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Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Engineering Science By Brendan Burr

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................2 TASK 1................................................................................3
Solve Shear Force and Bending Moment problems ................................3 Solution:-..............................................................................................................3 Shear Force Diagram:-..........................................................................................7 Bending Moment Diagram:-..................................................................................9 Check:-...............................................................................................................10

TASK 2..............................................................................12
Select standard rolled steels sections for beams...................................12 Solution:-............................................................................................................12 Shear Force Diagram:-........................................................................................15 Bending Moment Diagram:-................................................................................16 Check:-...............................................................................................................17 Shear Stress and the Angular Deflection due to Torsion in Circular Shafts .........................................................................................................19 Solution:-............................................................................................................19 Check:-...............................................................................................................21

EVALUATION.....................................................................22 CONCLUSION.....................................................................22
Books................................................................................................23 Catalogues.........................................................................................23 Websites............................................................................................23

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Task 1
Solve Shear Force and Bending Moment problems Horizontal Beam ABCD, 13m long, is simply supported at B and D. AB = 3m, BC = 2m, and CD = 8m. Concentrated load of 4kN and 7kN act at A and C respectively, and a uniformly distributed load of 1kN/m extends from C to D. Neglecting the effect of gravity on the mass of the beam, sketch the Shearing Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for the beam, inserting principal values, and determine the position and magnitude of the maximum bending moment. Solution:-

Not To Scale

Anticlockwise Moments = Clockwise Moments Taking Moments about D:

( 4 8) + ( 8 7 ) + (13 4) = 10 B
32 + 56 + 52 = 10 B 140 =B 10
B = k 1 4 N

Upwards Forces = Downwards Forces D + 14 = 4 + 7 + (1 8) D = 4 + 7 + 8 14


D = k 5 N

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Shear Force Calculations: SF0 m 0 4 = 4kN SF3m 4 + 14 = +10kN SF5 m +10 7 = +3kN SF6 m +3 1 = +2kN SF7 m +2 1 = +1kN SF8 m +1 1 = 0kN SF9 m 0 1 = 1kN SF10 m 1 1 = 2kN SF11m 2 1 = 3kN SF12 m 3 1 = 4kN SF13 m 4 1 + 5 = 0kN

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Bending Moment Calculations: BM 0 m ( 4 0 ) = 0kN BM 1m ( 4 1) = 4kN

BM 2 m ( 4 2) = 8kN

BM 3m ( 4 3) + (14 0 ) = 12kN BM 4 m ( 4 4) + (14 1) = 2kN 02 BM 5 m ( 4 5) + (14 2 ) + ( 7 0 ) + 1 = +8kN 2 12 BM 6 m ( 4 6 ) + (14 3) + ( 7 1) + 1 = +10.5kN 2 BM 7 m BM 8 m 22 ( 4 7 ) + (14 4 ) + ( 7 2 ) + 1 = +12kN 2 2 3 ( 4 8) + (14 5) + ( 7 3) + 1 = +12.5kN 2

42 BM 9 m ( 4 9) + (14 6 ) + ( 7 4 ) + 1 = +12kN 2 52 BM 10 m ( 4 10 ) + (14 7 ) + ( 7 5) + 1 = +10.5kN 2 62 BM 11m ( 4 11) + (14 8) + ( 7 6 ) + 1 = +8kN 2 2 7 BM 12 m ( 4 12 ) + (14 9 ) + ( 7 7 ) + 1 = +4.5kN 2 82 BM 13m ( 4 13) + (14 10 ) + ( 7 8) + 1 = 0kN 2 Therefore the maximum bending moment is positioned at 8 meters and has a magnitude of +12.5 kN/m.

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Bending Moment from 5 meters to 13 meters:BM = 0.5 x 2 + 3x + 8 x0 0.5 02 + ( 3 0 ) + 8 = +8kNm x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 x8


2 2

( ) ( 0.5 1 ) + ( 3 1) + 8 = +10.5kNm ( 0.5 2 ) + ( 3 2 ) + 8 = +12kNm ( 0.5 3 ) + ( 3 3) + 8 = +12.5kNm ( 0.5 4 ) + ( 3 4 ) + 8 = +12kNm ( 0.5 5 ) + ( 3 5) + 8 = +10.5kNm ( 0.5 6 ) + ( 3 6 ) + 8 = +8kNm ( 0.5 7 ) + ( 3 7 ) + 8 = +4.5kNm ( 0.5 8 ) + ( 3 8) + 8 = 0kNm
2 2 2 2 2 2

Differentiate:
y = axn dy = naxn 1 dx

BM = 2 0.5 x 2 1 + 1 3 x11 dx 0 = 1x + 3 3 =x 1
x =3

Meters

BM MAX = 0.5 32 + 3( 3) + 8
B M
MX A

( )

