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Pachuco Gabelero


Patrick Gaebler

-Setting the SceneTaught EFL in a Japan August 2006 - April 2009 In class Japanese use increased dramatically as I became more proficient A Tunisian Student (with whom I mostly communicate in Spanish) criticize my over use of Japanese Felt guilty and unsure of my teaching practices Taught ESL in the Shimane Exchange Program August 2011 Consciously avoided using Japanese. Even still used Japanese (mostly jokes) to connect with students. Taught ESL at the Peace Resource Center, Seaside, CA September - December 2011 Used Spanish sparingly but (in my opinion) effectively. Was still undecided about L1 use and feelings of guilt / inability persisted.

That is the (Research) Question

For Educational Tool Task Management Social benefit Cognitive Benefit Affective Factors Natural & Necessary

To Speak or Not To Speak?

Against Less exposure Interference Immersion Effect Limits to production Crutch syndrome

Actual Research Questions

What perceptions do advanced level language learners and their instructors have of the use English in the foreign language classroom? When, why, and by whom is English used in advanced level foreign language classrooms?

-BackgroundBailey (2005) Showing appreciation for students L1 Butzkamm (2003) 10 Maxims for L1 Use - L1 is Tool Cook (2008) Multiple Competencies Creese (2010) Translanguaging in bilingual classrooms Copland & Neokleous (2011) Monolingual Policies Edstrom (2006) Connecting with students Cummins (2010) Multilingual Classrooms Swain & Lapkin (2000) Task Management Polio & Duff (1994) Use of English to create empathy, solidarity, aid comprehension.

Through the process of SLA individuals become fundamentally different and can no longer see the world through the eyes of a monolingual (Cook, 2008). Language learners, or as Cook (2008) writes language users, have distinct uses for language (e.g., translating, code-switching, etc.) which allow them to do much more than any monolingual.

-CodeswitchingDEF: the alternate use of two or more languages or varieties of language, especially within the same (classroom) discourse. Codeswitching offers classroom participants creative, pragmatic and safe practices ... between the official language of the lesson and a language which the classroom participants have a greater access to (Martin, 2005, p. 89) Lin & Martin (2005) and Arthur & Martin (2006) claim that the pedagogic potentials of codeswitching include increasing the inclusion, participation, and understandings of pupils in the learning processes; developing less formal relationships between participants; conveying ideas more easily; and accomplishing lessons. They write about the pedagogic validity of codeswitching (Arthur & Martin, 2006, p. 197)

-TranslanguagingA switch up from codeswithing!!! Translanguaging the fluid and simultaneous use of multiple languages to maximize communication. Not the constant switching between distinct linguistic codes. Used by Garca (2007) to show that languages are not hermetically sealed units. She prefers translanguaging to codeswitching because it more accurately describes the normal practice of bilingualism without diglossic functional separation in classrooms (Garca, 2007, p. xiii).

-Translanguaging in EducationStudied use of translanguaging in by teachers and studentsa flexible bilingual approach to language teaching and learning in Chinese and Gujarati community language schools in the United Kingdom. Both languages (L1 and classroom language) needed for students to understand what is expected of them during class (Creese, 2010). Only through the combination of the two languages, translanguaging, that keeps students engaged and pedagogic tasks moving forward (Creese, 2010).

-DesignQualitative Participants Views Exploratory Preliminary research

-Participants26 Total 14 Spanish Students 1 Spanish Professor 9 Japanese Students 1 Japanese Professor 5 L1s 19 English, 2 Italian 1 Spanish 1 Japanese 1 Chinese 2 Heritage Speakers 1 Japanese 1 Chinese

-Data CollectionTriangulation of Methods Interviews Observations Questionnaires Triangulation of Sources Professors Students Researcher

-Data AnalysisInterviews (History of English Use) Guilt Teaching Philosophy Advantages vs. Disadvantages Observations (Use of English) When? Why? By Whom? Questionnaires (Feelings about English Use) Good / Bad / Why? Teacher / Students Vocab / Grammar / Concepts / Instructions Helpful / Harmful?

-Whats my Niche?Lack of research at the advanced level Previous research a the beginner / lower intermediate level Lack of research on students views of use of L1 in L2 class Research primarily focuses on advantages / disadvantages L1 Teachers reaction to L1 use (guilt) What about the students? Do they appreciate / approve of the use of L1? Does their opinion matter?

-FindingsStudent Questionnaires 62.5% (15 of 24) of the students thought English use should prohibited. 37.5% (9) felt that English was unhelpful during the TL learning . 62.5% (15) felt English helped their SLA a little or a fair amount. 79% (19) of the students felt that English helped them better understand vocabulary, grammar, or difficult concepts. 58.3% (14) felt the use of L1 prevented them from thinking in the TL 33.3% (8) felt English use limited their exposure to the TL. 33.3% (8) felt that using the L1 allowed them to avoid using the TL.

