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Sir Isaac Newton PRS (4 January 1643 31 March 1727 [OS: 25 December 1642 20 March 1727]) [1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian.

His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written.

Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope [7] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.

In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.

Newton was also highly religious. He was an unorthodox Christian, and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics, the subjects he is mainly associated with. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism, fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders

Early life

Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642] [1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. At the time of Newton's birth, England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈

1.1 litres). When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19:

"Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them." [8] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey, he never married, being highly engrossed in his studies and work. [9][10][11]

1.1 litres). When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new" While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey, he never married, being highly engrossed in his studies and work . Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton ( Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889 ) From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) . He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by- Colsterworth , where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming . Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student . In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar — a sort of work-study role . At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle , but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers, such as Descartes , and of astronomers such as Copernicus , Galileo , and Kepler . In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus . Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague . Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student , Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation . In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity . Fellows were required to become ordained priests, something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Luckily for Newton, there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair . For such a significant appointment, ordaining normally could not be dodged. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). Early life Main article: Early life of Isaac Newton Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [ OS : 25 December 1642 ] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth , a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire . At the time of Newton's " id="pdf-obj-1-13" src="pdf-obj-1-13.jpg">

Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller

1.1 litres). When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new" While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey, he never married, being highly engrossed in his studies and work . Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton ( Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889 ) From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) . He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by- Colsterworth , where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming . Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student . In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar — a sort of work-study role . At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle , but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers, such as Descartes , and of astronomers such as Copernicus , Galileo , and Kepler . In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus . Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague . Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student , Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation . In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity . Fellows were required to become ordained priests, something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Luckily for Newton, there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair . For such a significant appointment, ordaining normally could not be dodged. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). Early life Main article: Early life of Isaac Newton Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [ OS : 25 December 1642 ] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth , a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire . At the time of Newton's " id="pdf-obj-1-18" src="pdf-obj-1-18.jpg">

Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889)

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by- Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming. [12] Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student. [13]

In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar a sort of work-study role. [14] At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers, such as Descartes, and of astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student, [15] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation. In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. [16] Fellows were required to become ordained priests, something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Luckily for Newton, there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. For such a significant appointment, ordaining normally could not be dodged. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below).

Early life

Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642] [1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. At the time of Newton's

birth, England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1.1 litres). When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19:

"Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them." [8] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey, he never married, being highly engrossed in his studies and work. [9][10][11]

birth, England had not adopted the <a href=Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Born prematurely , he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1.1 litres). When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. " While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey, he never married, being highly engrossed in his studies and work . Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton ( Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889 ) From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) . He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by- Colsterworth , where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming . Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student . In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar — a sort of work-study role . At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle , but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers, such as Descartes , and of astronomers such as Copernicus , Galileo , and Kepler . In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus . Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague . Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student , Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation . In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity . Fellows were required to become ordained priests, something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Luckily for Newton, there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair . For such a significant appointment, ordaining normally could not be dodged. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible . Henry More ' s belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced " id="pdf-obj-2-23" src="pdf-obj-2-23.jpg">

Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller

birth, England had not adopted the <a href=Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Born prematurely , he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1.1 litres). When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. " While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey, he never married, being highly engrossed in his studies and work . Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton ( Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889 ) From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) . He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by- Colsterworth , where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming . Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student . In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar — a sort of work-study role . At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle , but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers, such as Descartes , and of astronomers such as Copernicus , Galileo , and Kepler . In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus . Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague . Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student , Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation . In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity . Fellows were required to become ordained priests, something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Luckily for Newton, there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair . For such a significant appointment, ordaining normally could not be dodged. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible . Henry More ' s belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced " id="pdf-obj-2-28" src="pdf-obj-2-28.jpg">

Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889)

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by- Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming. [12] Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student. [13]

In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar a sort of work-study role. [14] At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers, such as Descartes, and of astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student, [15] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation. In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. [16] Fellows were required to become ordained priests, something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Luckily for Newton, there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. For such a significant appointment, ordaining normally could not be dodged. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below).

In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced

Newton's religious ideas. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Later works The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above).

Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. [49]

Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer. He took charge of England's great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas, Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699, a position Newton held until his death. These appointments were intended as sinecures, but Newton took them seriously, retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701, and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. In his position at the Royal Society, Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica, which Newton had used in his studies. [50]

In April 1705, Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College, Cambridge. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705, rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. [51] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted, after Sir Francis Bacon.

Towards the end of his life, Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park, near Winchester with his niece and her husband, until his death in 1727. [52] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS:

20 March 1726], [1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt, [53] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her "very loving Uncle," [54] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate.

After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life. [55]

After death

Fame

French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish." [56] English poet Alexander

French mathematician <a href=Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish. " English poet Alexander Einstein at the age of 4 Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14) Albert Einstein was born in Ulm , in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879 . His father was Hermann Einstein , a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch) . In 1880, the family moved to Munich , where his father and his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie , a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current . The Einsteins were non-observant Jews . Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. Later, at the age of eight, Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium " id="pdf-obj-4-10" src="pdf-obj-4-10.jpg">

Einstein at the age of 4

French mathematician <a href=Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish. " English poet Alexander Einstein at the age of 4 Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14) Albert Einstein was born in Ulm , in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879 . His father was Hermann Einstein , a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch) . In 1880, the family moved to Munich , where his father and his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie , a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current . The Einsteins were non-observant Jews . Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. Later, at the age of eight, Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium " id="pdf-obj-4-14" src="pdf-obj-4-14.jpg">

Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14)

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. [7] His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch). In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where his father and his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current. [7]

The Einsteins were non-observant Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. Later, at the age of eight, Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium

where he received advanced primary and secondary school education till he left Germany seven years later. [8] Although it has been thought that Einstein had early speech difficulties, this is disputed by the Albert Einstein Archives, and he excelled at the first school that he attended. [9]

His father once showed him a pocket compass; Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move, despite the apparent "empty space". [10] As he grew, Einstein built models and mechanical devices for fun and began to show a talent for mathematics. [7] In 1889, Max Talmud (later changed to Max Talmey) introduced the ten-year old Einstein to key texts in science, mathematics and philosophy, including Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Euclid's Elements (which Einstein called the "holy little geometry book"). [11] Talmud was a poor Jewish medical student from Poland. The Jewish community arranged for Talmud to take meals with the Einsteins each week on Thursdays for six years. During this time Talmud wholeheartedly guided Einstein through many secular educational interests. [fn 1][fn 2]

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and then, a few months later, to Pavia. When the family moved to Pavia, Einstein stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in strict rote learning. In the spring of 1895, he withdrew to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. [7] During this time, Einstein wrote his first scientific work, "The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields". [14]

Einstein applied directly to the Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. Lacking the requisite Matura certificate, he took an entrance examination, which he failed, although he got exceptional marks in mathematics and physics. [15] The Einsteins sent Albert to Aarau, in northern Switzerland to finish secondary school. [7] While lodging with the family of Professor Jost Winteler, he fell in love with Winteler's daughter, Marie. (His sister Maja later married the Wintelers' son, Paul.) [16] In Aarau, Einstein studied Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. At age 17, he graduated, and, with his father's approval, renounced his citizenship in the German Kingdom of Württemberg to avoid military service, and in 1896 he enrolled in the four year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Polytechnic in Zurich. Marie Winteler moved to Olsberg, Switzerland for a teaching post.

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marid, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year, the only woman

among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course. Over the

next few years, Einstein and Marid's friendship developed into romance, and they read books together on extra-curricular physics in which Einstein was taking an increasing interest. In 1900 Einstein was awarded the Zurich Polytechnic teaching diploma, but Marid failed the examination with a poor grade in the mathematics component, theory of functions. [17] There have been claims that Marid collaborated with Einstein on his celebrated 1905 papers, [18][19] but historians of physics who have studied the issue find no evidence that she made any substantive contributions. [20][21][22][23]

Marriages and children

The <a href=New York World-Telegram announces Einstein's death on April 18, 1955. On April 17, 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. Rudolph Nissen in 1948 . He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it . Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. " He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location . During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation, without the permission of his family, in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent . In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person : "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn." . . . There was always with Scientific career Albert Einstein in 1904 The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to the right. Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles . In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the Bose – Einstein statistics, the Einstein refrigerator and others . Annus Mirabilis papers Main articles: Annus Mirabilis papers , Photoelectric effect Jump to: navigation , search " id="pdf-obj-6-2" src="pdf-obj-6-2.jpg">

The New York World-Telegram announces Einstein's death on April 18, 1955.

