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Introduction Charge and current Voltage Power and energy Circuit elements Applications http://c007.ndhu.edu.tw/~pclab/

1.1 Introduction

Electrical engineering (including electrical, electronic and computer engineering) is concerned with systems that produce, transmit, and measure electric signals (or energy) Examples of such systems are communication, computer, control systems, power, and signal-processing systems All branches of electrical engineering have electric circuits in common Electric circuit: An interconnection of electrical elements Electrical elements include electric sources, resistors, capacitors, semiconductor devices, , and wire connections

Introduction

The objective of this course is not the study of the applications of the circuits; the main concern is the analysis of the circuits Electric circuit theory and electromagnetic theory are the two fundamental theories of all branches electrical engineering Circuit theory is a special case of electromagnetic field theory Circuit theory is applicable if the following assumptions hold

1. Electrical effects happen instantaneously throughout a system 2. The net charge on every component in the system is always zero 3. There is no magnetic coupling between the components in a system

Introduction

1. Electrical effects happen instantaneously throughout a system 2. The net charge on every component in the system is always zero 3. There is no magnetic coupling between the components in a system

Electric signals travel at speed of light (c = 3108 m/s), assumption will hold if the physical system is small System is small (0.1) relative to wavelength () of the electric signals produced, transmitted or measured, where = c/f

For a power system f = 50Hz, 0.1 = 600km For a communication system f = 109Hz 0.1 = 3cm

Assumption 2 is charge conservation Including magnetic circuit theory, electric circuit theory is also helpful for circuit analysis

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Flash light

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The concept of electric charge is the basis for describing all electrical phenomena Electric charge is an electrical property of the atomic particles of which matter consists, measured in coulombs (C) The charge on an electron e is -1.60210-19 C One C of charge is collectively carried by 6.241018 electrons Electric charges exist in discrete quantities The law of conservation of charge states that charge can neither be created nor destroyed, only transferred. Thus, the algebraic sum of the electric charges in a system does not change

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Electric Current

Electrical effects are attributed to both the separation of charges and charges in motion The separation of charge creates an electric force or voltage (v) The motion of charge creates an electric fluid or current (i) Definition: Electric current is the time rate of change of charge, measured in amperes and expressed as dq i where i is current in amperes (A), q is charge dt in coulombs (C), t is time in seconds (s) Current is always assumed as rate of flow of positive charge Also, 1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second

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Electric Current

t The charge transferred between Q idt time t0 and t is obtained by t0 Although current is made up of discrete moving electrons, we consider it to be continuous as there are so many of electrons There are several types of current:

A direct current (dc) is a current that remains constant with time An alternating current (ac) is a current that varies sinusoidally with time

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Example 1.1

How much charge is represented by 4600 electrons? Sol: Each electron has -1.60210-19 C 4600 electrons will have -1.60210-19 4600 = -7.36910-16 C Practice Problem 1.1 Calculate the amount of charge represented by two million protons. Answer: +3.20410-13 C

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Example 1.2

The total charge entering a terminal is given by q = 5tsin4t mC. Calculate the current at t = 0.5s. Sol:

i=

Practice problem 1.2 If in example 1.2, q = 10(1 - e-2t) mC, find the current at t = 0.5s. Answer: 7.36 mA

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Example 1.3

Determine the total charge entering a terminal between t = 1s and t = 2s, if the current passing the terminal is i = (3t2 t) A Sol:

2A 0 < t < 1 The current flowing through an element is i = 2 t >1 2t A Calculate the charge entering the element from t = 0 to t = 2s.

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Answer: 6.6667 C

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Voltage

To move electrons in a conductor in a particular direction requires some energy transfer The energy (work) is performed by an external electromotive force (emf) This emf is known as voltage or potential difference Voltage is the energy required to move a unit charge through an element. The voltage between two points a and b in an electric circuit is expressed as: v = dw ab where v is voltage in volts (V), w is energy in dq joules (J), and q is charge in coulombs (C) Note: Net charge (sum of positive and negative charges) is always zero for any element in a circuit

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Voltage

1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb = 1 newton-meter/coulomb A direct voltage (dc) is a voltage that remains constant with time (as produced by a battery) An alternating voltage (ac) is a voltage that varies sinusoidally with time (as produced by a generator)

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vab = vba

Note: Electric current is always through an element Electric voltage is always across the element between two points

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It is usual to express output of a system in terms of power or energy when electrical energy is consumed All practical devices have limitations on the amount of power they can handle dw Definition: Power is the time rate of expending p= or absorbing energy, expressed as: dt where p is power in watts (W), w is energy in joules (J), and t is time in seconds (s) Power is associated with the flow of charge: dw dw dq p= = vi (instantaneous power) = dt dq dt where v is voltage in volts (V), i is current in amperes (A)

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Assignment of reference polarity for v and reference direction for i is entirely arbitrary or random Passive sign convention

When the current enters through the positive (voltage) terminal of an element p = +vi If current enters through the negative terminal p = - vi

absorbing power

supplying power

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Use a positive (+) sign if current in direction of voltage drop

For example, p = vi, if p>0, power is being delivered to the circuit inside the box (e.g. heater)

P = 4 3 = 12 W

For example, p = -vi, if p<0, power is being extracted from the circuit inside the box (e.g. battery) P = -4 3 = -12 W

