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Abstract Braking is the process which converts kinetic energy of the vehicle into mechanical energy. During the braking phase, the frictional heat generated at the disc-pad interface leads to high temperature. The thermal analysis is a primordial stage in the study of brake systems, because the temperature determines the thermo mechanical behavior of the structure. This high temperature causes brake fading, rusting and thermal fatigue failure of brake discs. In order to increase the heat dissipation rate and braking performance of Air Disc Brake (ADB) system solid brake discs (rotor) are replaced by ventilated brake discs in commercial vehicles. In ventilated brake discs the heat dissipation strongly depends on the aerodynamic characteristics of the air flow through the rotor passages. The thermal loading is represented by the heat flux entering the disc through the brake pads. Our objective of this study is to predict the temperature distribution and thermal behavior of ventilated brake disc using computing code ANSYS and optimize the air circulation path flow passages in order to increase the heat dissipation rate. Key Words : Air Disc Brake (ADB), Ventilated Disc Brake, ANSYS

1. Introduction
A braking system is one of the most important safety components of an automobile. It is mainly used to decelerate vehicles from an initial speed to a given speed. In some vehicles, the kinetic energy is able to be converted to electric energy and stored into batteries for future usage. These types of vehicles are known as electric or hybrid vehicles. However, these kinds of vehicles still need a backup system due to sometimes insufficient electric energy or failures which inevitably increase the cost of the vehicles. So friction based braking systems are still the common device to convert kinetic energy into thermal energy, through friction between the brake pads and the rotor faces Excessive thermal loading can result in surface cracking, judder and high wear of the rubbing surfaces. High temperatures can also lead to overheating of brake fluid, seals and other components. Based on the design configurations, vehicle friction brakes can be grouped into drum and disc brakes. The drum brakes use brake shoes that are pushed in a radial direction against a brake drum. The disc brakes use pads that are pressed axially.

= Coefficient of friction between disc and pad. p = Contact Pressure between rotor and pad surfaces. R = Ventilated brake disc radius. = angular velocity of the rotor. From Eqn (1.1), the heat flux can be calculated directly but the distribution of pressure is uneven. Therefore it is difficult to calculate the contact pressure. Another method to estimate the heat flux generated is macroscopic approach. This approach is based on law of conservation of energy. Here, the total kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into thermal energy (neglecting potential and rotational energy) . A moving vehicle has a certain amount of kinetic energy, and the brakes must dissipate this energy in order to stop the vehicle. Each time, when we stop a vehicle,the brakes convert the majority of kinetic energy into heat generated by friction between the pads and the discs. Therefore, when a vehicle is braking from an initial speed to zero, the heat generation can be estimated by Q => K.E = mv2 Where m = mass of the vehicle(kg), v = Initial velocity of the vehicle (m/s). 2. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BRAKE DISC The finite element analysis is numerical analysis technique for obtaining approximate solutions to the wide variety of engineering problems. Because of its diversity and flexibility as an analysis tool, it is receiving much attention in almost every industry. In more engineering situations today, we find approximate solutions to the problem rather than exact closed form solutions. In present, due to complex boundary conditions and material properties we cannot able to find the analytical solution for many engineering problems. So the engineers restore to finite element method that provide approximate, but acceptable solutions. The finite element analysis is the powerful tool for the numerical solutions of wide range of engineering problems. It has been developed simultaneously with the increasing use of digital computers and with the growing emphasis on numerical methods for engineering analysis. Structural Analysis of brake Disc (rotor) Static structural analysis calculates the stresses and deformations in brake disc with the effect of steady loading conditions on the structure, while ignoring inertia and damping

Fig. 1 Disc Brake Assembly Thermal Analysis of vented brake disc for commercial vehicles (Analytical Approach) Estimation of Heat flux generated The total heat flux generated by friction at the rotor (on each side of the brake disc) and pad surfaces is given by q = pR (1.1) Where


effects such as those caused by time varying loads. Material Property for brake disc SI..No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Material Youngs modulus Poissons ratio Ultimate Tensile strength Compressive Strength Density Value Grey cast iron 1.1 X 105 MPa 0.28 150 MPa 800 MPa 7050 kg/m3 (b)

Presentation of the computing code ANSYS ANSYS software program implement the finite element method to solve models previously discretized. The modulus used for this study is ANSYS WORKBENCH: This platform offers a different approach in the construction of model using the original computer code ANSYS. It is particularly adapted to handling cases with complex geometry and to the unconfirmed users. In this environment, the user works on geometry and not on the model itself. Before starting the solution, the platform will convert the data introduced by the user into code ANSYS. The generated finite element model is handled by inserting specific commands of ANSYS code. It is very difficult to obtain the exact boundary conditions in brake disc model. There are some assumptions made to import the actual boundary conditions in the brake disc model.