On April 17, 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. Rudolph Nissen in 1948. [52] He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it. [53] Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly." [54] He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end.

Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location. [55][56] During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation, without the permission of his family, in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent. [57] In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: [46]

"He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn."

. . .

There was always with

Scientific career

The <a href=New York World-Telegram announces Einstein's death on April 18, 1955. On April 17, 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. Rudolph Nissen in 1948 . He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it . Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. " He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location . During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation, without the permission of his family, in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent . In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person : "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn." . . . There was always with Scientific career Albert Einstein in 1904 The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to the right. Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles . In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the Bose – Einstein statistics, the Einstein refrigerator and others . Annus Mirabilis papers Main articles: Annus Mirabilis papers , Photoelectric effect Jump to: navigation , search " id="pdf-obj-6-53" src="pdf-obj-6-53.jpg">

Albert Einstein in 1904

The <a href=New York World-Telegram announces Einstein's death on April 18, 1955. On April 17, 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. Rudolph Nissen in 1948 . He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it . Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. " He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location . During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation, without the permission of his family, in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent . In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person : "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn." . . . There was always with Scientific career Albert Einstein in 1904 The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to the right. Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles . In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the Bose – Einstein statistics, the Einstein refrigerator and others . Annus Mirabilis papers Main articles: Annus Mirabilis papers , Photoelectric effect Jump to: navigation , search " id="pdf-obj-6-57" src="pdf-obj-6-57.jpg">

The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to the right.

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. [5][7] In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the BoseEinstein statistics, the Einstein refrigerator and others. [58]

Annus Mirabilis papers Main articles: Annus Mirabilis papers, Photoelectric effect Jump to: navigation, search

 
 

Stephen Hawking

 
   

Stephen Hawking at NASA, 1980s

 
 

Born

Stephen William Hawking 8 January 1942 (age 69) Oxford, England

 
 

Residence

England

 

Nationality

British

 

Fields

 

Institutions

 
 

FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) [1] is an English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, whose scientific books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, [2] a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, [3] and in 2009 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. [4]

Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for 30 years, taking up the post in 1979 and retiring on 1 October 2009. [5][6] He is now Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge. He is also a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and a Distinguished Research Chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. [7] He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes. He has also achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; these include the runaway best seller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British Sunday Times bestsellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. [8][9]

Hawking's key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose, theorems regarding gravitational singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation (or sometimes as BekensteinHawking radiation). [10]

Hawking has a motor neurone disease that is related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a condition that has progressed over the years and has left him almost completely paralysed.

Contents

Stephen Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 to Dr. Frank Hawking, a research biologist, and Isobel Hawking. He had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward. [11] Though Hawking's parents were living in North London, they moved to Oxford while his mother was pregnant with Stephen, desiring a safer location for the birth of their first child. (London was under attack at the time by the Luftwaffe.) [12] According to Hawking, a German V-2 missile struck only a few streets away. [13]

After Hawking was born, the family moved back to London, where his father headed the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research. [11] In 1950, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire, where he attended St Albans High School for Girls from 1950 to 1953. (At that time, boys could attend the Girls' school until the age of ten.) [14] From the age of eleven, he attended St Albans School, where he was a good, but not exceptional, student. [11] When asked later to name a teacher who had inspired him, Hawking named his mathematics teacher Dikran Tahta. [15] He maintains

his connection with the school, giving his name to one of the four houses and to an extracurricular science lecture series. He has visited it to deliver one of the lectures and has also granted a lengthy interview to pupils working on the school magazine, The Albanian.

Hawking was always interested in science. [11] Inspired by his mathematics teacher, he originally wanted to study the subject at university. However, Hawking's father wanted him to apply to University College, Oxford, where his father had attended. As University College did not have a mathematics fellow at that time, it would not accept applications from students who wished to read that discipline. Hawking therefore applied to read natural sciences, in which he gained a scholarship. Once at University College, Hawking specialised in physics. [12] His interests during this time were in thermodynamics, relativity, and quantum mechanics. His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said in The New York Times Magazine:

It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking

to see how other people did it. [

...

