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Topic:- Career Planning & Development Career Planning is described as devising an organizational system of career movement & growth

opportunities from the point of entry of an individual in employment to the point of his retirement . Career path for various types of jobs :Supervisor Asst Mgr Deputy Mgr Mgr General Manager .

Career Planning Terminology :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Career goals :- The future positions one strives to reach as part of a career. Career Path:- The sequential pattern of jobs that form a career. Career Progression:- Making progress in ones career through promotions Career Counseling :- Guiding & advising people on their possible career paths & what they must do to achieve promotions . Mentoring:- the process wherein an executive or senior employee serves as a teacher ,advisor, guide, friend, philosopher and confidante to the new entrant. Career Anchor :(i) Technical competence (ii) Managerial Competence (iii) Security (iv) Autonomy (v) Creativity Career Development :- The personal movements an individual makes to achieve his career plan. Career Management:- The process of designing & implementing plans to enable the organization to satisfy employee need & allow individuals to achieve their career goals .

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* Objectives of Career Planning :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Attract & retain the right type of persons in the organization Ensure better use of human resource through more satisfied & productive employees Reducing labour turnover & absenteeism Increasingly utilize the managerial talent Improve employee morale by matching skills to job requirements Providing opportunities fro promotion Achieve higher productivity & organizational development To provide guidance to promising employees .

* Career Counseling :Career planning may require advising & guiding employees in their possible career paths & the direction in which they ought to be heading . Such advising & guiding is called career counseling . Main objectives of Career Counseling are:1. To provide guidelines that help an ind to understand himself & develop own thinking & outlook . 2. Help ind achieve & enjoy greater personal satisfaction & pleasure . 3. Enable the ind to study immediate & personal world in which they live. 4. Help ind understand the forces operating in a system.

* Process of Career Planning Step-1 Identifying Individual Needs & Aspirations :Necessary to identify & communicate the -career goals -Aspirations -Career anchors of every employee because most individual may not have a clear idea about these. Then organization does (a) Personnel inventory = age,qualification, experience & aptitude (b) Appraisal Step-2 Analyzing Career Opportunities :Future plans & career system of the employees are analyzed to identify the career opportunities available within it. Career paths can be determined for each position. Step-3 Identifying Match & Mismatch :Identify & compare specific areas of match & mismatch for different categories of employees regarding individual aspirations & organizational career system. Step-4 Formulating & Implementing Strategies :Alternative strategies & action plans for dealing with mi-match are formulated & implemented. (1) Changes in the career system by creating new career paths , job redesign etc (2) Scale down unrealistic goals & aspirations or creating new aspirations (3) Integration through problem solving ,negotiations & compromises etc . Step-5 Reviewing Career Plans :A periodic review of matching employee objectives to jobs needs . Review will also indicate - To employees in which direction the organization is moving - What changes are likely to take place - What skills are needed to adapt to the changing needs of the organization. * Limitations :1. Not suitable for small organizations 2. Not effective technique for shop floor workers who are illiterate & unskilled 3. Not effective due to favoritism in promotions, political intervention . etc 4. Lack of an integrated personnel policy 5. Lack of rational wage structure 6. Difficulty in identifying suitable persons for career planning 7. Difficulties in forecasting replacement needs 8. Opposition of TU 9. Ineffective attitudinal surveys etc. 10. Low ceiling careers . 2

* Career Development Career development is essential for implementing career plans. It consists of activities undertaken by the individual employees & the organization to meet career aspirations & job requirements . Individual Career Planning Organizational career planning
Integrate short-term & long-term hr needs Develop a career plan for each individual Assess personal interest & abilities Collect data about organizational opportunities Set career goals Develop a strategy to achieve career goals

Career Development
Integrate org needs + ind career plans Designing ind career paths Create developmental strategies Provide career counseling Implement career plans Appraise employee performance Employee development through on-and-off job experiences Evaluate career progression

Topic:- Assessment & Development Centres In an assessment centre , Assessment Programmes are used to evaluate the employees potential for growh & development in the organization . A number of performance simulation tests and exercises(test,interview,in-basket,business games) are used to rate a candidates potential in assessment centre. The performance on these exercises is evaluated by a panel of raters & the candidates are given feedback on their strengths & weaknesses. This feedback helps participate to assess where they stand & what is to be done to scale the corporate ladder in future. Essential Features of an Assessment Centre :1. Job analysis :- help in identifying the dimensions such as skills, qualities, attitudes, knowledge, tasks etc of a job and these dimensions help in developing the framework for developing the instruments to evaluate & assess the participants . 2. Multiple assessment Techniques :- interviews , psychological tests , questionnaire , situational exercises etc. 3. Situational exercises :- helps the participant to capture the typical sample tasks one is likely to encounter in a job. 4. Behavioral Responses 5. Behavioral Observations 6. Multiple Assessors 7. Trained Assessors 8. Integration of observations Development Centre :- involve much more self-&-peer-assessment than is usually used in assessment centre . 3

Topic:- Training & Development Training :- is the process of increasing the knowledge & skills for doing a particular job. It is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge & skill for a definite purpose . The purpose of training is basically to bridge the gap between job requirement & present competence of an employee. Trng & Development :Trng:- involve helping an individual learn how to perform hi present job satisfactorily . Development:- involves preparing the ind for a future job & growth of the ind in all respect. Trng:- Short term Development:- Long term , continuous process Trng:- Specific job related skills Development:- Total Personality Trng:- Reactive Process meet current need Development:- Proactive Process- meet future need Need for Training :1. Job requirement 2. Technological changes 3. Organizational Viability :- In order to survive & grow an org must continually adopt itself to th changing environment changes also due to expansion,growh & diversification . 4. Internal Mobility :- one job to another due to promotion & transfer . Importance of Training :- ( to organization) /Benefits 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Higher Productivity Better Quality of Work Less Learning Period:- need not waste time & effort in learning through trial & error . Cost Reduction :- reduction in wastage Reduced Supervision :- self reliant & motivated Low accident Rate High morale Personal Growth Organizational Climate reduce employee turnover & absenteeism .

