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Gather the required data - Experimental Results * Produced Gas Composition in mole %, [CO2]p , [O2]p , [CO]p , [N2]p (Sum of these gases are not 100%) * Burning Velocity (for Quifa Test#3 Vf-lab=10.3 cm/hr) 3 2 * Injected Air Volume (for Quifa Test#3 Vinj-air=30 (ST) m /m .h) - Related with experimental set-up and procedure * Injected Gas mole % [O2]i and [N2]i (for Quifa Test#3, [O2]i = 22.15% and [N2]i=77.85%) * R = [N2]i / [O2]i * Combustion tube diameter (for Quifa Test#3, D=5cm) * Porosity, Pressure, Temperature (for Quifa Test#3, lab=0.31, Plab = 1150 psia, Tlab=335.9 K = 145 F) * Porosity for reservoir (res=0.31) 2. Calculate the following - Normalize the Produced Gas Composition in mole % [CO2]p , [O2]p , [CO]p , [N2]p (Sum of these gases are 100%) - Swept Length of Combustion tube at specific time, L= Vf-lab*tlab, (tlab : time, min; Vf-lab: laboratory front velocity, ft/min) 3 2 - Volume Swept, ft , Vswept= Atube*L, (Atube: Cross-sectional area of combustion tube , Vswept = *D /4) 3 2 2 - Injected Air Volume, ST m , Vair-STm3= Vinj-air * Atube *0.0929* tlab / 60, (1ft = 0.0929 m ) (for Quifa Test#3, Vinj-air=30 (ST) 3 2 m /m .h) 3 3 - Injected Air Volume, scf, Vair-scf= Vair-STm3 * 35.31, (1 m = 35.31 ft ) 3 - Injected air mole, nair, mole nair= Plab *0.06805* 0.001*Vair-STm3/0.08206/Tlab, (Plab psi, Vair-STm3- STm , Tlab-K, 1 3 psi=0.06805 atm, R=0.08206 L atm/K/mol, 1L= 0.001 m ) - Injected air mass, mair-lb, lb, mair-lb= nair*({ [N2]i*28 + [O2]i*32 }/100)*0.002205, (1 gram = 0.002205 lb, molecular weight of Oxygen = 32 g/mol, molecular weight of Nitrogen=28 g/mol) - Injected air mass, mair-lbmole, lbmole, mair-lb-mole= mair-lb / 453.592, (1 lbmole= 453.592 lb) - Total Injected O2, scf, Vinj-O2= Vair-scf * [O2]i /100 - Total Injected N2, scf, Vinj-N2= Vair-scf - Vinj-O2 - Total Produced N2, scf, Vpro-N2= Vinj-N2 - Total Produced gases, scf, Vpro-total= Vpro-N2 * 100 / [N2]p, (If total produced gases are known, you do not need to this calculation or you can do it to check if your calculations are right) - Total Produced CO2, scf, Vpro-CO2 = Vpro-total * [CO2]p /100 - Total Produced CO, scf, Vpro-CO = Vpro-total * [CO]p /100 - Total Produced O2, or Unreacted O2, scf, Vpro-O2 = Vpro-total * [O2]p /100 - Fuel burned as Carbon, lb, Clb= (Vpro-CO2+ Vpro-CO)*12/379 (PV=nRT 14.7psi*V= (0.00220462 lbmol/mol)*(10.7316 3 ft *psi/(lbmole*R))*(518.7 R) V/0.002205 (gram/lb) =379 scf/lb), ( Molecular Weight of Carbon = 12 g/mol). - Fuel burned as Hydrogen, lb, Hlb= 2*((Vpro-N2 / R) - Vpro-O2 - Vpro-CO2 0.5*Vpro-CO)*2/379 ( Molecular Weight of H2 = 2 g/mol) - Total weight, lb, WFuel= Clb+ Hlb 3 - Fuel Consumed per volume of sand burned, lb/ft , Cm= WFuel / Vswept 2 - Fuel Consumed per volume of reservoir burned, lb/ acre-ft, Cm-res=Cm * 43560 * (1-res) / (1-lab) (1acre=43560 ft ) - Water Formed, lb, Wwater-formed = 2 * ( Vinj-O2- Vpro-O2- Vpro-CO2 0.5*Vpro-CO) * 18 / 379 ( Molecular Weight of H2O= 18 g/mol) - Total air injected in sand pack, scf, Vair-sand-pack= Vpro-total*([N2]p/100)+ Vpro-total*([N2]p/100)/R - Total air injected per lb of fuel consumed, scf/lb, Vair-scf/lb= Vair-sand-pack / WFuel - Total air injected per cuft of reservoir burned, scf/cu ft, Vair-scf/cuft= Vair-scf/lb * Cm* (1-res) / (1-lab) -6 -6 - Total air injected per acre-ft reservoir burned, MMscf/acre-ft, Vair-MMscf/acre-ft= Vair-scf/cuft*43560*10 , (1 scf = 10 MMscf) - Total air injected per acre-ft of pattern, MMscf/acre-ft, Vair-MMscf/acre-ft-pattern= Vair-MMscf/acre-ft * Ev (Ev= Volumetric Sweep Efficiency, fraction, Ev = Ea * Ever) 2 6 - Total Air required for 5-spot pattern, MMscf, Vair-5-spot= Ev * Vair-scf/cuft * 2 * h * a * / 10 (h: reservoir thickness, ft, a: Well spacing between injected and production wells, ft) - Air flux for a rate of burning front advance, scf/sq-ft-day, Vscf/sq-ft-day= Vair-scf/cuft * Vf-field-stablezone, (Vf-field-stablezone: Front velocity after combustion stabilized itself, ft/day) 6 - Maximum air rate for field pattern, MMscf/day, ia= iD* Vscf/sq-ft-day * a* h / 10