]

He didn't have very many books, and he didn't take notes. Of course,

his mind was completely different from all of his contemporaries. [11]

Hawking was passing, but his unimpressive study habits [16] resulted in a final examination score on the borderline between first and second class honours, making an "oral examination" necessary. Berman said of the oral examination:

And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize they were talking to someone far more clever than most of themselves. [11]

After receiving his B.A. degree at Oxford in 1962, he stayed to study astronomy. He decided to leave when he found that studying sunspots, which was all the observatory was equipped for, did not appeal to him and that he was more interested in theory than in observation. [11] He left Oxford for Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he engaged in the study of theoretical astronomy and cosmology.

Career in theoretical physics Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge, he started developing symptoms of amyotrophic lateral

his connection with the school, giving his name to one of the four <a href=houses and to an extracurricular science lecture series. He has visited it to deliver one of the lectures and has also granted a lengthy interview to pupils working on the school magazine, The Albanian . Hawking was always interested in science . Inspired by his mathematics teacher, he originally wanted to study the subject at university. However, Hawking's father wanted him to apply to University College, Oxford , where his father had attended. As University College did not have a mathematics fellow at that time, it would not accept applications from students who wished to read that discipline. Hawking therefore applied to read natural sciences, in which he gained a scholarship. Once at University College, Hawking specialised in physics . His interests during this time were in thermodynamics , relativity , and quantum mechanics . His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said in The New York Times Magazine : It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it. [ ... ] He didn't have very many books, and he didn't take notes. Of course, his mind was completely different from all of his contemporaries . Hawking was passing, but his unimpressive study habit s resulted in a final examination score on the borderline between first and second class honours, making an "oral examination" necessary. Berman said of the oral examination: And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize they were talking to someone far more clever than most of themselves . After receiving his B.A. degree at Oxford in 1962, he stayed to study astronomy. He decided to leave when he found that studying sunspots , which was all the observatory was equipped for, did not appeal to him and that he was more interested in theory than in observation . He left Oxford for Trinity Hall, Cambridge , where he engaged in the study of theoretical astronomy and cosmology . Career in theoretical physics Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge, he started developing symptoms of amyotrophic lateral Hawking in Cambridge Hawking's principal fields of research are theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity . In the late 1960s, he and his Cambridge friend and colleague, Roger Penrose , applied a new, complex mathematical model they had created from Albert Einstein ' s theory o f general relativity . This led, in 1970, to Hawking proving the first of many singularity theorems ; such theorems provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a gravitational singularity in space-time . This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic feature of general relativity . " id="pdf-obj-9-72" src="pdf-obj-9-72.jpg">

Hawking in Cambridge Hawking's principal fields of research are theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity.

In the late 1960s, he and his Cambridge friend and colleague, Roger Penrose, applied a new, complex mathematical model they had created from Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity. [20] This led, in 1970, to Hawking proving the first of many singularity theorems; such theorems provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a gravitational singularity in space-time. This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic feature of general relativity. [21]

He supplied a mathematical proof, along with Brandon Carter, Werner Israel and D. Robinson, of John Wheeler's no-hair theorem namely, that any black hole is fully described by the three properties of mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.

Hawking also suggested upon analysis of gamma ray emissions that after the Big Bang, primordial mini black holes were formed. With Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics, drawing an analogy with thermodynamics. In 1974, he calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles, known today as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation, until they exhaust their energy and evaporate. [22]

In collaboration with Jim Hartle, Hawking developed a model in which the universe had no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial singularity of the classical Big Bang models with a region akin to the North Pole: one cannot travel north of the North Pole, as there is no boundary. While originally the no- boundary proposal predicted a closed universe, discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation that the no-boundary proposal is also consistent with a universe which is not closed.

Along with Thomas Hertog at CERN, in 2006 Hawking proposed a theory of "top-down cosmology," which says that the universe had no unique initial state, and therefore it is inappropriate for physicists to attempt to formulate a theory that predicts the universe's current configuration from one particular initial state. [23] Top-down cosmology posits that in some sense, the present "selects" the past from a superposition of many possible histories. In doing so, the theory suggests a possible resolution of the fine-tuning question: It is inevitable that we find our universe's present physical constants, as the current universe "selects" only those past histories that led to the present conditions. In this way, top- down cosmology provides an anthropic explanation for why we find ourselves in a universe that allows matter and life, without invoking an ensemble of multiple universes.

