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CHAPTER 5: LOGARITHMIC, EXPONENTIAL, AND OTHER TRANSCENDENTAL

FUNCTIONS
5.1 THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION: DIFFERENTIATION
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Develop and use properties of the natural logarithmic function
o Understand the definition of the number
e
o Find derivatives of functions involving the natural logarithmic function
THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION
o Recall that the General Power Rule,
1
, 1
1
n
n
x
x dx C n
n
+
+
+

, has an
important disclaimerit doesnt work if 1 n . Therefore, we also
cannot integrate ( )
1
f x
x
.
In this section, we will use the Second Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus to define such a function
DEFINITION OF THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC
FUNCTION
The natural logarithmic function is defined by
1
1
ln , 0
x
x dt x
t
>

The domain of the natural logarithmic function is the set of


all positive real numbers, ( )
0. .
2
-2
-4
5
5
4
2
t x x
ln y x
1
y
t

o As you can see from the graph on the left,


1
1
ln 0, when 0 1
x
x dt x
t
< < <
and
1
1
ln 0, when 1
x
x dt x
t
> >

THEOREM: PROPERTIES OF THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC


FUNCTION
The natural logarithmic function has the following properties:
1. The domain is ( )
0. and the range is ( )
0. .
2. The function is continuous, increasing, and one-to-one.
3. The graph is concave downward.
THEOREM: LOGARITHMIC PROPERTIES
If
a
and b are positive numbers and
n
is
rational, then the following properties are true:
1. ( )
ln 1 0
2. ( )
ln ln ln ab a b +
3. ( )
ln ln
n
a n a
4.
ln ln ln
a
a b
b
_


,
1 2 3
2
1.5
1
0.5
t
1
1
1
e
Area dt
t

THE NUMBER
e
o The base for the natural logarithm is defined using the fact that the
natural logarithmic function is continuous, is one-to-one, and has a range of
( ) ,
.
There must be a real number
x
such that ln 1 x
This number is denoted by
e
1. 2.71828182846 e
DEFINITION OF
e
The letter
e
denotes the positive real number such that
1
1
ln 1
e
e dt
t

THEOREM: DERIVATIVE OF THE NATURAL


LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION
Let
u
be a differentiable function of
x
.
1. [ ]
1
ln , 0
d
x x
dx x
>
2. [ ]
1
ln , 0
d du u
u u
dx u dx u

>
THEOREM: DERIVATIVE INVOLVING
ABSOLUTE VALUE
If
u
is a differentiable function of
x
such
that , then
ln
d u
u
dx u

1
]
5.2 THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION: INTEGRATION
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Use the Log Rule for Integration to integrate a rational function
o Integrate trigonometric functions
LOG RULE FOR INTEGRATION
o The integration rules
1
ln
d
x
dx x
1
]
and ln
d u
u
dx u

1
]
that we
studied in the last section produce the following integration rule:
THEOREM: LOG RULE FOR INTEGRATION
Let
u
be a differentiable function of
x
.
1.
1
ln dx x C
x
+

2.
1
ln du u C
u
+

or ln
u
du u C
u

The second formula for


u
comes from the fact that du u dx
Example: Find the indefinite integral.
1.
10
dx
x

10 1
10
10ln
dx dx
x x
x C

+

2.
2
3
3
x
dx
x

2
3
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
1 3
3
3
3
3
1
1
ln
3
1
ln
1
3
3
3
3
x
dx
x
du x dx
x x dx
dx
x
du
u C
u
u
k
u
x
x
C

2.
GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATION
1. Learn a basic list of integration formulas.
2. Find an integration formula that resembles all or part of the
integrand, and, by trial and error, find a choice of
u
that
will make the integrand conform to the formula.
3. If you cannot find a
u
-substitution that works, try altering
the integrand. You might try a trigonometric identity,
multiplication and division by the same quantity, or addition
and subtraction of the same quantity.
o Example: Using long division before integrating
Find
2
2 7 3
2
x x
dx
x
+

( )
( )
2
2
2
19
2 11
2
2 7 3
2 2 7 3
2
2 4
11 3
11 22
19
x
x
x x
x x x
x
x x
x
x
+ +

