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Contents

CHAPTER

Introduction to Calculus
Velocity and Distance Calculus Without Limits The Velocity at an Instant Circular Motion A Review of Trigonometry A Thousand Points of Light Computing in Calculus

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

CHAPTER

Derivatives
The Derivative of a Function Powers and Polynomials The Slope and the Tangent Line Derivative of the Sine and Cosine The Product and Quotient and Power Rules Limits Continuous Functions

CHAPTER

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

Applications of the Derivative Linear Approximation Maximum and Minimum Problems Second Derivatives: Minimum vs. Maximum Graphs Ellipses, Parabolas, and Hyperbolas Iterations x,+ = F(x,) Newton's Method and Chaos The Mean Value Theorem and l'H8pital's Rule

Contents

CHAPTER 4

The Chain Rule


Derivatives by the Chain Rule Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives Inverses of Trigonometric Functions

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

CHAPTER

Integrals
The Idea of the Integral Antiderivatives Summation vs. Integration Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions The Definite Integral Properties of the Integral and the Average Value The Fundamental Theorem and Its Consequences Numerical Integration 177 182 187 195 201 206 213 220

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

CHAPTER

Exponentials and Logarithms


An Overview The Exponential ex Growth and Decay in Science and Economics Logarithms Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation Powers Instead of Exponentials Hyperbolic Functions 228 236 242 252 259 267 277

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

CHAPTER 7

Techniques of Integration
Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Trigonometric Substitutions Partial Fractions Improper Integrals

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5

CHAPTER 8

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

Applications of the Integral Areas and Volumes by Slices Length of a Plane Curve Area of a Surface of Revolution Probability and Calculus Masses and Moments Force, Work, and Energy

Contents

CHAPTER 9

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4

Polar Coordinates and Complex Numbers Polar Coordinates Polar Equations and Graphs Slope, Length, and Area for Polar Curves Complex Numbers

348 351 356 360

CHAPTER 10

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

Infinite Series The Geometric Series Convergence Tests: Positive Series Convergence Tests: All Series The Taylor Series for ex, sin x, and cos x Power Series

CHAPTER 11

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5

Vectors and Matrices Vectors and Dot Products Planes and Projections Cross Products and Determinants Matrices and Linear Equations Linear Algebra in Three Dimensions

CHAPTER 12

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

Motion along a Curve The Position Vector Plane Motion: Projectiles and Cycloids Tangent Vector and Normal Vector Polar Coordinates and Planetary Motion

446 453 459 464

CHAPTER 13

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7

Partial Derivatives Surfaces and Level Curves Partial Derivatives Tangent Planes and Linear Approximations Directional Derivatives and Gradients The Chain Rule Maxima, Minima, and Saddle Points Constraints and Lagrange Multipliers

472 475 480 490 497 504 514

Contents

CHAPTER 14

Multiple Integrals
Double Integrals Changing to Better Coordinates Triple Integrals Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4

CHAPTER 15

Vector Calculus
Vector Fields Line Integrals Green's Theorem Surface Integrals The Divergence Theorem Stokes' Theorem and the Curl of F

15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6

CHAPTER 16

Mathematics after Calculus

16.1 Linear Algebra 16.2 Differential Equations 16.3 Discrete Mathematics


Study Guide For Chapter 1 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems Index Table of Integrals