on pressure drop, heat and mass transfer. The effect on catalyst light-off of geometrical features is assessed. 13. Day JP: Some fundamental characteristics of automotive catalyst supports. In Symposium on international Automotive Technology. Edited by Raju S. Pune, India: ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India) : 1996; Florence. Edited by Roller D. Croydon, UK: Automotive Automation Ltd; 1996, 96EN044:7704. Day JP: Substrate contribution to automotive catalytic converter performance: the role of channel shape on catalyst efficiency. In Preprints of fourth international Congress on Cata/ysis 8 Automotive Pollution Control - CAPOC4. Edited by Kruse N, Frennet A, Bastin JM. Brussels: Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium: 1997, 1 :l 79-166. Hu 2, Heck RM: High temperature ultra-stable close-coupled catalysts. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc; 1995, SAE Paper:950254. Gulati ST, Socha LS, Then PM: Design & performance of a ceramic preconverter system in catalysis and automotive pollution control - Ill. In Studies in Surface Science Catalysis. Edited by Prennet A, Bastin JM. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV; 1995, 96307-323. Socha LS, Gulati ST, Locker RJ, Then PM, Zink U: Advances in durability and performance of ceramic preconverter systems. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc ; 1995, SAE Paper:950407. Roychoudhury S, Muench G, Bianchi JF, Plefferle W, Gonzales F: Development 6 performance of microlith lightoff preconverters for LRI/ULEV. In Low Emission Vehicle Technologies. Wanendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc 1997; SP-1260:55-64. Jatkar AD: A new catalyst support structure for automotive catalytic converters. In Low Emission Vehicle Technologies. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc; 1997, SP-1260:149-166. Sweeting TB, Norris DA, Strom LA, Morris JR: Reticulated ceramics for catalyst support applications. In Synthesis & Properties of Advanced Catalytic Marerials MRS Symposium Proceedings. Edited by lglesia E, Lednor PW, Nagaki RA, Thompson LT. Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society; 1995, 368:309-314. Richardson JT, Twigg MV: Ceramic foam catalyst supports preparation & properties. In Synthesis & Properties of Advanced Catalytic Materials MRS Symposium Proceedings. Edited by lglesia E, Lednor PW, Nagaki RA, Thompson LT. Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society; 1995, 368:315-320. Bonnefoy F, Petitjean F, Steenackers P: Radial flow converter: new developments in high cell density catalysts. In Catalysis & Automotive Pollution Control /I/ - Studies in Surface Science L Catalysis. Edited by Frennet A, Bastin JM. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV; 1995, 96335-346. Williams JL, Patil MD, Hertl W: By-pass hydrocarbon adsorber system for ULEV. In Co/d-Start Emission Control Catalvst Technologies. Warrendale. PA: Society of Automotive EAgineers, Inc; 1996, SP-1173:57-67. Hertl W, Patil MD, Williams JL: Hydrocarbon adsorber system for cold start emissions. In Co/d-Start Emissions Control & Catalyst Technologies. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc 1996; SP-1173:95-107. 12. ..

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