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INDEX 1. Effective Communication 2.

Parts of speech 2-3 4 10

3. How to Frame the sentences 11 14 4. Conjugation 5. TENSES 6. Model Auxiliary Verbs 14 15 -18 19 -23

Effective Communication
1. Grammatically Correct Sentences
Eg: Imagine that you receive this telegram message SELL my CAR because I've GONE to FRANCE This sentence is not complete. It is not a "grammatically correct" sentence. But you probably understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car for them because they have gone to France. We can add a few words: Will you SELL my CAR because I've GONE to FRANCE The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make one complete, grammatically correct sentence. But the information is basically the same: Will you SELL my CAR because I've GONE to FRANCE.

2. Pronunciation of Every word


Eg: A way of speaking a word, especially a way that is accepted or generally understood.

3. Grammar
Eg: The study of how words and their component parts combine to form sentences

4. Vocabulary
Eg: All the words of a language. The sum of words used by, understood by, or at the command of a particular person or group.

5. Body Language
Eg: communication via the movements or attitudes of the body

6. Variety of Sentences
Eg: it means using a variety of sentences...not just the same tone and flow of words repeatedly.

7. Voice Modulation
Eg: A change in stress, pitch, loudness, or tone of the voice

8. Expressing Feelings
Eg: .

9. Expressing More Ideas


Eg: .

10. Honing Communication


Eg: .

11. Spontaneity
Eg: Spontaneous is an adjective that means seeming to occur through self-generation, by one's own means, or in a way requiring no outside influence or help.

12. Accent
Eg: an accent is a manner of pronunciation of a language

Parts of Speech
1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3. Adverb 4. Adjective 5. Proposition 6. Conjunction 7. Interjection E.g.: Ravi and his best friend went quickly to Market Ravi - Noun (5), and - Conjunction (2) , his - Pronoun (10), best - Adjective (3) friend - Noun went - Verb (10) quickly - Adverb (13) to - Preposition (3) Market - Noun

It is name of a Person, Place, thing, animal, bird and Idea.


NOUN

Noun

CONCRETE NOUN

ABSTRACT NOUN

COMMON NOUN

PROPER NOUN

MATERIAL NOUN

COLLETIVE NOUN

Concrete Nouns are the names of persons, places and things which have a shape and which can be held. These are further divided into four. Common Noun: A name used in common or general E.g.: Market, Institute

Proper Noun: A name used for a particular person or place. E.g.: Ravi, Vani. Material Noun: Names of the metals or meterials from which things are made are called materials Nouns. E.g.: wood, iron, cement, steel Collective Noun: A collection taken together and spoken as a whole is called a collective nouns. E.g.: Sheep, fleet, army Sir introduced new words: Posse (or) cordon ( Group of Police People) Constellation or Universal (Galaxy) ABSTRACT NOUN: The things which cant see, feel and touch E.g.: Human - ity, Generous - ity, Public - ity, Electric - ity ity - suffix - end small attachment Suffixes & Abstract Noun ence ant ent sion ssion tion wood logy ism

ity ment ster

ance aire hood

ness ist

Pronoun
Its a word used Instead of a Noun
Personal Pronouns Objective Pronouns Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun Emphatic Pronoun I Me My Mine Myself Myself We Us Our Ours ourselves Our sleves You You Yours Yours Yourself yourselves Yourself yourselves He Him His His Himself Himself She Her Her Her herself herself It It Its Its itself itself They Them Their Their themselves themselves

I am a student - (Beginning of the sentence) Sir asked me (After verb) It is my book (Before Noun) (Possessive - Ownership) Here Pronoun work as adjective Before Noun

This book is mine (At the end of the sentence) I blamed myself () I myself helped them ()

Other Pronouns Someone somebody something Somewhat anyone No one One of them none of them each of them This That These Each and Every one of them

Somewhere one every one of them Those

VERBS
Definition: It Shows Action

Verbs

Auxiliary Verbs

Action Verbs (10000)

Primary Auxiliary Verbs

ModelAuxiliary Verbs

Regular Verbs (9800) Eg:


ask,Asked,Asked

Irregular Verbs (200) Eg:


Write,Wrote,Written

Be am is are were be been being

do do does did

have have has had Will - would, Shall - should, Can - could May - Might, Used to, Ought to Need, Dare, must

Will Future Actions Talk about willingness Decided something to do (determination) Conditional Sentence.