Importance of Training :- ( to Employee) / Benefits 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Self-confidence Higher Earnings Safety Adaptability Promotion New Skills

Types of Training:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Orientation training Job training Safety training Promotional Training Refresher Training Remedial Training

Classification of Training Methods :Traning Methods Simulation/ vestibule Conference Apprentices hip
Role Playing

On-the-job

Demonstration

Classroom Programmed instructions

Case study

Lectures

Developing An Effective Training Programme :-

Training-need-identification

Developing Training materials & methods Informational Training Experimental Training

Functional Training Lectures Audio-visuals Self directed trng On-th job trng

Behavioral trg Games Role plying Simulation Case Studies Outbound Trng

Induction Trng Organizational policies & procedures Safety Rules TU issues

International Trg Inf about country Short visits abroad Language skills

Evaluation Reaction of trainees Level of learning Results achieved

Feedback for further modification 5

Topic:- Participative Management It involves employees in various activities to ensure people involvement leading to higher productivity & work satisfaction . The underlying principle of participation is the equality of status between mgmt & worker, that they have equal rights & responsibilities in deciding the future of the enterprise. Types & Degree of Participation 1. Informative participation :- refers to sharing of information with workers 2. Consultative Participation :- Joint council of workers,mgmt function as an advisory body . mgmt may or may not accept their suggestions 3. Associative Participation :- Mgmt has to accept & implement the unanimous decision of the council 4. Administrative participation:- Here mgmt allows workers to exercise administrative & supervisory power in respect of welfare ,safety benefits & rewards . 5. Decisive Participation :- This is highest form of participation where decisions are taken jointly on matters relating to production,safety,welfare etc. There are various forms & styles of participative mgmt .One of them whih is widely applied & practiced is Quality Circles . This concept first began in USA then adopted by japan . Meaning of Quality Circle:It consist of a group of 8 to 10 members who meet during a meeting held in the organization premises , once in month , week or forthnight. They discuss various problems related to quality and recommend alternative solutions on basis of certain investigations done. These solutions are first checked and later if found suitable are converted into norms . This leads to a good participative environment & greater acceptability of decisions . Ex:- companies like :- IBM,L&T, SAIL, HP etc use the quality circle method of employee participation. Objectives of Quality Circle Reduce errors & enhance quality & productivity Inspire effective team work Promote job involvement & participation Inrease employee motivation Create problem solving capacity Build an attitude of Problem Prevention Improve communication in Org Develop harmonious mgr-worker relationship Develop greater safety awareness Promote cost reduction Positive quality of work life.

Composition of Quality Circle 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Members :- group of people from same work area Circle Leader :- Any one out of the memeer is elected to be a leader Facilitator & Co-ordinator :- Facilitator will organize,co-ordinate to help circle activities Steering Committee:- comprises of various dept, division heads for necessary help & support to the circle Executive Committee:- top mgmt 2 or 3 sr mgmt cadre executive to formulate policies & incorporate various changes time to time. Topic:- Employee Empowerment Empowerment is a process which has evolved in response to the trend towards a greater degree of responsibility & involvement amongst employees in the running of their organization. Empowerment is the process of passing authority & responsibility to individuals at lower levels in the organizational hierarchy . Empowerment should not be confused with delegation of authority :- Ex:- when a father gives his son money to uy a pair of jeans it is delegation. But when he gives the son a clothing allowance which the son can spend as he wants , it is empowerment . Characteristics of Empowered Organization 1. Everyone in org is valued & trusted 2. Org culture which is open & responsive to change 3. Giving employees opportunity to perform to their maximum effectiveness & make personal contributions . 4. A flat org structure with few levels of authority 5. Information sharing & feedback 6. Semi autonomous & cross functional work-groups or teams . Importance of Empowerment 1. Knowledge Workers :- want job environment which provides them opportunities for exercising control over work related decisions . 2. Cut Throat Competition :- When customer demands rapid action it is easier to meet the demand through employee empowerment than through change in process & technology . 3. Speed & Flexibility 4. Globalization 5. HRD:- reveal untapped potential of employees . Barriers to Empowerment 1. Authoritarian organization culture 2. Lover for Authority :- power hungry mgr cannot empower the staff . 3. Fear of punishment by superiors :- if a mgr has the fear of being punished for every failure or mistake he cannot empower his subordinates ex:- coach being fired for team losing the match 4. Fear of punishment by subordinates :- if the subordinates fear of being punished for taking initiative 5. Dependency of Subordinates :- If sub-ordinates feel comfortable with command & control by the boss.