You are on page 1of 10


S. Anusha Reddy I.T. Department, Bhoj Reddy Engineering College. S. Manasa I.T. Department, Bhoj Reddy Engineering College.

Abstract This paper presents the development of GSM-based control system. The main aim of the prototype development is to reduce electricity wastage. GSM module was used for receiving short message service (SMS) from users mobile phone that automatically enable the controller to take any further action such as to switch ON and OFF the home appliances such as light, airconditioner etc. The system was integrated with microcontroller and GSM network interface using assembly language. MPLAB software was utilized to accomplish the integration. The system is activated when user sends the SMS to controller at home. Upon receiving the SMS command, the microcontroller unit then automatically controls the electrical home appliances by switching ON or OFF the device according to the user order. In other word, it read message from the mobile phone and response to control the devices according to the received message. The prototype has been successfully developed and it could provide an effective mechanism in utilizing the energy source efficiently. Keywords GSM, Control

1. Introduction The development of digital information has led the rapid change in human lifestyle. The use of electricity is very important as one of the main source of energy that is vital in today modern life. Lighting is a major source of electricity consumption. Commercial public sector buildings and residential houses account for 43% of the electricity used for lighting. There are common problems that home owners encountered in relation with lighting system. One of this is due to some negligence like leaving the lights ON results of having greater power consumption. This additional power consumption that wasted varies directly to our electrical bills. Another problem is for those busy home owners who will arrive home late at night; they want to have immediate access to turn on the lights to have preventive measures against robbery and crimes. Some kinds of mechanism using available technology could be used to reduce wastage in electricity usage. On the other hand Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) technology is most popular nowadays. Short Messages Services (SMS) using GSM is considered as the cheapest and reliable means of communication. Mobile devices, such as mobile phones, are becoming multipurpose

devices. The researcher proposes a system that allows the user to control lighting systems remotely using mobile phones. It provides remote control via Short Messages Services (SMS) using Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) technology. This system can be used when the user is away from the place. The user only needs to use his cell phone in order to monitor and control the lights in their house. This system is related on the past study which uses personal computer (PC) that contains the software components through which the lights and appliances are controlled and home security is monitored. Regarding with this project, the researcher wants to develop a system that uses a microcontroller instead of PC. Using microcontroller will result to have a reduced size system and economical to digitally control even more lights. Thus a prototype based on a microcontroller device using SMS is developed. It can automatically control any electrical equipment at home remotely using mobile phone. Hence the electrical energy saving in daily life can be made more efficient and effective. As the technology grows, SMS technology has been widely accepted as a part of medium of communication. The purpose of using SMS is to provide widest coverage at minimal cost. Therefore the use of SMS would facilitate in controlling the electrical device at home from long distance and low in maintenance and independent from any physical geographical boundary. Using GSM networks, a control system has been proposed that will act as an embedded system which can monitor and control appliances and other devices locally using built-in input and output peripherals. Remotely the system allows the user to effectively monitor and control the

house/office appliances and equipments via the mobile phone set by sending commands in the form of SMS messages and receiving the appliances status. The main concept behind the project is receiving the sent SMS and processing it further as required to perform several operations. The type of the operation to be performed depends on the nature of the SMS sent. First, the sent SMS is stored and polled from the receiver mobile station and then the required control signal is generated and sent to the intermediate hardware that we have designed according to the command received in form of the sent message. The messages are sent from the mobile set that contain commands in written form which are then processed accordingly to perform the required task. 2. Objectives The project GSM based Control System at the title suggests is aimed to construct a control system that enables the complete control of the interface on which it is based. General objectives of the project are defined as a. To co-ordinate appliances and other devices through Short Message Service (SMS). b. To effectively receive and transmit data via SMS c. To eliminate the need of being physically present in any location for tasks involving the operation of appliances within a household/office. d. Minimize power and time wastage a. Global system communication (GSM) for mobile

Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile

telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. b. The Switching System The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following functional units: 1) Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database, as it stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile, location information, and activity status. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator. 2) Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling, and others. 3) Visitor Location registers (VLR) The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR

connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. Authentication Center (AUC) A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized or defective mobile stations. The AUC and EIR are implemented as standalone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node. c. Microcontroller Microcontrollers are hidden inside a surprising number of products these days. If your microwave oven has an LED or LCD screen and a keypad, it contains a microcontroller. All modern automobiles contain at least one microcontroller, and can have as many as six or seven: The engine is controlled by a microcontroller, as are the anti-lock brakes, the cruise control and so on. Any device that has a remote control almost certainly contains a microcontroller: TVs, VCRs and high-end stereo systems all fall into this category. Nice SLR and digital cameras, cell phones, camcorders, answering machines, laser printers, telephones (the ones

with caller ID, 20-number memory, etc.), pagers, and feature-laden refrigerators, dishwashers, washers and dryers (the ones with displays and keypads)... You get the idea. Basically, any product or device that interacts with its user has a microcontroller buried inside. What is a Microcontroller? A microcontroller is a computer. All computers -- whether we are talking about a personal desktop computer or a large mainframe computer or a microcontroller -have several things in common: The desktop computer we are using is a "general purpose computer" that can run any of thousands of programs. Microcontrollers are "special purpose computers." Microcontrollers do one thing well. There are a number of other common characteristics that define microcontrollers. If a computer matches a majority of these characteristics, then you can call it a "microcontroller":

A microcontroller has a dedicated input device and often (but not always) has a small LED or LCD display for output. A microcontroller also takes input from the device it is controlling and controls the device by sending signals to different components in the device.

For example, the microcontroller inside a TV takes input from the remote control and displays output on the TV screen. The controller controls the channel selector, the speaker system and certain adjustments on the picture tube electronics such as tint and brightness. The engine controller in a car takes input from sensors such as the oxygen and knock sensors and controls things like fuel mix and spark plug timing. A microwave oven controller takes input from a keypad, displays output on an LCD display and controls a relay that turns the microwave generator on and off.

Microcontrollers are "embedded" inside some other device (often a consumer product) so that they can control the features or actions of the product. Another name for a microcontroller, therefore, is "embedded controller." Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. The program is stored in ROM (readonly memory) and generally does not change. Microcontrollers are often low-power devices. A desktop computer is almost always plugged into a wall socket and might consume 50 watts of electricity. A battery-operated microcontroller might consume 50 milliwatts.

A microcontroller is often small and low cost. The components are chosen to minimize size and to be as inexpensive as possible. A microcontroller is often, but not always, ruggedized in some way.

The microcontroller controlling a car's engine, for example, has to work in temperature extremes that a normal computer generally cannot handle. A car's microcontroller in Alaska has to work fine in -30 degree F (-34 C) weather, while the same microcontroller in Nevada might be operating at 120 degrees F (49 C). When you add the heat naturally generated by the engine, the temperature can go as high as 150 or 180 degrees F (65-80 C) in the engine compartment. On the other hand, a microcontroller embedded inside a VCR hasn't been ruggedized at all.

The actual processor used to implement a microcontroller can vary widely. For example, the cell phone shown on Inside a Digital Cell Phone contains a Z-80 processor. The Z-80 is an 8-bit microprocessor developed in the 1970s and originally used in home computers of the time. The Garmin GPS contains a low-power version of the Intel 80386. The 80386 was originally used in desktop computers. In many products, such as microwave ovens, the demand on the CPU is fairly low and price is an important consideration. In these cases, manufacturers turn to dedicated microcontroller chips -- chips that were originally designed to be low-cost, small, low-power, embedded CPUs. The Motorola 6811 and Intel 8051 are both good examples of such chips. There is also a line of popular controllers called "PIC microcontrollers" created by a company called Microchip. By today's standards, these CPUs are incredibly minimalistic; but they are extremely inexpensive when purchased in large quantities and can often meet the needs of a device's designer with just one chip. A typical low-end microcontroller chip might have 1,000 bytes of ROM and 20 bytes of RAM on the chip, along with eight I/0 pins. In large quantities, the cost of these chips can sometimes be just pennies. You certainly are never going to run Microsoft Word on such a chip -- Microsoft Word requires perhaps 30 megabytes of RAM and a processor that can run millions of instructions per second. But then, you don't need Microsoft Word to control a microwave oven, either. With a microcontroller, you have one specific task you are trying to accomplish, and low-cost, low-power performance is what is important. 3. Features