- Time Required to reach maximum air rate, days, t1= ia * 10 / [2* * h * Vair-scf/cuft * (V f-near wellbore) ], (V f-near wellbore: Front velocity before combustion stabilized itself, at near wellbore, after air injection started, ft/day). - Volume of air injected while reaching maximum rate, MMscf, V1= t1* ia /2 - Volume of air injected during constant rate period, MMscf, V2= Vair-5-spot 2 * V1 - Duration of constant rate period, days, t2 = V2 / ia - Total time for entire burning operation, days, tTotal = t2 + 2 * t1 2 6 2 - Maximum air-injection pressure, psia, Pinj = [(Pw) + (ia*10 *a*(Tres+460)/(0.703 * ka * h))*(ln (a / (rw * V f-near wellbore * 0.5 t1))-1.238] , (air viscosity, a= 0.0186, effective permeability to air, ka=25 md, a: well spacing ft, Pw: production well bottom hole pressure-psi, rw: Production well radius-ft, h: reservoir pay thickness-ft) - Compressor horsepower requirement for four-pattern sequence, b.hp, CHP= 4 * ia * 3 * 88 - Oil displaced per acre-ft of reservoir burned, bbl/acre-ft, No-burned = [(res * So / 5.61)-(Cm / o)]*43560 3 3 3 (Cm: Fuel Consumed per volume of sand burned-lb/ft , o: oil density-lb/bbl, 1 kg/m =0.3505 lb/bbl. 1lb/ft = 5.61 lb/bbl) - Oil displaced per acre-ft of unburned reservoir, bbl/acre-ft, No-unburned = [Runburned * res * So / 5.61]*43560 (Runburned: Recovery from unburned zone, fraction, Runburned = 0.4) - Total Oil Recovery, bbl/acre-ft, No-total = Ev * No-burned + (1 Ev) * No-unburned - Overall recovery efficiency, fraction, Roverall = No-total * 5.61 / (43560 * res * So) - Oil recovered per MMscf of air injected, bbl / MMscf, No-bbl/MMscf = No-total / Vair-MMscf/acre-ft-pattern - Maximum oil-production rate from the pattern, bbl / day, No-max = No-bbl/MMscf * ia PS: How to calculate the volumetric sweep efficiency? * Run the field scale simulation with air injection, without reactions, * Construct the output file according to air concentration in each grid block in each time, * You know the front velocity; which means you know when front will arrive that grid block, you need to know the air percentage at that time in that grid. * Calculate the percentage of air in each grid block at front; this is your volumetric sweep efficiency. How to calculate the recovery from unburned zone? * 1-Ev will be the percentage of unburned zone, * Calculate the oil amount in that region, you know porosity and oil saturation * You will need decline curve analysis, * You know how much oil you will produce if your concern is whole reservoir by looking at decline curve analysis, but you will not produced cold from whole reservoir, you will just produce cold from (1-Ev) percentage of the reservoir. * By using linear interpolation, you can estimate the oil that you will recover from unburned zone. - Bbl water produced per acre-ft, bbl/acre-ft, Nw-bbl/acre-ft = {[4 * Wwater-formed/(Vswept*350.5)]+[Sw*res/5.61]}*43560*Ev (Vswept is total volume swept includes unburned zone, w: water density, 350.5 lb/bbl) (I have some doubts about this formula, because we are also consuming some water during combustion, this formula does not include that part, and if the strong aquifer is the case, we need to produce more water than what we have calculated with this formula) (Recommendation: If you have a water production curve, it might be helpful to calculate water production) - bbl water produced/MMscf of air injected, bbl / MMscf, Nw-bbl/MMscf = Nw-bbl/acre-ft / Vair-MMscf/acre-ft-pattern - Maximum water-production rate, bbl / day, Nw-max = Nw-bbl/MMscf * ia