Hawking's many other scientific investigations have included the study of quantum cosmology, cosmic inflation, helium production in anisotropic Big Bang universes, large N cosmology, the density matrix of the universe, topology and structure of the universe, baby universes, Yang-Mills instantons and the S matrix, anti de Sitter space, quantum entanglement and entropy, the nature of space and time, including the arrow of time, spacetime foam, string theory, supergravity, Euclidean quantum gravity, the gravitational Hamiltonian, Brans-Dicke and Hoyle-Narlikar theories of gravitation, gravitational radiation, and wormholes.

At a George Washington University lecture in honour of NASA's fiftieth anniversary, Hawking theorised on the existence of extraterrestrial life, believing that "primitive life is very common and intelligent life is fairly rare." [24]

Losing an old bet Main article: ThorneHawkingPreskill bet

He supplied a <a href=mathematical proof , along with Brandon Carter , Werner Israel and D. Robinson, of John Wheeler ' s no-hair theorem – namely, that any black hole is fully described by the three properties of mass, angular momentum , and electric charge . Hawking also suggested upon analysis o f gamma ray emissions that after the Big Bang , primordial mini black holes were formed. With Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics , drawing an analogy with thermodynamics . In 1974, he calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles , known today as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation , until they exhaust their energy and evaporate . In collaboration with Jim Hartle , Hawking developed a model in which the universe had no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial singularity of the classical Big Bang models with a region akin to the North Pole: one cannot travel north of the North Pole, as there is no boundary. While originally the no- boundary proposal predicted a closed universe , discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation that the no-boundary proposal is also consistent with a universe which is not closed. Along with Thomas Hertog at CERN , in 2006 Hawking proposed a theory of "top-down cosmology," which says that the universe had no unique initial state, and therefore it is inappropriate for physicists to attempt to formulate a theory that predicts the universe's current configuration from one particular initial state . Top-down cosmology posits that in some sense, the present "selects" the past from a superposition of many possible histories. In doing so, the theory suggests a possible resolution of the fine-tuning question : It is inevitable that we find our universe's present physical constants, as the current universe "selects" only those past histories that led to the present conditions. In this way, top- down cosmology provides an anthropic explanation for why we find ourselves in a universe that allows matter and life, without invoking an ensemble of multiple universes . Hawking's many other scientific investigations have included the study of quantum cosmology , cosmic inflation , helium production in anisotropic Big Bang universes, large N cosmology, the density matrix of the universe, topology and structure of the universe, baby universes, Yang-Mills instantons and the S matrix , anti de Sitter space , quantum entanglement and entropy , the nature of space and time, including the arrow of time , spacetime foam , string theory , supergravity , Euclidean quantum gravity, the gravitational Hamiltonian , Brans-Dicke and Hoyle-Narlikar theories o f gravitation , gravitational radiation , and wormholes . At a George Washington University lecture in honour of NASA ' s fiftieth anniversary, Hawking theorised on the existence of extraterrestrial life, believing that "primitive life is very common and intelligent life is fairly rare. " Losing an old bet Main article: Thorne Hawking Preskill bet " id="pdf-obj-10-142" src="pdf-obj-10-142.jpg">

U.S. President Barack Obama talks with Stephen Hawking in the Blue Room of the White House before a ceremony presenting him and fifteen others the Presidential Medal of Freedom on 12 August 2009. The Medal of Freedom is the nation's highest civilian honour.

Hawking was in the news in July 2004 for presenting a new theory about black holes which goes against his own long-held belief about their behaviour, thus losing a bet he made with Kip Thorne and John Preskill of Caltech. Classically, it can be shown that information crossing the event horizon of a black hole is lost to our universe, and that thus all black holes are identical beyond their mass, electrical charge and angular velocity (the "no hair theorem"). The problem with this theorem is that it implies the black hole will emit the same radiation regardless of what goes into it, and as a consequence that if a pure quantum state is thrown into a black hole, an "ordinary" mixed state will be returned. This runs counter to the rules of quantum mechanics and is known as the black hole information paradox.