(c) Fig.2. Maximum Principal Stress Plots The maximum principal stress distribution in worn out thickness is likely equal to the allowable stress of the rotor material. So, reducing the thickness of the brake disc will affect the material strength during worn out condition and also the whole Air Disc Brake Assembly has to be modified for the particular thickness. Hence, for better braking performance we cannot change the geometry of the brake disc. Looking into the aspect how to dissipate the heat produced by ventilated brake disc another way to get better braking performance is increase the heat dissipation rate by providing different vanes and pillars.

1. The disc and pad contact surface is provided with

fixed support assuming that brake is applied in panic conditions. When brake is applied (assuming panic condition), the braking force produced will arrest the rotation of the disc. 2. The braking torque is applied to the disc in hub region such that the driving torque is getting arrested.

Fig. 2

Brake Disc allowable wear Thermal Analysis of Ventilated Brake Disc (Rotor) Before going into the heat dissipation analysis and air flow passage optimization the temperature distribution in brake disc as well as the thermo-mechanical behavior of the brake disc has to be determined. To predict the temperature and boundary conditions the heat flux generated in the disc-pad contact interface does not vary with time. The heat flux applied in this region is constant. But, in actual practice the heat flux is not in steady condition it varies with time (transient). As the temperature is proportional to the heat flux generated, the maximum heat flux produced is determined in panic conditions (ie) time to stop the vehicle is less (or) stopping distance is low.

(a) The maximum stress distribution in brake disc and hub region interface causes thermal fatigue failure due to high temperature in panic conditions. The structural failures in brake discs are predominantly due to thermal fatigue. The brake disc is getting worn out during brake application, the allowable worn out thickness is taken as 6mm (3mm on each side).


The heat flux produced in the disc pad interface is higher when the vehicle is decelerated from high velocities. The Heat flux has the maximum value at the begining of the stage, then falls linearly to zero at the end of braking, and remains zero when vehicle is accelerating. Another cycle repeat itself when the vehicle is braking again.

that the risk of lung cancer is increased in work environments with an exposure to diesel soot, the concern about the health effect of PM was increased with an extra weight. Therefore, the policy of diesel vehicles in USA and EU is after developing the level of PM and NOx the same as those of gasoline vehicles, to positively promote diesel powered vehicles. For example, as shown in Fig. 4, EU strengthened the PM standard steeply for heavy duty diesel engines - from 0.1g/kwh to 0.02g/kwh, which is the same level as gasoline and natural gas fuelled vehicles, in the 2005 EURO4 standard, and NOx from 3.5g/kwh to 2.0g/kwh in the 2008 EURO5. USA also sharply cut the 2007 standard - 90% cut of PM from 0.1g/bhph to 0.01g/bhph, 95% cut of NOx from 4.0g/bhph to 0.2g/bhph. It is inevitably expected to demand aftertreatment devices, such as diesel particulate filter trap or NOx trap to satisfy these strong regulations. Korea already decided to adopt the EUOR3 for the 2003 standard and is considering applying the EURO4 standard in 2006 or 2007 for heavy duty diesel engines. Fig. 4 PM and NOx standard for HD diesel vehicle When it comes to the diesel passenger car, there was no diesel passenger car in Koreas market for a while, and the policy will maintain the same situation for the present. As shown in Fig. 5, the 2001 standard of the diesel passenger car in Korea is very strict with PM (0.01g/km) and NOx (0.02g/km) standards, which is quite stronger than the EURO4 and almost the same level as the
Diesel Passenger Car
0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08

According to the definition of PM in CARB, particulates are all exhaust components (with the exception of condensed water) that are deposited on a defined filter after having been diluted with air to a temperature below 51.7oC. The main component of PM is the unburned carbon solid particle phase of 15-30nm diameter, gas phase- from fuel and partly from lubricant, and all named as fines, dust, soot, mist, fog, and smog are a part of PM. Besides, soluble organic fraction (SOF) removable by organic solvent is adsorbed and sulfuric acid (sulfates), which is inorganic species, are condensed in PM (Fig. 6). The diesel particulate filter trap (DPF) is recognized as the most efficient technology for the reduction of PM at present. A largescale fleet test on DPF is under operation and its commercialization is on the beginning stage. The principle of the DPF technology is simple - collect the PM inside trap filter and
Carbon Solid(SOL) 0.01-0.08

Soluble Organic Fraction(SOF)

Adsorbed Hydrocarbons





Japan(97) EURO3(00) LEV EURO4(05) ULEV(LEV-1)

Korea(98) Tier-I(USA 94) Korea(00)