Ref1. NELSON AND MCNEIL, HOW TO ENGINEER AN IN-SITU COMBUSTION PROJECT, THE OIL AND GAS JOURNAL, JUNE 5, 1961.
3. Calculate the following parameters - H/C Ratio: y/x = 4*{[N2]p / R [CO2]p [O2]p 0.5 * [CO]p} / { [CO2]p + [CO]p } This ratio is giving us the COKE burning reaction

- Construct the COKE burning reaction; CHy/x + a/x O2 + Ra/x N2 b/x CO2 + d/x CO + f/x O2 + j/x H2O + Ra/x N2 j = 2a 2b 2f d, j = 2 * {[N2]p/R} - 2 * [CO2]p 2 * [O2]p - [CO]p , (a = [N2]p/R , b=[CO2]p , d=[CO]p , f=[O2]p ) - Molecular Weight of Coke, g/mol, MWcoke = y/x + 12 - O2 / Fuel Ratio, scf/ lbmole, O2 / Fuel = 379 * {[N2]p / R}/ (12 * {[CO2]p + [CO]p} + 4 * {[N2]p / R} - [CO2]p + {[CO]p/2}[O2]p) - Air Fuel Ratio, scf / lbmole, Air/Fuel = (1+R) * O2 / Fuel - Fractional conversion of reacted O2 to COx, fO2R = {[CO2]p + [CO]p/2} / {([N2]p / R) - [O2]p } - O2 Utilization, Y, EO2, O2, Y= {([N2]p / R) - [O2]p } / ([N2]p / R) - Excess Air, fraction, Excess Air = (1-Y)/Y Coke burning reaction

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Ref2. In-Situ Combustion Handbook by Sarathi 1998.