Easy to Use GSM based control systems are simple to understand and operate, which is why they are Automation Simplified. Children can learn and understand basic features of these systems. With many products operating wirelessly, installation in existing homes is easy. Reliable These systems use embedded controller technology in its home control systems, a technology proven reliable over decades of use. All products can operate in a stand-alone fashion so they are not dependent on any other devices in the house, including computers. No single part can cause an entire system to fail. Light switches and thermostats communicate with the automation controller, but do not depend on it for normal operation. Convenience & Control Multiple options exist for control whether one is at home or away. Check and adjust lighting, temperature, security, audio, and more using portable Touch screen interfaces. This system offers video surveillance and recording, which gives you the power to check on your home via PC or web-enabled phone. Many applications like iPhone, iPad and Android can also be included and you can also make changes to your homes status from practically anywhere in the world. Call to check up, or directly control your home from your cell phone.

4. Architecture

Fig. 1 Model of GSM based Control System

Fig. 2 The block diagram of the GSM based Switch control

5. Working Procedure The figure shown above is the simple illustration of how home automation is carried out using GSM. From the above representation, the first Mobile station is used as a transmitting section from which the subscriber sends text messages that contain commands and instructions to the second mobile station which is based on a specific area where our control system is located. The received SMS message is stored in the SIM memory of the phone and then extracted by the microcontroller and processed accordingly to carry out specific operations.

The relay driver (BUFFER ULN2003) is used to drive the relay circuits which switches the different appliances connected to the interface. The LCD is used to indicate the status of the operation performed by the microcontroller and also its inclusion makes the overall system user-friendly. The input from different sensors are feed to microcontroller and processed to operate respective task autonomously. Mobile phone 2 received the SMS message sent by mobile phone 1. As the mobile phone 2 is recognized by the microcontroller, then the received message sends to the microcontroller. The microcontroller read the message and saves. Searching inside the SMS message for any control words available this is done by using the appropriate program. The program will manage the SMS data and compares with available control words. When the program find the control words inside the message, then, the program will prepare to send the desired signals to the lighting system through relays. The program automatically deletes the saved message, so as to prepare to receive new SMS message.
Fig. 3 GSM Based Control System

Algorithm Step 1: Start Step 2: Phone initialization Step 3: Get Hardware Software Step 4: Poll SMS from mobile phone Step 5: If new SMS received go to step3 else, go to step1 Step 6: Receive SMS Step 7: Check SMS pattern Step 8: Control the device based on status Step 9: Notify end user Step 10: Go to step1 Flowchart

Fig. 4 System Operation Flow Diagram

Assuming that the control unit is powered and operating properly, the process of controlling a device connected to the interface will proceed through the following steps; The remote user sends text messages including commands to the receiver. GSM receiver receives messages sent from the user cell phone. GSM receiver decodes the sent message and sends the commands to the microcontroller. Microcontroller issues commands to the appliances and the devices connected will switch ON/OFF. 6. Applications

Photo sensor, occupancy, and remote control of lighting and appliances

When used as individual device controllers, these technologies have a proven track record of energy savings. They are also the

first energy-saving applications in home automation systems. Occupancy sensor technologies save the automated house owner energy and money by limiting lighting, appliance, and space conditioning use when rooms or zones are unoccupied for a certain length of time. Photo sensors adjust the lighting in a room to take advantage of daylight. When tied to a home automation system, heating, cooling, and ventilation systems (HVAC) can be adjusted to account for passive solar heat gains. Systems connected to a home automation system can also be turned on by telephone, so the home is comfortable when the owner arrives. Load shifting and load management

