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Use Laplace Transforms

to Determine System
Parameters
Control Systems and Automation
By Brendan Burr

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................2
TASK 1................................................................................5
1.1 Explain the need for the following operator methods when
solving engineering problems:-............................................5
Laplace Transforms.............................................................5
Solution:-.........................................................................................5
Inverse Laplace Transforms.................................................5
Solution:-.........................................................................................5
Partial Fractions..................................................................6
Solution:-.........................................................................................6
Completing the square method............................................7
Solution:-.........................................................................................7
TASK 2................................................................................8
2.1 (a) Derive the equations in the time domain (t) for the
following signals: -..............................................................8
Solution (i):-.....................................................................................8
Solution (ii):-....................................................................................8
(b) Derive the equations in the frequency domain (s) using
Laplace Transforms:-...........................................................9
Solution (i):-.....................................................................................9
Solution (ii):-....................................................................................9
TASK 3..............................................................................10
3.1 Use tables of Laplace Transforms to find the signal in the
frequency domain:-...........................................................10
(a) ...................................................................................10
Solution:-.......................................................................................10
(b) ...................................................................................10
Solution:-.......................................................................................10
(c) ...................................................................................11
Solution:-.......................................................................................11
(d) ...................................................................................11
Solution:-.......................................................................................11
2

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

3.2 Use tables of Inverse Laplace Transforms to find the


signal in the time domain :-...............................................12
(a) ..................................................................................12
Solution:-.......................................................................................12
(b) ................................................................................12
Solution:-.......................................................................................12
(c) ...................................................................................13
Solution:-.......................................................................................13
(d) ...................................................................................14
Solution:-.......................................................................................14
TASK 4..............................................................................15
4.1 A first order control system is characterised by the
following differential equation with initial conditions that at t
= 0, i = 0...........................................................................15
........................................................................................15
Determine the equation for the current i(t) when the applied
voltage v(t) is a step input of 5 volts using Laplace
Transforms.......................................................................15
Solution:-.......................................................................................15
Draw the response in the time domain. ..............................16
Solution:-.......................................................................................16
4.2 Solve the following Differential Equation with initial
conditions that y = 0 at t = 0, using Laplace Transforms......17
........................................................................................17
Solution:-.......................................................................................17
4.3 A second order control system is characterised by the
following differential equation with the following initial
conditions that at t = 0, v = -1 and at t = 0, .......................18
.....................................................................................18
(a) Determine the equation for the voltage v (t) using Laplace
Transforms.......................................................................18
Solution:-.......................................................................................18
(b) Comment upon the response in terms of damping and
frequency.........................................................................19
Solution:-.......................................................................................19

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

4.4 The complete response of a series RLC circuit is described


by a second order differential equation in the time domain as
follows :-...........................................................................20
.....................................................................................20
If R = 1 k , L = 100 mH and C = 0.1 F............................20
Determine the value of .....................................................20
Solution:-.......................................................................................20
(b) Determine the value of ................................................21
Solution:-.......................................................................................21
(c) Derive an expression for the transfer function in terms of
the Laplace variable S assuming initial conditions are zero.
N.B The expression must contain the actual values found in
(a) and (b) above...............................................................22
Solution:-.......................................................................................22
EVALUATION.....................................................................23
CONCLUSION.....................................................................24
Books...............................................................................24
Catalogues........................................................................24
Websites...........................................................................24

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

Task 1
1.1

Explain the need for the following operator methods when solving
engineering problems:-

Laplace Transforms
Solution:We use Laplace Transforms as standard modelling tools used in
Control Engineering.
Laplace Transforms allow engineers to transform differential equations
into more easily solvable algebraic equations. This allows differential
equations, which describe circuit behaviour through time, to be
converted to a form which allows algebraic manipulations to be carried
out.
The Laplace Transform, F(s), of a Time Domain signal f(t) is define by
an integral:

F ( s ) = f ( t ) e st dt
0

The s in F(s) is called the Laplace Variable, which has units of


frequency.

Inverse Laplace Transforms


Solution:We use Inverse Laplace Transforms to reverse the effect and take the
algebraic equation back into the time domain. This allows engineers to
determine the circuit behaviour, after an equation has been
manipulated.
Engineers will use a table of the Laplace Transforms, to prevent the
requirement of performing differential calculations where a simple
conversion is available.
I will be using the Laplace Transforms table for the majority of this
assignment to enable me to change a function in the time domain into
a function in the s domain.

