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# Tutorial 1 - Conduction in Cartiesian System

## Ramesh. K March 10, 2012

1. A salt gradient solar pond is a shallow body of water that consists of three distinct uid layers and is used to collect the solar energy. The upper and lower most layers are well mixed and serve to maintain the upper and lower layers of central layer at uniform temperatures T1 and T2 , where T1 > T2 .Although there is bulk uid motion in upper and lower layers there is no such motion central layer. Consider the conditions for which the solar radiation absorption in the central layer provides nonuniform heat generation A of the form q = Aeax , and the temperature distribution in the central layer is T (x) = ka2 eax + Bx + C. 1 K W The quantities A( m3 ,a( m ),B( m ), and C(K) are known constants having the prescribed units and k is the thermal conductivity, which is also a constants (a) obtain the expressions for which the rate at which heat is transferred per unit area from the lower mixed layer to the upper mixed layer (b) Determine whether the conditions are steady or transient. (c) Obtain an expression for the rate at which thermal energy is generated in the entire central layer per unit surface area. 2. The steady state temperature distribution in one dimensional wall of thermal conductivity K and thickness L is given by T = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d. Derive the expression for the heat generation rate per unit volume in the wall and the heat uxes at the wall surfaces x = 0.x = L. 3. Write the steady state form of heat diusion equation for a layer of coal. Verify that this equation is 2 x2 satised by the temperature distribution given by T (x) = Ts + qL 1 L62 . From this distribution what 2K can you say about the conditions at the bottom surface (x = 0)? Sketch the temperature distribution and the key features. 4. A steam pipe is wrapped with insulation of inner and outer radii ri , r0 , respectively. At a particualr instant the temperature distribution in the insulation is known to be of the form T (r) = C1 ln( rr0 ) + C2 . Are the conditions steady state or transient. How does the heat ux vary with radius? 5. A thin silicon chip and a an 8mm thick aluminium substrate are seperated by a 0.02 mm thick epoxy joint. The chip and the substrate are each 10mm on a side, and their exposed surfaces are cooled by air, W which is at a temperature of 250 C and provieds a convection coecient of 100 m2 K . if the chip dissipates W 104 m2 under normal conditions, will it operate at below a maximum allowable temperature of 850 C? 6. A thermocouple bead is largely solder, 1mm in diameter. It is initially at room temperature and is W suddenly placed in a 200o C gas ow .The heat transfer coecient h = 250 m2 K and the eective values of kg W kJ k = 45 mK , = 9300 m3 , c = 0.18 kgK respectively. Evaluate the response of thermocouple.
W 7. A Copper slab k = 372 mK is 3 mm thick. It is protected from corrosion on each side by a 2mm thick layer W of stainless steel k = 17 mK . The temperature is 400o C on one side of this composite wall and 100o C on the other. Find the temperature distribution in the slab and the heat transfer through the slab.