Adverbs It add meaning to Verb It adds meaning to Adjective It adds meaning to Adverb E.g.: Sit Straight Carefully Silently attentively Actively

listen

Run

Fast Briskly(fast) Slow Slowly Steadily Quickly Carefully Cautiously Swiftly

E.g.: Ravi is Clever (Clever - adjective) Ravi is Very Clever Very, So, too (Adverb) E.g.: Ravi runs fast (fast - adjective) Ravi is fast run

Adjective It adds Meaning Noun or Pronoun in adjective. There are three types Positive Degree Little Much Good Well Bad Evil Ill Rich Beautiful Comparative Degree Less More Better Better Worse Worse Worse Richer More Beautiful Superlative Degree Least Most Best Best Worst Worst Worst Richest Most Beautiful

E.g. -1

E.g. - 2 E.g. -3

Note: Adjectives which have suffixes take more in comparative Degree, and most in superlative Degree Suffixes: ful, some, ish, ic, ical, ial, ive, our, ade, ible, ing, en, en, like

Prepositions It shows relationship between Noun & Noun, Noun & Pronoun Single Preposition: for, form, since, against, with, by, at, on, in above, below, under, along, through, around, among, between, but, except, including, excluding, save. Compound Preposition: across, about, along with, not with standing, beneath, through out, into, onto upto, upon, Prepositional Phrase: in case of, in case of not, in spite of, because of, owing to, according to, instead of, in the place of, on behalf on, due to, on par with (equal to)

Conjunction A word which joints 2 words, 2 phrases, 2 clauses, 2 sentences Ex: and Complex sentences: If, whether, Unless, that, so that, though, Although, Even though, As, Since, because, what, when, where, why, who, whose, whom, which, How. Compound Sentences: and, but, still, yet, or, nor, eitheror, neither nor, or, nor, so, and so, therefore, or else, otherwise, as well as, not only but also, both and. Simple Sentence: too to

Interjection Words are sentences which express sudden feelings E.g.: wow!, oh!, ah!, oops!, ouch! Hurrah! Bravo! Alas! What a nice painting! How costly the watch is!

How to Frame the sentences


Base form = dont + Base form (Write - Dont + write) s form = doesnt + Base form (Writes = doesnt + write) Simple Past - did nt + Base form (didnt + write) There are 5 verb forms Baseform s form Simple past Past Participle (V3) - Write - Writes - Wrote - Written

Do Does Did Have Has Had Have to Has to Had to Have + PP Has + PP Had + PP Used to

Dont do Doesnt do Didnt do Dont have Doesnt have Didnt have Dont have to Doesnt have to Didnt have to Havent + PP Hasnt + PP Handt + PP Didnt use to

Ing form - Writing

8 Communicative forms 1. Positive Sentences 2. Negative Sentences 3. Yes or no questions (Positive) 4. Yes or no questions (negative) 5. wh questions (Positive) 6. wh questions (negative) 7. Question tags (negative) 8. Question tags (Positive)

Examples on do, did, does Do


We do home work We dont do home work Do we do home work Dont we do home work What do we do? What dont we do? We do Home work? Dont we? We dont home work? do we?

Does
She does Engineering She does nt do Engineering Does she do Engineering Does nt she do Engineering What does she do? What does nt she do? She does Engineering? Doesnt she? She does nt do Engineering? Does she?

Did
He did two mistakes He didnt do two mistakes Did he do to mistakes Didnt he do to mistakes How many mistakes did he do? How many mistakes didnt he do? He did two mistakes, didnt he? He didnt two mistakes? Did he?

Examples on have, has, had Have


We have many doubts We dont have many doubts How many doubts do we have? How many doubts dont we have? Do we have many doubts? Dont we have many doubts? We have many doubts. Have nt we? We dont have many doubts. Do we?