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

Partial Fractions
Solution:This method enables us to convert an algebraic expression into simple
fractions, for example:
3x + 4
1
2
+
into
x + 3x + 2
x +1 x + 2
2

There are basically three partial fractions, which are as follows:


1. Linear factors in the denominator
Expression

f ( s)
( s + a )( s + b )( s + c )
A
B
C
+
+
s+a s+b s+c

Partial fraction

2. Repeated linear factors in the denominator


Expression

f ( s)
( s + a) n
A
B
C
N
+
+
+ ......
2
3
s + a ( s + a)
( s + a)
( s + a) n

Partial fraction

3. Quadratic factors in the denominator, when the quadratic does


not factorise without imaginary terms
Expression

f ( s)
as + bs + c
2

Partial fraction

As + B
as + bs + c
2

Or if there is also a linear in the denominator


Expression

f (t)
as + bs + c ( s + d )

Partial fraction

As + B
C
+
as + bs + c s + d
2

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

Completing the square method


Solution:This is a method used to solve quadratic equations if they cannot be
factorised. It can be used to determine the value of x within a
quadratic equation, with five steps.
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Step 1 Divide all terms by a (the coefficient of x 2 .
Step 2 Move the number term,

c
to the right side of the equation.
a

Step 3 Complete the square on the left side of the equation and
balance this by adding the same value to the right side of the equation.
Step 4 Take the square root on both sides of the equation.
Step 5 Add or subtract the number that remains on the left side of the
equation to find x.
For example:
Solving 5 x 2 4 x 2 = 0
Step 1 -

5x2 4 x 2

=0
5
5 5

Step 2 - x 2 0.8 x = 0.4


Step 3 -

x 2 0.8 x + 0.16 = 0.4 + 0.16

( x 0.14) 2 = 0.56

Step 4 - x 0.4 = 0.56 = 0.748 (to 3 d.p)


x = 0.748 + 0.4
x = 0.348
Step 5 OR
x = 1.148

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

Task 2
2.1

(a)
Derive the equations in the time domain (t) for the following
signals: -

(i)

(ii)

Solution (i):-

= 2f
= 2000
v( t ) = SIN ( t )
t0

v( t ) = SIN ( 2000t )
v (t ) =
10 SIN

(2000
t)

Solution (ii):v( t ) = 20
v( t ) = 0

t 0
t< 0

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

(b)

Derive the equations in the frequency domain (s) using Laplace


Transforms:-

Solution (i):v( t ) = 10 SIN ( 2000t )


v( s ) =

f (t)
SIN ( t )

20000

s 2 + ( 2000 )

F ( s)

2
s +2

Solution (ii):f (t)

v( t ) = 20

1
v( s ) =

20
s

F ( s)
1
s

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

Task 3
3.1

(a)

Use tables of Laplace Transforms to find the signal in the frequency


domain:-

f (t ) = 2t 2 6

Solution:f (t)

f ( t ) = 2t 2 6
F ( s) = 2
F ( s) =

(b)

2 1 6

s 2 +1 s

F ( s)
n!
s n +1
1
s

4 6

s3 s

f (t ) = 1 2e 4t

Solution:-

f (t)

f ( t ) = 1 2e 4t
F ( s) =

1
2

s s +4

10

F ( s)
1
s +
1
s

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

(c)

f (t ) = 3 cos 4t

Solution:-

f (t ) = 3 cos 4t
F ( s) = 3

F ( s) =

(d)

s
s + 42

f (t)

COS ( t )

F ( s)
s
2
s +2

3s
s 2 + 16

f (t ) = 2e 6t sin 4t

Solution:-

f (t ) = 2e 6t sin 4t
F ( s) = 2

( s + 6) 2 + 4 2
f (t)

F ( s) =

e t SINt

( s + 6) 2 +16

11

F ( s)

(s +)2 +2

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

3.2

(a)

Use tables of Inverse Laplace Transforms to find the signal in the time
domain :4
s

F (s) =

Solution:-

F ( s) =

4
s

f (t)
1

f (t ) = 4

(b)

F (s) =

F ( s)
1
s

2s
s +4
2

Solution:F (s) =

2s
2
s +4

f (t ) =2CO
S

f (t)
COS ( t )

(2t )

12

F ( s)
s
2
s +2

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

(c)

F ( s) =

s +1
s + 2s + 5
2

Solution:Denominator:
( s + 1) 2 = s 2 + 2s + 1
s 2 + 2 s + 5 ( s + 1) + 4
2

So:
F ( s) =

s +1
( s + 1) 2 + 4
f (t)

e t COS ( t )

F ( s)
s +
(s +)2 +2

=1
=2

So:
f (t ) =e 1t CO
S

(2t )

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BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

(d)