= 2 .5 1

kNm

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Shear Force Diagram:-

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Bending Moment Diagram:-

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Check:For the check I entered appropriate values into an online calculator for simply supported beams. Location of left support, xS1 Location of right support, xS2 Point load #1, P1 Location of pointload #1, xP1 Point load #2, P2 Location of load #2, xP2 Couple load #1, C1 Location of couple #1, xC1 Couple load #2, C2 Location of couple #2, xC2 Distributed load #1, lefthand-side, W1l Left hand side location of load #1, xW1l Distributed load #1, right-hand-side, W1r Right hand side location of load #1, xW1r Distributed load #2, lefthand-side, W2l Left hand side location of load #2, xW2l Distributed load #2, right-hand-side, W1r Right hand side location of load #2, xW1r m m N m N m N.m m N.m m N/m m N/m m N/m m N/m m

This then returns values which correspond to the calculations I made. Variables Maximum Shear force, Vmax Location of Vmax
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Values Units 10000.0 N 5.0 m

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Maximum Bending moment, Mmax Location of Mmax Reaction force, R1 Reaction force, R2

12500.0 N.m 8m 14000.0 N 5000.0 N

The Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams are also the same as those created from my calculations above.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Task 2
Select standard rolled steels sections for beams A beam, 5m long, simply supported at its ends, and carries a uniformly distributed load of 15kN/m over its entire length, together with a concentrated load of 30kN at a point 1m from the left-hand support. If the maximum stress allowable in the material is 100MN/m, select a standard rolled steel section from the tables.

Not To Scale

Solution:Anticlockwise Moments = Clockwise Moments Taking Moments about A:

( 30 1) + ( 75 2.5) = 5 C
30 + 187.5 = 5C 217.5 =C 5
C = .5k 4 3 N

Upwards Forces = Downwards Forces A + 43.5 = 30 + (15 5) A = 30 + 75 43.5


A = .5k 6 1 N

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Shear Force Calculations:SF0 m 0 + 61.5 = +61.5kN SF0.99 m 61.5 15 = +46.5kN SF1m 46.5 30 = +16.5kN SF2 m 16.5 15 = +1.5kN SF3m 1.5 15 = 13.5kN SF4 m 13.5 15 = 28.5kN SF4.99 m 28.5 15 = 43.5kN SF5 m 43.4 + 43.5 = 0kN

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Bending Moment Calculations:BM = 30 + 31.5 x 7.5 x 2 x1 30 + ( 31.5 1) 7.5 12 = +54kNm x3 x4 x5


2

x2 30 + ( 31.5 2 ) 7.5 22 = +63kNm


2

( ) 30 + ( 31.5 3) ( 7.5 3 ) = +57 kNm 30 + ( 31.5 4 ) ( 7.5 4 ) = +36kNm 30 + ( 31.5 5) ( 7.5 5 ) = 0kNm
2

Differentiate:
y = axn dy = naxn 1 dx

BM = 2 7.5 x 2 1 + 31.5 x11 dx 0 = 15 x + 31.5 31.5 =x 15


x = .1 2

Meters

BM MAX = 7.5 2.12 + 31.5( 2.1) + 30


B M
MX A

= 3 .0 5 6 7

kNm

M I = y M 63.075 103 100 106 = 630.75 10 6 cm3 Therefore from the BS5950-1:2000 Table I have selected Serial Size: 305 x 165

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Shear Force Diagram:-

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Bending Moment Diagram:-

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Check:For the check I entered appropriate values into an online calculator for simply supported beams.
Location of left support, xS1 Location of right support, xS2 Point load #1, P1 Location of pointload #1, xP1 Point load #2, P2 Location of load #2, xP2 Couple load #1, C1 Location of couple #1, xC1 Couple load #2, C2 Location of couple #2, xC2 Distributed load #1, left-hand-side, W1l Left hand side location of load #1, xW1l Distributed load #1, right-hand-side, W1r Right hand side location of load #1, xW1r Distributed load #2, left-hand-side, W2l Left hand side location of load #2, xW2l Distributed load #2, right-hand-side, W1r Right hand side location of load #2, xW1r

m m N m N m N.m m N.m m N/m m

5 30000 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

15000

N/m
15000

m
5

N/m m

N/m
0

m
0

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

This then returns values which correspond to the calculations I made. Variables Maximum Shear force, Vmax Location of Vmax Maximum Bending moment, Mmax Location of Mmax Reaction force, R1 Reaction force, R2 Values Units 61500.0 N 0.0 m 63000.0 N.m 2.1 m 61500.0 N 43500.0 N

The Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams are also the same as those created from my calculations above.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Task 3
Shear Stress and the Angular Deflection due to Torsion in Circular Shafts A hollow shaft has an external diameter of 150mm and an internal diameter of 100mm. If the maximum shear stress is not to exceed 50MN/m, determine the torque, the maximum power that could be transmitted by the shaft when rotating at 180 rev/min, and the angle of twist (in degrees) over a 5m length when transmitting this power. The modulus of the material is 80GN/m. Solution:-

T G = = J R L

Torque

(D4 d 4 ) 32

50 MN / m 2 80GN / m 2 = = 75mm 5m

(150mm) 4 (100mm) 4 50 103 N / m2 32 T= 3 75 10 m


4 150 10 3 100 10 3 32 T= 0.075

) (

((

) (

) ) (50 10 )
4 3

406.25 10 6 50 103 32 T= 0.075

) (

T=

1.994175024 0.075 Nm

T = .5 0 3 2 6 802 90

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

G T = L J

(80 10 ) =
6

26.58900032 39.88350049 10 6

(80 10 ) = 666666 .6665


6

666666 .6665 5 80 106

= 0.0416666666 6 Radians

180 180

= 0.0416666666 6
=.37216 2 8 4 3 4

180 rev / min 3rev / sec 3 2 = 6

= 6RAD / s
Pe o r w = T

Power = 26.58900032 6
Pe or w = 5 0 1 .1 8 4 94 08

Watts

Therefore we see that: Total Torque (T) = 26.58900032 Nm Polar Second Moment Of Area (J) = 39.88350049 x 10-6 m4 Shear Stress ( ) = 50 x 103 N/m2 Radius (R) = 75 x 10-3 m Modulus Rigidity (G) = 80 x 106 N/m2 Angle Of Twist ( ) = 2.387324146 o OR 0.04166666666 Radians Radial Line Of Length (L) = 5 m Transmitted Power (P) = 501.1908484 Watts

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Check:T 26.58900032 = = 666666 .6665 J 39.88350049 10 6

50 103 = = 666666 .6667 R 75 103


G (80 106 ) 0.0416666666 6 = = 666666 .6666 L 5

From this we can see that all values must be correct due to the consistency of the answers derived from the Engineers Theory of Torsion Formulae.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Evaluation
I can honestly say that I found this assignment difficult to grasp. Now I know how to calculate the Bending Moments I can easily work out the maximum Bending Moment and the position of it. In Task 1, I could work out the Reactant Forces without any difficulty, so was able to move straight on to working out the Bending Moments. This is where I began to have trouble, with the first 5 meters I didnt have any problems, it was when I had to work out the uniformly distributed load for the last 8 meters. I was unable to find any notes that I could put into practice, because of writing it down incorrectly. This meant I had to do research into it, which took hours after I had managed to decipher all of the relevant information. After attaining all of the appropriate points I created a Shear Force Diagram and a Bending Moment Diagram, by using Graphmatica. This is a very good piece of software once you know how to use it, and by simply typing in the Bending Moment equation you can create the required parabolic curve which is formed under a UDL. To check my answer I found an online Simply Supported Beam Calculator. By entering the values taken from the question I could compare my answer to see if there was any deviation. Fortunately for me there wasnt which strengthens conclusion that Task 1 is correct. Task 2 is a similar question to Task 1, however it involved a bit of further investigation into the calculation of the Engineers Theory of Bending Formula. I had already been given the Maximum Stress value in the question, all I need to do was work out the Maximum Bending Moment and then search for the appropriate beam using the BS5950-1:2000 Table. This question has taught me how engineers calculate which materials are suitable for the required application. I checked this answer in the same way as Task 1. Task 3 was mainly a test on ensuring the correct values are entered into the calculation. There were values in various forms such as Meters, Centimetres, Millimetres, Giga-Newtons, Mega-Newtons and Kilo-Newtons. This gave way for the potential of radical inaccuracies. My check involved entering the values attained into the Engineers Theory of Torsion, whilst it had been broken down. Each of the three fractions had to equal the same value, which they did.

Conclusion
I feel this assignment pushed me to work the answers out for myself. It has been a difficult challenge and involved a lot of research and investigation. I am very pleased with the outcome, and a lot of time and effort has gone into the presentation of this assignment. I will be taking thorough notes in class from now on to ensure the next assignment flows much more smoothly. I plan to work just as hard on the next assignment as I have done on this.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Analyse Static Engineering Systems

Bibliography
Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and websites I was able to complete this assignment: Books Higher Engineering Mathematics (John Bird) ISBN: 0-7506-8152-7 Higher National Engineering (Mike Tooley & Lloyd Dingle) ISBN: 978-0-7506-6177-5 Catalogues N/A Websites http://www.mechengcalculations.com/jmm/beam28_process.jsp http://www.mathalino.com/reviewer/mechanics-and-strength-ofmaterials/solution-to-problem-405-shear-and-moment-diagrams

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