Has
She has three siblings She does nt have three siblings Does she have three siblings Does nt she have three siblings How many siblings does she have? How many siblings doesnt she have? She has three siblings? Has nt she? She doesnt have three siblings? Does she?

Had
He had urgent work He didnt have urgent work Did he have urgent work? Did nt he have urgent work? What type of work he had? What type of work he didnt have? He h ad urgent work? Had nt he He didnt have urgent work? Did he?

Examples on Used to, has, had Used to


We used to feel shy We didnt use to feel shy Did we use to feel shy Didnt we use to fell shy How did we use to feel? How didnt we use to fell? We use to feel shy? Didnt we? We didnt use to feel shy? Did we?

Has
She has three siblings She does nt have three siblings Does she have three siblings Does nt she have three siblings How many siblings does she have? How many siblings doesnt she have? She has three siblings? Has nt she? She doesnt have three siblings? Does she?

Had
He had urgent work He didnt have urgent work Did he have urgent work? Did nt he have urgent work? What type of work he had? What type of work he didnt have? He h ad urgent work? Had nt he He didnt have urgent work? Did he?

Examples on Base form, Sform, Simple Past Base form


We Learn Carefully We dont Learn Carefully Do we learn Carefully Dont we learn Carefully How do we learn How dont we learn We learn carefully? Dont we? We dont learn carefully? Do we?

S form
She stays on the third floor She does nt stay on the third floor Does she stay on the third floor Does nt she stay on the third floor On which floor does she stay? On which floor doesnt she stay She stays on the third floor? Doesnt she? She doesnt stay on the third floor? Does she?

Simple Past
He wrote two letters He didnt writer two letters Did he write two letters Did nt write two letters Howmany letters did he write? Howmany letters didnt he write? He wrote two letters? Didnt he? He didnt write two letters? Did he?

Examples on have to, has to, had to Have to


We have to practice carefully We dont have to practice carefully Do we have to practice carefully? Dont we have to practice Carefully? How do we have to practice? How dont we have to practice We have to practice carefully? Dont we?

Has to
She has to come on time She does nt have to come on time Does she have to come on time Does nt she have to come on time When does she have to come? When doesnt she have to come? She has to come on time? Does nt she?

Had to
I had to help him I didnt have to help him Did I have to help him Did nt I have to help him Whom did I have to help him? Whom didnt I have to help him? I had to help him Didnt I?

We dont have to practice carefully? Do we?

She doesnt have to come on time? Does she?

I didnt have to help him? Did I?

Examples on have + pp, has + pp, had + pp Have + PP


We have answered correctly We havent answered correctly Have we answered correctly Havent we answered correctly How have we answered? How havent we answered? We have answered correctly? Have nt we? We havent answered correctly? Have we?

Has + PP
She has answered all questions She has nt answered all questions Has she answered all questions Hasnt she answered all questions Howmany questions has she answered? Howmany questions hasnt she answered? She has answered all questions? Has nt she? She has nt answered all questions? Has she?

Had + PP
We had offered prayer before we came here We had nt offered prayer before we came here Had we offered prayer before we came here Had nt we offered prayer before we came here When had we offered prayer? When hadnt we offered prayer? We had offered prayer before we came here? Hadnt we? We had nt offered prayer before we came here? Had we?

CONJUGATION
Using one verb in 12 Tenses. That is called Conjugation
Conjugation of the Verb Write Simple Present Tense Present Continuous Tense: Present Perfect Tense Present Perfect Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense Past Continuous Tense Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense Simple Future Tense Future Continuous Tense Future Perfect Tense Future Continuous Tense We wrote Letters We are writing Letters We have written Letters We have been writing Letters Since last year We wrote Letters We were writing letters at 7o clock We had written Letters before we came here We had been writing Letters for one hour before we came here We will write Letters We will be writing Letters at 7o Clock We will have written Letters by 9o Clock We have been writing Letters for one hour by 8o clock