4. Calculate the following parameters - You will need the following input data to do those calculations Parameter Unit Symbol Value Pattern Size acre A 10 Reservoir Thickness ft h 35 Reservoir Porosity % 31 Reservoir Initial Oil Saturation % So 68 Reservoir Permeability darcy k 6.5 Air injection Pressure psia Pinj 1600 Production well BHP psia Pw 75 Reservoir Temperature F Tres 145 Areal Sweep Efficiency % Ea 55 Vertical Sweep Efficiency % Ever 55 Recovery from unburned zone % Runburned 40 Formation Volume Factor Bbl/STB Bo 1.02 Relative Permeability to Gas frac krg 0.01 Viscosity of air cp a 0.02 Production well radius ft rw 0.276 Produced Gas Composition mole % [CO2]p , [CO]p , [O2]p , [N2]p Laboratory Data Injected Gas Composition mole % [O2]inj , [N2]inj Laboratory Data 3 Fuel Density lb/ft f 49.94* 3 Volume of burned Sand ft Vswept See Above Calculations Volume of produced gases scf Vpro-total See Above Calculations *Onder, H., Bagdoyan, E.A., EverythingYouAlwaysWantedToKnowAboutPetCoke_TOC_1993.ChapterI, pg7 - You need Volume of burned sand and Volume of produced gases (Farouq ali, did not calculate these variables, I have calculated above, these values can be used from above calculations, Vswept and Vpro-total respectively. - H/C Ratio, y/x= [1.063 + (2 *[CO]p/100) - 5.06 * ([CO2]p + [CO]p + [O2]p)/100] / ({[CO2]p + [CO]p}/100) This formulation is valid only if the injected air composition is as follows; [O2]inj = 21% and [N2]inj = 79% - m = CO2/CO - X = [(2m+1) / (2m+2)]+[(y/x)/4] - K = [1 4.761 [O2]p / 100]/[1+{[O2]p / (100 * X)} ([O2]p / 100)] - Fuel Content, lb/ft rock, Cm-FA = (4* {[N2]p / (R * 100)} 4*{[O2]p / 100} +8 *{[CO2]p /100} +10*{[CO]p/100})* Vpro-total / (379.1* Vswept) - Air requirement, scf/ft rock, Vair-scf/ft3-rock-FA = 379.1 * X * Cm-FA / {([O2]inj / 100) * K * [(y/x) + 12]} - Fuel Saturation, %, Sf = 100 * Cm-FA / {f*res/100}
4 3 3

(res: in percentage not in fraction)

- Air-Oil Ratio, scf air / STB oil, AORFA = Vair-scf/ft3-rock-FA *10 / {res * (So-Sf)} (res, So, and Sf are in percentage not in fraction) - Water Formed, STB / ft gas, Vw-FA = 36* [{[N2]p / (R * 100)} {[O2]p / 100} - {[CO2]p /100} -{[CO]p/200}]/ (379.1*350) (w= 350 lb/bbl) - Excess Air, %, YFA = (1-K)*100/K
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- Heat of Combustion, BTU/lb, Q = (174000 * m/ ((m+1)*((y/x) + 12)) +52500 / ((m+1) * ((y/x) + 12)) +61500 * (y/x) / ((y/x)+12)) - Air injection rate, scf/day, ia-FA= ((*(520)*krg*(k*6.328))*h*(Pinj -Pw ) / (14.7*a* *(Tres +460) * (2 * ln 0.5 ((Apattern*43560/2) /rw)-1.238))), (while calculating this value, Farouq Ali selected injection pressure and bottom hole pressure, in How to Engineer ISC paper, the injected pressure has been calculated, the difference in ia and ia-FA is due to the difference between injected and bottom hole pressure) (krg : relative permeability to gas, frac, a: Viscosity of air, cp, k: reservoir permeability, darcy, h: reservoir thickness, ft, Pinj: injection pressure, psia, Pw: Production well BHP, psia, Tres: Reservoir temperature, F, Apattern: Pattern size, acres, rw: Production well radius, ft) - Cumulative Oil Produced, STB, No-FA= ((Ea*Ever /10 )* Apattern *43560*h*( res /100)*((So Sf) /100) / Bo + (1-(Ea*Ever 4 /10 ))* Apattern *43560*h*( res /100)*(So/100)* Runburned /Bo/100) / 5.615, (res, So, Sf, Ever, and Ea are in percentage not in fraction) - Cumulative Oil Production after air injection, STB, No-burned-zone= (43560* Apattern * h * ( res /100)/5.615/Bo)*( Ea*Ever 4 /10 )*( So Sf)/100, (res, So, Sf, Ever, and Ea are in percentage not in fraction) - Cumulative Air Injected, scf, Vair-inj-FA= AORFA *((Ea*Ever /10 )* Apattern *43560*h*( res /100)*( (So Sf) /100)/Bo) - Cumulative Gas Produced, scf, NG-FA =(1-(1-Y/100)*(X-1)/(4.762*X))* Vair-inj - Cumulative Water Produced, STB, Nw-FA =( Ea*Ever /10 )* Apattern *43560*h*( res /100)*(1-So/100)/5.615+NG-FA* Vw-FA - Project Life, days, PL= Vair-inj-FA / ia-FA - Oil Production, bbl/day, Qo = No-FA / PL - Water Production, bbl/day, Qw = NW-FA / PL - Cumulative AOR, scf/STB, AORcum = Vair-inj-FA / No-FA - Initial Oil in Place, STB, OOIP = Apattern *43560*h*(res /100)* So /100/Bo/5.615 - Recovery Factor, %, Roil-FA = No-FA * 100 / OOIP - Gas Oil Ratio, scf/STB, GORoverall = NG-FA / No-FA - Gas Oil Ratio after air injection, scf/STB, GORafterair= NG-FA / No-burned-zone
4 4 4 2 2