F (s) =

2s + 3
s + 6s + 8
2

Solution:Denominator:
( s + 3) 2 = s 2 + 6 s + 9
( s + 3) 1 = s 2 + 6 s + 8
2

So:
F ( s) =

2s + 3
( s + 3) 2 1

Numerator:
2 s + 3 2( s + 3) 3
So:
2s + 3
2( s + 3) 3

2
( s + 3) 1 ( s + 3) 2 1
f (t)
e t COSH ( t )
e t SINH ( t )

F ( s)
s +
(s +)2 2

(s +)2 2

=1
=3
K= 2

F ( s) =

2( s + 3)
3

2
( s + 3) 1 ( s + 3) 2 1

f ( t ) = 2e 3t COSH (1t ) 3e 3t SINH (1t )


3t
f (t ) =
2e
C
O
SH

3t
(t )
3e
SIN
H

(t )

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BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

Task 4
4.1

A first order control system is characterised by the following


differential equation with initial conditions that at t = 0, i = 0.
di
+ 25i = v(t)
dt

Determine the equation for the current i(t) when the applied voltage v(t) is a
step input of 5 volts using Laplace Transforms.
Solution:i( t ) I ( s )
v( t ) V ( s )
di
s.I i ( 0 )
dt
5v STEP =

5
s

5
s
i(0) is the value of the current when t=0, therefore i(0) = 0
s.I i ( 0 ) + 25 I =

So:
5
s
5
I ( s + 25) =
s
5
1
I=
s ( s + 25)
5
I=
s( s + 25)
1
25
I= 5
s( s + 25)

= 25
1
K=
5

[Time Domain]

s.I + 25 I =

i( t ) =

1
1 e 25 t
5

f (t)
1 e t
d
f (t)
dt

15

F ( s)

s( s + )
sF ( s ) f ( 0 )

Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

Draw the response in the time domain.


Solution:y = 0.2 63%
y = 0.126
x = 0.0398

= 5 0.0398
= 0.199
=
0.1
9
9

Seconds

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

4.2

Solve the following Differential Equation with initial conditions that y = 0


at t = 0, using Laplace Transforms.
dy
+ 2y = 4. e 2t
dt

Solution:sY y ( 0) + 2Y = 4

1
s+2

Y(0) is the value of y when t=0, therefore y(0)=0


sY + 2Y =

4
s+2

Y ( s + 2) =

4
s+2

Y=

Y=

Y=

f (t)
e t

4
1

s+2 s+2

d
f (t)
dt

( s + 2)( s + 2)

t e t

4
( s + 2) 2

=2

y (t ) =4t e 2t

17

F ( s)
1
s +
sF ( s ) f ( 0 )
1

(s +)2

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

4.3

A second order control system is characterised by the following


differential equation with the following initial conditions that at t = 0, v =
dv
=6.
-1 and at t = 0,
dt
2

d v
+ 36v = 0
2
dt
(a)

Determine the equation for the voltage v (t) using Laplace Transforms.

Solution:d 2v
dv
2
2
+ 2 n
+n v = n vi
dt
dt 2

Resistor = 0 Ohms, i.e. No Damping.


d 2v
2
2
+ n v = n vi
2
dt
So;
d 2v
+ 36v = 0
dt 2
d 2v
+ 62 v = 0
2
dt

n = 6

Rads/sec

Using Laplace Transforms we get:

( s V ( s ) sv( 0) v' ( 0) ) + 36V = 0


( s V + s1 6) + 36V = 0
2
2

f (t)

Vs 2 + V 36 + s 6 = 0

(
V (s

)
+ 36 ) = s + 6

Sin( t )

V s 2 + 36 + s 6 = 0
2

Cos ( t )

s+6
s 2 + 36
s
6
V = 2
+ 2
s + 36 s + 36
V =

Using tables of Laplace Transforms we get:


v =

C
os

(6t ) +Sin (6t )

18

F ( s)

2
s +2
s
2
s +2

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

(b)

Comment upon the response in terms of damping and frequency.

Solution:-

n = 6 Rads/sec
2f n = 6
fn =

6
2

Hz

6
Pt =

2
Pt =

Secs

Secs (proven by graph 1)

There is no damping as R=0, you can see this through the second graph
above as the waveform has a constant peak value. Zeta also equals zero.

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BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

4.4

The complete response of a series RLC circuit is described by a second


order differential equation in the time domain as follows :2
R d v0
1
1
d v0
+
+
v0 =
vi
2
L dt
LC
LC
dt

If R = 1 k , L = 100 mH and C = 0.1 F.