TENSES
It shows time of the Action

Simple Present Tense


Base form/s form Write (I, we, you, they) Writes (he, she, it) Uses: 1. Universal Truth E.g.: A lion is the most ferocious Animal 2. Daily Activities 3. Habitual Actions 4. Future Fixed Action 5. With see, look, how E.g: See how the children fight Look, how this washing Machine works 6. With adverbs: daily, often, seldom, frequently, continuously, rarely, (very less number), Scarcely (very less quantity) 7. News Paper Headlines 8. Magazines 9. Running Commentary 10. Stories 11. Historical incidents 12. Proverbs Quotations Proverb E.g: All that Glitters is not Gold A sentence with two meaning i) Literal Meaning ii) Inner or implied meaning Literal Meaning: Any metal which looks like Gold is not Gold Implied Meaning: Appearances are Desective

Present Continuous
am/is/are + verb + ing Note: now, at present, presently, these days, now - a - days, at (adverbs), Uses: 1. Action which is happening now 2. Action which stops for sometime and continuous later 3. Immediate future action (going) E.g.: Sir is going to teach other tenses Sir is going to test our knowledge after some time I am going to have a cup of tea after the class 4. Arrangement of future fixed action E.g.: CM is visiting our institute day after tomorrow

5. Appointment (seeing) E.g.: She is seeing the Dentist to night

Present Perfect
Have/has+ Past Participle Note: Since, for, recently, already, just, just now, yet, ever, never Usage: Action is completed, but its effect is seen in the presence Examples: 1. She has waited for the bus since 8o clock 2. She has waited for the bus for 30 minutes 3. Swamiji has already left 4. We have joined junior course recently 5. Sir has just completed present continuous Tense 6. I have nt started the work book yet 7. Have you ever visited a Birla Temple 8. No, I have never visited Difference between Present Perfect and Simple Past? I have taken Breakfast - Present Perfect I took Break fast - Simple past

Present Perfect Continuous Tense


Have/has + been + verb + ing Note: Since, For (Preposition) Usage: Action started in the past, continuing in the present and will continue in the future Examples: We have been sitting in the class since 100 Clock We have been sitting in the class one and a half ours For - Period of time - duration Since - Point of time

Simple Past Tense


Usage: For any Completed action in the Past. Note: It is used with or without: Yesterday, day before yesterday, some time ago, in the beginning, Last month, Last week, Last night, Once upon a time, once it so happened, when I was coming, while I was coming, In the past on the first day, Before joining this level, Before leaving, in the Morning, In the afternoon Examples: I met my friend before coming here I met my friend when I was coming here

Past Continuous Tense


Was/were + verb + ing Usage: For any continuous action in the past at the particular given time. Note: at, when I was coming, while I was coming E.g.: we were offering prayer at 10o clock A new lecturer was conducting prayer when we were standing in the prayer hall The lecturer was observing us while we were chanting the Prayer.

Past Perfect Tense


had + Past Participle (V3) Usage: When there are two past actions, the first completed action in past perfect and the second completed action is in simple Past. E.g.: we had offered prayer before we came here We had stood in line before prayer bell was given

Past Perfect ContinuousTense


had + been + verb + ing Usage: For any Past Continuous action in the past with period of time and one more past action E.g.: I had been standing in the Prayer hall for 15 minutes before we came here I had been travelling for half an hour before I got down at R.K. Math

Simple Future Tense


Will/shall + Baseform Usage: For any future action with or without time adverb: Tomorrow, Day after tomorrow, on Monday, Next week, next month, next year, after sometime, as and you need. E.g.: I will come tomorrow He will deposit the money day after tomorrow Usage: Conditional sentence E.g.: If u help me now, I will help you later on If u save money, money will save you in emergency

Future Continuous Tense


Will/shall + be + verb + ing Usage: For any continuous action in the future at a particular given time Note: at E.g.: we will be offering prayer at 10o clock on Tuesday. We will be waiting for bus at 12o clock

Future Perfect Tense


Will/shall + have + PP(V3) Usage: For any part of the action or full action which comes to an end by the future given time. Note: by E.g.: we will have completed three weeks junior course by Tuesday (Part of the action) We will have completed junior course by August (Full action)