Ref3. Farouq Alis Representation


5. Calculate the heat of combustion - p = 1/m = [CO]p / [CO2]p - in BTU/lb-fuel, QBTU/lbmole = ((478260+356130p)/(1+p)/((y/x)+12))+((56115*(y/x)-309060)/( (y/x)+12)) - in cal/gram-fuel, Qcal/grmole = ((265700+197850*p)/(1+p)/(12+(y/x))+((31175*(y/x)-171700)/(12+(y/x))) - in kcal/molO2, Qkcal/molO2 = ((265.7+197.85*p)/(1+(p/2)+(( (y/x)/4)*(1+p))))+(31.175*(y/x)-171.7)/(((2+p)/2/(1+p))+( (y/x)/4)) - in BTU/scf air, QBTU/scfair = Qkcal/molO2

Ref4 : , Burger, J.G., Sahuquet, B.C., Chemical Aspects of In-Situ Combustion- Heat of Combustion & Kinetics, SPE 3599
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6. Calculate the ignition time for spontaneous ignition case; - You will need the following input data; Parameter Reservoir Temperature Reservoir Temperature after Steam injection Ignition Temperature Pre-Exponential Factor Reaction order with respect to O2 Reservoir Pressure Partial Pressure of Oxygen Specific heat of formation Oil Density Heat of Oxidation Unit F K F K F K -1 -n sec atm psi atm atm 3 kcal/m C 3 kg/m kcal/kgO2
2

Symbol Tres Tres-steam Tign Ao n Pres P O2 Cp o Qkcal/molO2


0

Value How to obtain 145 Field Data 336 300 Assumption 422 428 Laboratory result 493 1210 From Ref5 0.4 From Ref5 1150 Field Data 78.26 17.33 Pres*[O2]inj/100 527 From Ref5 978.37 Laboratory Data Taken from above calculation

- Activation Energy / Universal Gas Constant, K, Ea/R = Tign / (Tign-Tres) Ref6 - Activation Energy, BTU / lb-mol, Ea = (Ea/R)*8.3144621*0.429923 ((Ea/R)/Tres) 0 n - Ignition time, sec, tign = Cp*Tres*(1+2*Tres/ (Ea/R)) *exp / ((res /100)*(So/100)*o* Qkcal/molO2 *Ao *((P O2) *(( Ea/R )/Tres)) (Tres is in Kelvin, res and So is in percentage, tign is in days)