Determine the value of n
Solution:2

n =

1
LC

n =

1
LC

So:
1
0.110 6

n =

(100 10 ) (

n =

1
10 8

n = 0.110 9
n =10 ,000

Rads/sec

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BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Brendan Burr

Control Systems and Automation

(b)

Determine the value of .

Solution: =

W here
R
=
2L

2L
n

1,000

2 100 10 3
10,000

1,000

200 10 3
10,000

5,000
10,000

=0.5

(Zeta has no units)

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

(c)

Derive an expression for the transfer function in terms of the Laplace


variable S assuming initial conditions are zero. N.B The expression must
contain the actual values found in (a) and (b) above.

Solution:d 2 vo
dv
2
2
+ 2 n
+n vo = n vi
dt
dt 2

1st Term
d2
( vo ) s 2Vo ( s ) svo ( 0) vo ' ( 0)
2
dt
d 2 vo
s 2Vo ( s ) 0 0
2
dt
2nd Term
dv o
sVo v o ( 0 )
dt
So:
s 2Vo = 2 n sVo + n Vo = n Vi
2

Extracting the Vo as a common factor on the LHS, giving:-

Vo s 2 + 2 n s + n

)=

2
n

Vi

n 2Vi
Vo = 2
2
s + 2 n s + n
So the transfer function G(s) of a second order control system is as
follows:
Vo
n 2
= 2
Vi s + 2 n s + n 2
Therefore:
Vo
10,000 2
=
Vi s 2 + 2( 0.5)(10,000 ) s + 10,000 2

Vo
10 8
= 2
Vi
s + 10 4 s + 10 8

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

Evaluation
This assignment tested my understanding of the information given to me in
class. For Task 1, I had to explain a number of methods used in control
engineering calculations. I used the Control Engineering book written by W.
Bolton, as well as notes taken from class, to help me explain the Laplace
Transforms as well as the Inverse Laplace Transforms. I then used the book
to also help me explain the Partial Fractions, even though we had gone
through it in class.
I couldnt remember doing much work on the completing the square method,
with regards to the Laplace Transforms, however it did fit into the explanation
given for the Partial Fractions. I completed a bit of research in the Higher
Engineering Mathematics book, written by J. Bird, to help refresh my memory
and soon remembered that we have used this method in analytical methods in
previous years.
Task 2 involved me performing some basic transpositions between the time
and the s domains. Once you get the hang of using the Laplace Transforms
Table this task was very straightforward. I was able to work out the answers,
transforming from the time domain to the s domain and then inverting it for the
second part of the task.
For Task 3, it took me a little bit longer to come up with a solution, however
the working out was very similar to Task 2. Using the Laplace Transforms
Table I was able to come up with the answer. I couldnt find a method of
checking the answer, other than ensuring that all my workings were correct.
Using the examples given to me in class along with the existing knowledge
gained from the rest of the unit, I was able to complete Task 4. For Task 4.1,
I used a couple of the Laplace Transforms taken from the table. This enabled
me to convert the equation into the s domain and then manipulate it, before
turning it back into the time domain. The manipulation involved some basic
transposition of formula to put the values of omega and alpha into a similar
place to match up with the LT Table.
I used a similar approach to Task 4.2, manipulation on the numbers gave me
values for alpha, which I could then convert from one domain to the other with
relative ease.
I had a bit of difficulty with the + and - symbols in Task 4.3. At first I wasnt
sure whether they got dropped in the conversion to the time domain at the
end of the workings, but after thinking about it for a bit I made the decision to
keep them in. I used Graphmatica to see the waveform and check it matched
up with my workings, which it did, however I found that this wasnt a suitable
check for the question.
Tasks 4.4a and b were very straightforward. They simply involved inputting
some values into equations. Task 4.4c involved some careful manipulation
but in all this was also relatively easy.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Control Systems and Automation

Conclusion
I found this assignment quite time consuming in the write up. I have noticed
in previous years of Analytical Methods assignments that typing up formula
can be extremely time consuming because of the level of detail required. It is
for this reason that it is also easy to make a typographical mistake on the
assignment, even though the rough workings are accurate.
Because of the level of tutoring we received for this assignment, I found it
generally easy. At times during lessons I did find myself having to
concentrate quite hard to make sense of the new material, however it did go
in eventually.
I am confident that the answers I have provided are accurate even though I
was unable to provide a checking method for the majority of them.

Bibliography
Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and
websites I was able to complete this assignment:
Books
Higher Engineering Mathematics (John Bird)
ISBN: 0-7506-8152-7
Control Engineering (W. Bolton)
ISBN: 0-582-32773-3
Catalogues
N/A
Websites
N/A

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