0.06 0.04 0.02 0.0 0


Korea(01) ULEV(LEV-2)
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0


then incinerate it, which is called regeneration, repeatedly. The core technology is, first how to efficiently trap the PM by using what kind of filter, second how to regenerate PM with assistance of what type of thermal energy without damage to the filter and, third how to make an electronic controller managing the trapping, regeneration and matching with vehicle operation conditions. Fig. 6 Components of PM The electric heater type DPF was first fleet tested at 400 buses of New York city by Donaldson in 1992, which was the first introduction of DPF technology to the world. Fig. 7 depicts the schematics of the electric heater DPF system. The trap system filters the exhaust gas and periodically disposes the collected particulate by controlled oxidation. The filters fill with PM until the optimum loading is reached and then, the blower system and the heater perform the regeneration. The particulate loading is determined from measurement of the intake air flow, filter

ULEV in LEV-2 of California. Korean government is understanding the current situation that the domestic diesel passenger car market needs some time in order to comply with CO2 regulation and deal with trade problems. We are under a serious debate about the emission standard - applying standard value and time - for diesel passenger cars taking into consideration of measure technologies, environmental and industrial circumstance. Fig. 5 PM and NOx standard for diesel passenger car

3. Trend of DPF technology


pressure drop, and the filter inlet temperature. The two traps facilitate uninterrupted gas filtering during regeneration by switching the exhaust flow between filters. Fig. 7 Schematics of electric heater DPF system The fuel burner and throttling system were subsequently developed, which mostly uses dual traps and burns PM with the assistance of an exterior heater source. These systems are called an active regeneration system and could be assumed as the 1st generation DPF technology. Because of complexity and unreliability of system, and fuel economy penalty caused by the increased filter pressure drop, this 1st generation DPF technology has not succeeded in application. DPF technology has distinctly advanced into a new phase, a passive regeneration of 2nd generation DPF technology, which regenerates PM with engine exhaust gas temperature only by using catalyst and fuel additive. CRT from Johnson Matthey and DPX from Engelhard are paid the most promising attention for the heavy duty vehicles. Besides Peugeot installed fuel additive system in diesel passenger car from 2000. The principle of CRT regeneration is based on the fact that PM is easily oxidized by nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Carbon is oxidized by oxygen at a temperature above 550oC, but with NO2 the regeneration process begins at 250oC. The CRT is composed of two filters an oxidation catalyst upstream and a ceramic wallflow filter downstream as shown in Fig. 8. The NO 2 is generated in the oxidation catalyst from nitric oxide (NO) present in diesel exhaust, and, once the NO2 enters the downstream filter, it reacts with soot. The CRT system is commercially available as an aftermarket kit and retrofits for heavy duty engines as fully passive systems. Eventhough more than 20,000 vehicles have been equipped with CRT up to now, CRT requires the application limits for a successful passive operation, such as higher than 275oC of exhaust gas temperature, less than 50ppm of sulfur content in the fuel, and more than 20 of exhaust NOx/PM ratio. Fig. 8 CRT system from JM Fig. 9 Effect of fuel sulfur on PM conversion in the CRT The mechanism of the fuel additive type regeneration is similar to that of the catalyzed filter, except the use of additives provides better contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. Fuel additives for diesel trap regeneration commercially available are iron (Fe/ferrocene), iron-strontium (Fe/Sr), cerium (Ce), platinum (Pt), and copper (Cu). There are some drawbacks and unsolved issues for the fuel
Intake Manifold Pressure Air Flow Rate Main Controller

distribution; impact on the engine or its components specially fuel injector and fuel stability. PSA Peugeot Citroen developed a diesel particulate filter system fitting on 2.2liter, 98kW, commonrail, passenger car diesel engine. This system includes a porous silicon carbide trap and an oxidation catalyst upstream. Cerium based fuel additive is used to lower the regeneration temperature below 450oC and multiple post injection controlled by the commonrail injection system is applied as an assistant active means achieving the rise of exhaust temperature by 200oC to 250oC.

4. Issues and countermeasures

Passive, catalytic or fuel additive DPF system is generally favored for heavy duty diesel engine applications due to its simplicity and relatively low cost. However several important issues still remains in order to apply passive filters in light duty engines and, also, expand wide scale application in heavy duty engines. Table 2 Regeneration type Regeneration Active Electric Heater Fuel Burner Throttling

Passive Passive-Active Combination

PM Conversion Rate (%)

100 0 -100 -200

Engine -300


Fuel Additive Catalyzed Trap Engine Management Electric Heater

4.1 Regeneration temperature

In retrofit applications particulate filters have been mostly applied in heavy duty vehicles within the limits. But in new engine applications, they must provide reliable operation under any operating conditions - whether in heavy duty or light duty engines. The exhaust gas temperature is the kernel of a question for the passive type filters application because PM is regenerated by the thermal source of exhaust gas. The exhaust gas temperature of light duty engines is too low to ensure proper filter regeneration and, though the exhaust temperature from heavy duty engine as shown in Fig. 10, is higher than that of light duty engines, it is generally not sufficient to support continuous regeneration.