Staged power return

Another utility interactive application that home automation supporters expect to be popular with utilities is an option for staged power return after blackouts. It requires a great deal of energy for utilities to restart a power plant after a power failure, particularly in summer when many air conditioners run continuously. With a staged return of power, utilities can control the rate at which power returns after a blackout, first issuing electricity to essential home appliances, such as heating or refrigeration, then to the remaining appliances. Thermal storage

One energy-saving option is peakload shifting. Many smart appliances are programmable; so that homeowners can take advantage of lower utility rates at times when the demand on the utility is low (some utilities already offer off-peak rates to certain customers). Further developments are expected. In the future, houses with home automation will communicate with utilities so that certain appliances (washers, water heaters, heating, ventilation, and cooling) are automatically deactivated during the peak demand periods. Some utilities already provide their customers incentives for putting control devices on individual appliances such as water heaters and air-conditioners, and during peak demand periods the utility shuts down these appliances for a specific amount of time. Many utilities are experimenting with real-time pricing methods. This concept involves directly tying the marginal price of electricity to the marginal cost of producing it. Your home automation computer would receive the real time price of electricity (or gas) from the utility. It would then operate the house in the most cost-effective way (according to pre-programmed instructions).

Heat, generated by conventional or renewable means during off-peak hours, can be stored in ceramic bricks, water, or other storage media. Chilled water tanks or ice storage provide a similar function in summer cooling seasons. Optimization of storage and release of thermal energy by computers is a common strategy for large commercial and industrial facilities. Home automation systems would make it more feasible to operate such systems on a residential scale. Zoned and programmable HVAC

Home automation systems also control temperature within different zones of a home. They operate as programmable thermostats and regulate household temperatures on a roomy-room basis, instead of the whole house. For example, rooms in which the family spends a great deal of time can be allotted heat on a more regular basis than seldom-used rooms. When hooked up to occupancy sensors, the zones are only activated when occupied. In one high-tech

application, people carry sensors that are programmed to their personal preferences. The system reads these when people enter a room and adjust the environment accordingly. The possibilities are limited only by the imagination. Air quality

In many tightly constructed, energyefficient homes, air quality and ventilation are a concern. While heat recovery ventilators recover most of the heat from exhausted air, a home automation system could control the ventilation system to operate only when the house is occupied. Additional sensors could control the humidity as well. 7. Future Scope 1) Possibility of confirming the devices initial condition (status) using short messaging system (SMS) 2) Though mobile in the control panel required to be charged, therefore charging system should be automated which meant a timer can be implemented so that mobile can be charged after a certain period and disconnected from the charger when not required. 3) The system can be expanded to provide such control over the GPRS. In this way, the capabilities of the internet can be combined with the capabilities of our physical line free communication system. Furthermore, by adding a closed loop control facility, the system capabilities can be improved. 8. Conclusion

Mobile phones have become an indispensable part of our life. Our system uses a controller and a cellular phone for its operations. The systems can be used as a test bed for any application that requires on-off switching based applications. Wireless controlled home appliances in the comforts of any environment will revolutionize our way of living. Controlling appliances remotely by a cell phone will one day become a reality and one should give thanks to the capabilities of HACS (Home Appliance Control System). HACS might one day become a standard system in the new homes to come. 9. Bibliography 1. Sedra and Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, fourth edition, Oxford University Press 2. R.S. Sedha, A Text Book of Applied Electronics, S. Chand and Company Ltd., New Delhi 3. Theodore S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications, second edition, PHI. New Delhi 4. Draft EN (GSM 03.40) v6.0.0 5. Internet Sources a. b. c. d.