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Energy is the capacity to do work, measured in joules (J) The law of conservation of energy must be obeyed in any electric circuit, therefore, Total power supplied to a circuit must balance the total power absorbed The algebraic sum of power in a circuit, at any time instant, must be zero:

p=0

0

w = t pdt = t vidt

0

The electric power utility companies measures energy in watthours (Wh), where: 1Wh = 3600J

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Example 1.4

An energy source forces a constant current of 2A for 10s to flow through a lightbulb. If 2.3kJ is given off in the form of light and heat energy, calculate the voltage drop across the bulb. Sol:

q = it = 2 10 = 20 C

v=

w 2.3 10 3 = = 115 V q 20

Practice problem 1.4 To move charge q from point a to point b requires -30J. Find the voltage drop vab if: (a) q = 2C, (b) q = -6C. Answer: (a) -15V (b) 5V

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Example 1.5

Find the power delivered to an element at t = 3ms if the current entering its positive terminal is i = 5cos60t A and the voltage is (a) v = 3i and (b) v = 3di/dt Sol:

( a ) v = 3i = 15 cos 60t , p = vi = 75 cos2 60t W At t = 3 ms, p = 75 cos2 (60 3 10 3 ) = 75 cos2 0.18 = 53.48 W di (b) v = 3 = 3( 60 )5 sin 60t = 900 sin 60t V dt p = vi = 4500 sin 60t cos 60t W At t = 3 ms, p = 4500 sin 0.18 cos 0.18 W = 14137.167 sin 32.4 cos 32.4 = 6.396 kW

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Find the power delivered to the element in example 1.5 at t = 5ms if the current remains the same but the voltage is (a) v = 2i and (b)

v = (10 + 5 idt )V

0

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Example 1.6

How much energy does a 100W electric bulb consume in two hours?

Sol:

w = pt = 100( W) 2( h ) 60( min/h) 60(s/min) = 720,000 J = 720 kJ This is the same as w = pt = 100 W 2 h = 200 Wh

A stove element draws 15A when connected to a 120V line. How long does it take to consume 30kJ?

Answer: 16.667s

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Ideal basic circuit element

Has only 2 terminals Is described mathematically in terms of i and/or v Cannot be subdivided into other elements

Voltage sources Current sources Resistors Inductors Capacitors

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Until Chapter 4, only voltage and current sources, and resistors which require only algebraic equations are discussed Inductors and capacitors require the solution of integral and differential equations and will be dealt with later in this course (Chapter 6) Active elements

Voltage and current sources (able to generate electric energy), op amps, and BJTs, MOSFETs

Passive elements

Resistors, capacitors, and inductors (unable to generate electric energy)

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An electric source is a device that can convert nonelectric energy to electric energy, such as

A discharging battery converts chemical energy to electrical energy A generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy A motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy

These sources can either deliver or absorb electric power, generally either maintaining voltage or current unchanged An ideal voltage source is a circuit element that provides a specified voltage regardless of the current flowing in those terminals An ideal current source is a circuit element that provides a specified current regardless of the voltage across those terminals

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Independent Sources

An independent source establishes a voltage or current in a circuit without relying on voltages or currents elsewhere in the circuit

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Dependent Sources

A dependent (or controlled) source establishes a voltage or current whose value depends on the value of a voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit

Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS) Current-controlled voltage source (CCVS) Voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) Current-controlled current source (CCCS)

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Dependent Sources

Dependent sources are useful in modeling elements such as transistors, operational amplifiers and integrated circuits

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Example 1.7

Calculate the power supplied or absorbed by each element? Sol:

Practice problem 1.7 Compute the power absorbed or supplied by each component of the circuit? Answer: p1 = -40W, p2 = 16W, p3 = 9W,

p4 = 15W

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Applications

Cathode-ray tube (CRT)

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Example 1.8

The electron beam in a TV picture tube carries 1015 electrons per second. Determine the voltage needed to accelerate the electron beam to achieve 4W? 19 Sol: e = 1.6 10 C, q = ne, dq dn =e = ( 1.6 10 19 )(10 15 ) i= dt dt = 1.6 10 4 A

p = v0i V0 =

p 4 = 25,000 V = 25 kV = i 1.6 10 4

Practice problem 1.8 If an electron beam in a TV picture tube carries 1013 electrons per second and is passing through plates maintained at a potential difference of 30kV, calculate power in the beam? Answer: 48mW

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Example 1.9

A homeowner consumes 700 kWh in January. Base monthly charge = $12.00 First 100 kWh per month at 16 cents/kWh Next 200 kWh per month at 10 cents/kWh Over 300 kWh per month at 6 cents/kWh Sol:

First monthly charge = $12.00 First 100 kWh @ $0.16/kWh = $16.00 Next 200 kWh @ $0.10/kWh = $20.00 Remaining 400 kWh @ $0.06/kWh = $24.00 Total charge = $72.00 $72 Averagr cost = 100 + 200 + 400 = 10.2 cents/kWh

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Procedure for solving engineering problems in industry

1. Carefully Define the problem 2. Present everything you know about the problem 3. Establish a set of Alternative solutions and determine the one that promises the greatest likelihood of success 4. Attempt a problem solution 5. Evaluate the solution and check for accuracy 6. Has the problem been solved Satisfactorily? If so, present the solution; otherwise, return to step 3 and continue through the process again

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Assignments

1.6, 1.12, 1.13, 1.20, 1.21, 1.27

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