-Additional CommentsIf you think it is appropriate for students to use English with their classmates, why? I don think theres ever a need To keep the conversation flowing, even if there is a part they cant say When it cant be explained in Japanese or if it takes too long to explain If you think the use of English is helpful in the Japanese/Spanish classroom, why? When difficulty in explaining concepts is delaying the flow of class it may be better things along quickly 99% of the time, no its not helpful.

-InterviewsInstructors feel that the use of English is both necessary and natural. Both said yes, English should be used in the classroom. The Japanese professor explained that when discussing the death of Steve Jobs, ...the feeling was shared among everybody and it was so natural to say things in English that time. Spanish professor said, ... if they dont know something its gonna be okay for them to say the word (in English). Okay how do I say this? and using the phrase in English. I wouldnt be against that, I think that is natural. When asked if students should refrain from using English, he said, No, Im not against it. I think that it is very necessary sometimes

-ObservationsDespite mixed views all participants used English Facilitating smooth communication Strengthening their message

-Smooth OperatorsJapanese Teacher

worker bee statistics (What is often heard is that Japanese people are worker bees. Do you understand worker bee, worker bee? Worker bees dont rest. People ask, why dont Japanese people rest, but in fact when you look at the statistics statistics Americans work more than Japanese)

Spanish Student and Teacher Interaction S1 La gente no tenga confianza en la iglesia porque no pueden, uh, trust? (People are not confident in the church because they cannot, uh, trust?) No puedencon...fiar (They cannot

SS Confiar (Trust) S1 Oh, confiar, si. Porque han quebrado este confianza. (Oh, trust, yeah. They have broken the confidence.)

-Getting DerailedS4 (looks at S6) New Years (Maybe Christmas and...and what was New Years again?) S6 New Year (laughing) New Year(thinking to himself, frustrated) (Special times, Christmas and (attempts New Years which is not ), New Year, what is New Year) S4 XXX - (Shaking his hand at S6 and encouraging him to and move on).

Adding StrengthTeacher listening to 3 students discussion S2 Make your passion your profession (In English, make your passion your profession. Make your passion your profession.) T (If you can do that, that would be ideal.)

-Increased ConfidenceStudent and Teacher Interaction S11 Ellos tuvieron una historia. Entonces, no despides a tu esposa sin problemas, sin emocin. Entonces yo creo que ella lo abrazo a su esposo con amor y entendimiento, like understanding, um (They had a history. Therefore, you dont break up with your wife without problems, with emotion. So I think think that she hugged her husband with love and understanding, like understanding, um) T Entendimiento, si. (Understanding, yes).

Teacher and Student Discussing Why Japanese dont use all their Paid Leave S6 guilt(laughing) (The two are the same, right? So both are like, guilt.) T physiologically

(No not the same... The top one means difficult to take, hard to take, physiologically hard yeah does seems like guilt. Number four really is like burdening ones colleagues, for example if there is a there person job, and one person doesn't show up, than the other two are stuck doing all the work) S6 guilt (Isnt that guilt too?) SS&T Laughing T guiltXXX (might be guilt. I guess so. Yeah, I guess it is guilt!)

-ImplicationsJapanese professor feels that while some of her students appreciate the L1 use, other students, especially those paying high tuition fees for quality language instruction, expect her to provide all the input in the target language and she respect[s] that. McMillian and Rivers (2011), the teachers feel that policies on L1 use cannot be decide at the administrative or political level, instead they must be deiced by the classroom participants as the need arises. Communication, and therefore language learning and teaching, requires an assortment teaching and learning strategies. Teachers and students alike should be allowed to make use of all the resources at their disposal, including the L1. Nonetheless, as teachers we must remember that the L1 is only one of our many tools, and thus must not be overused but rather used appropriately and incorporation with various other pedagogical strategies.

Where do we go from here?

If we are to move beyond squandering our bilingual resources (Cummins, 2005, p. 585) and easing the burden of guilt associated with translanguaging in educational contexts, further research is needed on classroom language ecologies to show how and why pedagogic bilingual practices come to be legitimated and accepted by participants (Creese, 2010). How L1 use can promote greater understanding and comprehension, and help facilitate comprehension checks. How Swains (2000, 2006) constructs of output and languageing would apply to advanced foreign language learners. How students modify their English in the FL classroom and use prompts like In English to preserve the target language atmosphere. How foreign language instructors serve as language role models by staying in character inside and outside of the classroom.