+
+


Now,
2
2
2
19 19
2 11 2 11
2 2
1
2 11 19
2
11 19ln
11 19ln 2
x dx xdx dx dx
x x
x
x du
u
x x u C
x x x C
_
+ + + +


,
+ +
+ + +
+ + +

INTEGRALS OF THE SIX BASIC


TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
1.
sin cos udu u C +

2.
cos sin udu u C +

3.
tan ln cos udu u C +


4.
sec ln sec tan udu u u C + +

5.
cot ln sin udu u C +

6.
csc ln csc cot udu u u C + +

o Example: Derivation of the Cosecant Formula


Find csc xdx


( )
2
2
rewrite integrand
simplify
let csc cot , so
csc cot
csc csc
csc cot
csc csc cot

csc cot
csc csc cot

1
u x x du
x x
xdx x dx
x x
x x x
dx
x x
x x x
dx
u
du
u
+
+ _


+
,
_


+
,



2
csc csc cot
apply log rule
back substitute
ln
ln csc cot
x x x
u C
x x C

+
+ +
o Example: Find tan xdx



trigonometric identity
let cos , so sin
apply log rule
back substitute
sin
tan
cos
sin

cos
ln
ln cos
u x du xdx
x
xdx dx
x
x
dx
x
u
du
u
u C
x C


+
+

5.3 INVERSE FUNCTIONS


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Verify that one function is the inverse function of another function
o Determine whether a function has an inverse function
o Find the derivative of an inverse function
INVERSE FUNCTIONS
o Inverse Relation
Interchanging the first and second coordinates of each ordered pair in a
relation produces the inverse relation.
If a relation is defined by an equation, interchanging the variables produces
an equation of the inverse relation.
Example: Find the inverse of the relation
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
0,1 , 5, 6 , 2, 4
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1, 0 , 6, 5 , 4, 2
Notice that the pairs in the inverse are reflected across the line
. y x
Example: Find an equation of the inverse relation
2 2
2 5 4 x y +
Solution:
2 2
2 5 4 y x +
One-to-One Functions
A function
f
is one-to-one if different inputs have different outputsthat is, if
, a b
then
( ) ( ). f a f b
Or a function
f
is one-to-one if when the outputs are
the same, the inputs are the samethat is if
( ) ( ), f a f b
then . a b
Properties of One-to-One Functions and Inverses
o If a function is one-to-one, then its inverse is a function.
o The domain of a one-to-one function
f
is the range of the inverse
1
. f

o The range of a one-to-one function
f
is the domain of the inverse
1
. f

o A function that is increasing over its domain or is decreasing over its
domain is a one-to-one function.
Horizontal Line Test
If it is possible for a horizontal line to intersect the graph of a function more
than once, then the function is not one-to-one and its inverse is not a function.
Finding Formulas for Inverses
o Obtaining a Formula for an Inverse
If a function
f
is one-to-one, a formula for its inverse can generally be
found as follows:
1. Replace
( ) f x
with
. y
2. Interchange
x
and
. y
3. Solve for
. y
4. Replace
y
with
1
( ). f x

Example: If the function is one-to-one, find a formula for the


inverse:
5 3
( )
2 1
x
f x
x

+
Solution: First we graph the function to see if it will pass the
horizontal line test. As you can see from the graph below, it will,
so we have a one-to-one function.
Now we can use the steps above to find the inverse function.
1.
5 3
2 1
x
y
x

+
2.
5 3
2 1
y
x
y

+
3.
( )
( )
2 1 5 3
2 5 3
2 5 3
2 5 3
3
2 5
xy x y
xy y x
y x
x
x
x
y
y y
x
+
+


+

4.
1
3
( )
2 5
x
f x
x

The graph of
1
f

is a reflection of the graph of
f
across the line
. y x
Inverse Functions and Composition
If a function
f
is one-to-one, then
1
f

is the unique function such that each of
the following holds:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1 1
, for each in the domain of , and
, for each in the domain of .
f f x f f x x x f
f f x f f x x x f




o
o
Restricting a Domain
o If the inverse of a function is not a function, we can restrict the domain so
that the inverse is a function.
Example: Consider
2
. y x If we try to find a formula for the
inverse, we have