Future Perfect Continuous Tense


Will/shall + have + been + verb + ing Usage: For any part of the action with period of time (for) and one more future time. Note: by E.g.: we will have been sitting in the class for 90 minutes by 11.30 We will have been attending junior level classes for three weeks by Tuesday

Model Auxiliary Verbs


1. Can - Uses
1. Present Ability (Physical Strength is called) E.g.: I can catch running Bus I can Speak Good English in three months 2. Capacity (Area or Space) E.g.: This room can accommodate 60 students Qualis can carried 10 Passengers

3. To give and take Permission informal situation E.g.: Informal Family, relative, friends We dont have any type of restrictions Can I use your cell Phone? Yes, You can. Can I Use your vehicle in emergency Yes, You can

4. Direct and indirect speech sentences E.g.: Ravi says, I can solve your problems Ravi says that he solve my problems

5. Conditional Sentence E.g.: If you try again, you can understand better

2. Could - Uses
1. Past ability 2. Polite English

Past ability: I went to bank I couldnt withdraw the money E.g.: I attended an interview last week, but I couldnt clear first round itself.

Polite English: How to give respect others E.g.: Could I Know the Pronunciation please? Could I know my feed back? Could I know the reason for delay?

3. Will - Uses
1. Future Action E.g.: I will come tomorrow 7799209353 He will deposit the money after sometime

2. Willingness E.g.: Sir will clear doubts I will drop you at liberty

3. Determination (Firm Decision) E.g.: I will speak Good English by the End of Junior course

4. Sure E.g.: She will get a rank this time My Friend will get admission in Bits Pilani The Baby will fall down

5. Direct & Indirect Speech Sentences E.g.: Ravi says will you deposit the money tomorrow? Ravi asks If whether I will deposit the money the next day.

6. Conditional Sentences E.g.: If you work hard, you will get success If you read it again, you will understand better

4. Would - Uses
1. Polite English E.g.: Sir would Guide us My Father would visit this institute. Amitab Bachan would get Ascar Award

2. Past habitual Action E.g.: When kalpana was six years, she would like to see in the sky. Kalpana Chavla would like see into the sky ours together when she was six I would work on system ours together when I was a student

5. May - Uses
1. Chances are Possibility of Something happening E.g.: The doctors may save the patient Swamiji may visit our class Sir may give us a chance for GD It may rain

2. To give and take Permission in formal Situation E.g.: May I come in? Yes, You may come

Sir, May I know the Pronunciation of this word Please May I know, whether my sentence is correct

6. Might - Uses
1. Remote are very less Possibility of Something happening E.g.: Swamiji might visit our class

He might Go abroad They might allow me for fourth late coming

2. Polite English (might + like) E.g.: Sir might like to give us chance for individual Presentation Swamiji might like to advice us on meditation Our Chief guest might like to have some refreshment

3. We hold someone responsible if some big mistake happens E.g.: The doctors might have saved the Patient You might have avoided using cell Phone He might have reduced the speed of the vehicle You might have stopped the children from entering water

7. Shall - Uses
1. Future Action (I, we) E.g.: I shall come tomorrow We Shall talk to sir after the class

2. Voluntary Help (I, we) E.g.: Shall I help you Shall we assist them Shall we arrange the chairs Properly

3. Promise (You, he, she, it, they) E.g.: You shall get consolation Prize for 100 percent attendance She shall get Promotion this time

4. Warning (You, he, she, it, they) E.g.: Those who take four leaves shall not be allowed attend he remaining classes Those who wear tea shirts with some writing on it shall not be allowed to attend the class

5. Threatening (scaring by criminals) (You, he, she, it, they)

E.g.: The passengers shall be killed one by one, if our conditions are not fulfilled in 24 hours (*Screem Shouting Loudly)

8. Should or Ought to
1. Duty E.g.: The soldiers should Protect our country

2. Obligation E.g.: We should respect others We should maintain silence in the Prayer hall

3. Reference or Recommendation E.g.: You should advanced learners dictionary by oxford She should see a dermatologist

4. Suggestion (Related to work) E.g.: You should arrange the class The builder should increase the size of the rooms

5. Advice (related to a person or Person health E.g.: You should take care of your health He should mind his language

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