Ref5, Tadema, H.J., Weijdema, J., Spontaneous ignition of oil sands, the oil and gas journal- December 14, 1970, 77-80. Ref6, Caruthers, R.M., Spontaneous Ignition in Porous Media, SPE 1268. Ref7, Burger, J. G., Spontaneous Ignition in Oil Reservoirs.
7. Calculation if laboratory data is not existing; - You will need the following input data grid by grid; the following table is average value, values have to be grid by grid Parameter Unit Symbol Value Reservoir Thickness ft h 35 Reservoir Permeability md k 6500 Reservoir Initial Oil Saturation frac So 0.68 Reservoir Oil Viscosity cp o 500 Reservoir Porosity frac res 0.31 Reservoir Depth ft D 3000 Volumetric Sweep Efficiency frac Ev 0.3025 Recovery from unburned zone frac Runburned 0.4 3 Oil Density lb/ft o 342.76 3 Fuel Density lb/ft f 49.94* *Onder, H., Bagdoyan, E.A., EverythingYouAlwaysWantedToKnowAboutPetCoke_TOC_1993.ChapterI, pg7 - Fuel Content, lb/ft , Cm = -0.12 + 0.00262*h + 0.000114*k + 2.23*So + 0.000242*kh/o - 0.000189*D - 0.0000652*o - Air Requirement, MMscf/acre-ft, A = 4.72 + 0.03656*h + 9.996*So + 0.000691*k
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Vpro-total : Volume of Total Produced Gases, scf Vswept : Volume of swept reservoir, scf

- AOR = 21.45 + 0.0222*h + 0.001065*k + 0.002645* o - 76.76 * res So

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- Oil displaced / reservoir burned, bbl/acre-ft, No-bbl/acre-ft= 43560* [(So* res/5.61)-(Cm/o)] - The overall oil recovery, frac, ER=(1-Cm/(61.05*res*So))*Ev + (1+Ev)*Runburned
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(o=61.05 lb/ft )
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- Burned Oil Saturation, frac Sf = Cm / (f*res), (Cm: fuel Content, lb/ft , f: Density of fuel, lb/ft , res: reservoir porosity, frac) - Oil Recovery; (Np +Vfb)*100 / N = 47*[0.427*So-0.00135*h-2.196*(1/o)
0.25

]*ia-total*EO2 / {[Nsp/(*So)]*(1-)}
3

(Np: cumulative incremental oil production, bbl, Vfb: fuel burned, bbl, N: OOIP, bbl, ia-total: cumulative air injection, 10 scf, Eo2: Oxygen utilization efficiency, fraction, Nsp: Oil in place at start of project, bbl)

Ref8, Chu, C, Thermal Recovery, Ref9, Brigham, W.E., Satman, A., Soliman, M.Y., Recovery Correlations for ISC field projects and application to combustion pilots, SPE.
Important Notes; 1. In-situ combustion lab-scale studies represents the real field conditions, if they have been conducted at reservoir conditions, the only difference is lab-scale tests are 1D, so, the volumetric sweep efficiency is 100 %. 2. For the field scale calculations; the control parameter is produced N2. Because N2 is inert and we assumed that N2 is not reacting, so, Produced and injected N2 are equal. For 5 pattern;
P1 P2

INJ

P3

P4

Front movement can be estimated by looking at the produced N2 concentration; If [N2] P1 has the greatest value among the [N2] P2, [N2] P3, [N2] P4, then, it means fronts speed is higher between Injection well and Production well 1 (P1). Therefore, the lab scale calculations can be used for the field scale calculations; for these calculations, you will need produced CO2, CO, N2, and O2 for each well, in time. The prepared excel sheet will calculate each value for the field scale on the basis of produce gases.

3.