2
2
x y
y x
y x

t
This is not the equation of a function. We can, however, only
consider inputs from [ ) 0, .
This will yield an inverse that is a
function.
THEOREM: REFLECTIVE PROPERTY OF INVERSE FUNCTIONS
The graph of f contains the point ( )
, a b if and only if the graph of
1
f

contains
the point ( )
, b a
THEOREM: CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY OF INVERSE
FUNCTIONS
Let
f
be a function whose domain is an interval
I
. If
f
has an
inverse function, then the following statements are true:
1. If
f
is continuous on its domain, then
1
f

is continuous on its
domain.
2. If
f
is increasing on its domain, then
1
f

is increasing on its
domain.
3. If
f
is decreasing on its domain, then
1
f

is decreasing on its
domain.
4. If
f
is differentiable at
c
and ( )
0 f c
, then
1
f

is
differentiable at ( )
f c
.
THEOREM: THE DERIVATIVE OF AN INVERSE FUNCTION
Let
f
be a function that is differentiable on an interval
I
. If
f

has an inverse function
g
, then
g
is differentiable at any
x
for
which ( ) ( )
0 f g x
. Moreover,

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
, 0. g x f g x
f g x

o Example: Find
( ) ( )
1
f a

for the function ( )
cos 2 f x x on the
interval 0
2
x

and the given number 1 a .
We know that cos 2x is monotone (decreasing) on the given
interval. ( )
0 1 f a . This gives us the ordered pair ( )
0,1 for
f . Therefore,
1
f

must have the ordered pair ( )
1, 0 .

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
1
2sin 2
1
1
1
1
0
1
2sin 2 0
1
0
undefined
f x x
f
f f
f

5.4 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS: DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Develop properties of the natural exponential function
o Differentiate natural exponential functions
o Integrate natural exponential functions
THE NATURAL EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
o Definition of the Natural Exponential Function
The inverse function of the natural logarithmic function
( ) ln f x x
is called the natural exponential function and is
denoted by
( )
1 x
f x e

That is,
x
y e if and only if ln x y
The inverse relationship between the natural logarithmic function
and the natural exponential function can be summarized as follows:
( )
ln
x
e x and
ln x
e x
Example: Solve the following problems
1.
ln2
12
x
e
ln
ln2
12
2 12
6
x
x
e x
e
x
x

2.
6 3 8
x
e +
6 3 8
3 1
ln
4
14
3
1.5404
ln
x
x
x
e
e
e
x
+

3. ln 4 1 x
1
ln 4 1
4
4
4
0.6796
x
e x
e x
e
x
x

Theorem: Operations with Exponential Functions


Let
a
and b be any real numbers.
1. 1.
a b a b
e e e
+

2.
a
a b
b
e
e
e

4
2
-5 5
f x
( )
= e
x
Properties of the Natural Exponential Function
1. The domain of ( )
x
f x e is ( )
, and the range is ( )
,
2. The function of ( )
x
f x e
is continuous, increasing, and one-to-one on
its entire domain.
3. The graph of ( )
x
f x e is concave upward on its entire domain.
4.
lim 0
x
x
e

and
lim
x
x
e


.
DERIVATIVES OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
Theorem: Derivative of the Natural Exponential Function
Let
u
be a differentiable function of
x
.
1.
x x
d
e e
dx
1
]
2.
u u
d du
e e
dx dx
1
]
4.
o Proof:
[ ]
Recall that ln .
ln
1
1
x
x
x
x
x x
e x
d d
e x
dx dx
d
e
e dx
d
e e
dx

1
]
1
]
1
]
Example: Find the following derivatives
1.
2
x
y e

( )
( )
2
2
2
2
derivative of
2
2
x
x
x
x x
y e
y e
y xe

2.
3
2
5
x
y e
( )
3
3
2
4
2
4
5 6
30
x
x
dy
e x
dx
e
x
_


,

INTEGRALS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
Theorem: Integration Rules for Exponential Functions
Let
u
be a differentiable function of
x
.
1.
x x
e dx e C +

2.
u u
e du e C +

4.
o Example: Integrate the following exponential functions:
1.
5
2
x
e dx

5 5
5
let 5 , 5 2 2
1
2
5
2
5
2
5
x x
u
u
x
u x du dx e dx e dx
e du
e C
e C

_


,
+
+

2.
2
1
3

x
e
dx
x

( )
2 3
2
2
2
1
3
3
1
1
let , 2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

x
u
u
u
x
u x du x dx
x
e
dx
x
e x dx
e du
e C
e C




+
+

5.5 BASES OTHER THAN e AND APPLICATIONS


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Define exponential functions that have bases other than
e
o Differentiate and integrate exponential functions that have bases other
than
e
o Use exponential functions to model compound interest and exponential
growth
BASES OTHER THAN
e
o Recall that the base of the natural exponential function is
e
This is used to assign a meaning to a general base
a
5 10 15 20
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
h x ( ) = 100 e
0.06 x
g x ( ) = 100 e
0.05 x
f x ( ) = 100 e
0.03 x
Definition of Exponential Function the Base
a
If
a
is a positive real number ( )
1 a
and
x
is any real number,
then the exponential function to the base
a
is denoted by
x
a
and is defined by
( )
lna x
x
a e
If 1 a , then 1 1
x
y is a constant function.
o
Example: Compound Interest. Consider a deposit of $100 placed in
an account for 20 years at % r compounded continuously. Use a
graphing utility to graph the exponential functions giving the growth
of the investment over the 20 years for each of the following
interest rates. Compare the ending balance for each of the rates.
1. 3% r
2.
5% r
3. 6% r
Solution: The formula for continuous compound interest is
( )
rt
A t Pe
Definition of Logarithmic Function to Base
a
If
a
is a positive real number ( )
1 a
and
x
is any positive real
number, then the logarithmic function to the base
a
is denoted
by
log
a
x
and is defined as

1
log ln
ln
a
x x
a


Why?!
Consider the change of base formula
ln 1
log ln
ln ln
a
x
x x
a a

Properties of Logarithmic Functions to Base
a
1. log 1 0
a

2. log log log
a a a
xy x y +
3. log log
n
a a
x n x
4.
log log log
a a a
x
x y
y

Properties of Inverse Functions
1. log
x
a
y a x y
2.
log
, 0
a
x
a x x >
3. log ,
x
a
a x x


DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION
o Derivatives for Bases Other than e
Theorem: Derivative for bases other than e
Let a be a positive real number and let
u
be a differentiable
function of
x
.
1. ( )
ln
x x
d
a a a
dx
1
]
2. ( )
ln
u u
d du
a a a
dx dx
1
]
3.
[ ]
( )
1
log
ln
a
d
x
dx a x

4.
[ ]
( )
1
log
ln
a
d du
u
dx a u dx

4.
Example: Find the derivative of each function
1. 5
x
y
( )
ln5 5
x
y
2.
3
1
2
x
y
_


,
( )
3
3
2
2
1 1
ln 3
2 2
1 1
3 ln
2 2
x
x
dy
x
dx
x
_
_ _


, ,
,
1
_ _

1
, ,
]
3.
x
y x
[ ] [ ]
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
take natural log of both sides
product rule
ln ln
ln ln
ln ln
1 1
1 ln
1
1 ln
1 ln
1 ln
x
x
x
y x
y x
y x x
d d
y x x
dx dx
dy
x x
y dx x
dy
x
y dx
dy
y x
dx
dy
x x
dx

_
+

,
+
+
+
o Integrating
Option 1: Convert to base e using the formula
( ) lna x x
a e
and then
integrate or
Option 2: Integrate directly using the integration formula

1
ln
x x
a dx a C
a
_
+

,

Example: Find the following integrals.


1. 5
x
dx

( )
1
5 5
1
5
1 1
1
5
ln
5
5
ln5
x
x
x
x
x
dx dx
dx
C
C


,
_
+

_
,

,

2.
sin
2 cos
x
xdx

sin
sin
let sin , cos 2 cos 2
1
2
ln 2
1
2
ln 2
x u
u
x
u x du xdx xdx du
C
C

+
+