Back Pressure Sensor Filter Blower


-400 -500 -600 100

Shut-off Valve







TemperatureoC) (

additive system; the necessity of introducing the catalyst to fuel, like on-board automated dozing devices; ash deposits on the filter; ash emissions due to limited filtration efficiency or filter failure; impact on engine-out emissions such as PM size


There are two ways to countermeasure in this issue; one way is to develop the catalyst or fuel additive to be able to decrease the regeneration temperature of PM as low as 150oC, another way is to use additional subsidiary heating source, such as electric heater, fuel burner, and engine management. The former case is more desirable for competitive potential, but it is necessary to approach it with long terms because it is not easy to anticipate the time of technology completion. The latter case is more complicated but realistic in a short view. It is expected that passive and active combination DPF system may be available for the EURO4 standard. Fig. 10 Exhaust temperature distribution in HD diesel engine

Insufficient temperature for regeneration 100 Distribution (%) 80 60 40 20 0 Field test USFTP ETC






4.2 Ash deposits on the filters

Most of the additive is trapped on the filter in the form of an inorganic oxide and/or salt. Even in the catalyst filter, the ash from engine oil is accumulated inside of the filter. With time, it accumulates to considerable quantities. The ash deposits contribute to increased pressure drop. It is became known recently that ash is a very fine and high surface area material prone to interaction with substrate materials. Therefore, at excessive temperature higher than 1000oC, ash can sinter and eventually plug channels (Fig. 11) resulting in cracking and melting of the filter. In order to avoid this problem, the filter must be periodically cleaned from the ashes by flushing it with pressurized water or air. Also, filter material has to be upgraded to enhanced thermal durability Fig. 11 Ash segment sintered and plugged in monolith filter

Temperature oC) (

resistance, chemical durability, melting point, and also cost are the important parameters judging the performance of the filter. Table 3 Filter type Filter - Ceramic Wall-flow Monolithic Cell (Honeycomb) - SiC Monolith - Fiber Wound Cartridge - Knitted Fiber - Sintered Metal - Ceramic Foam - Glass/Ceramic Fiber - Cross-flow Ceramic Filter

5. Prospect of DPF market

Considering the DPF development situation up to now, the passive, catalyst filter is considered as practical use for heavy duty vehicles. DPF retrofit programs in EU and USA have been promoted in earnest with more than 20,000 DPF units already retrofitted in Europe and USA. Japan also announced a very energetic and challenging program that retrofitting will commence in 2003 and be completed in 2006, and after April 2006 diesel vehicles without traps cannot operate in Tokyo. The most difficult obstacles for the promotion of the catalyst DPF system are preparing ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel with less than 50ppm sulfur content and the price of the DPF system. The manufacturing technology of ULSD is already in practical use and price difference is expected to be less than 10 cents per gallon. The supply of ULSD is gradually expanding centered around big cities and is expected to be used at all of the advanced countries by 2005 to 2007. The price of DPF is currently more than $6,000 but could be cut down sharply when mass produced. EPA prospects the cost of heavy duty DPF to be $1,200 in 2007 and $690 in 2010. The exhaust gas temperature of light duty engines is too low for current DPF system to operate as passive mode, and even filter systems for heavy duty vehicles are also likely to require some form of active regeneration support - most likely through engine management or electric heater. However, it is the general prospect that DPF is inevitably necessary in order to meet the year 2005 EURO4 standard for heavy duty diesel engine, and expected to be applied in 2008 for the EURO5 standard for light duty diesel vehicles. In Korea, more than 1,400 DPF, mostly active filters of electric heater and fuel burner, had been retrofitted at the garbage trucks of Seoul in 1997. After this program, several technologies, such as fuel additive, catalyst, and plasma system, have been continuously developed. The Korean government is preparing a DPF demonstration program again to promote DPF in new engines for the next EURO4 level standard.

4.3 Uncontrolled Regeneration

In an ideal regeneration, particulates that enter the filter are oxidized in a continuous manner. Such continuous operation mode requires a certain minimum of exhaust temperature. If the temperature is too low, poor regeneration leads to increasing soot load in the filter and, hence, increasing pressure drop. Eventually, it may lead to complete clogging of the filter. This is, unfortunately, the common problem with many passive systems. When a high load of soot becomes ignited, the soot load burns rapidly, releasing high quantities of heat, raising filter temperature and eventually causing damage by melting or cracking to the filter material. This uncontrolled regeneration is called stochastic regeneration - to emphasize its random, unpredictable character - and Fig. 12 is the picture of a melted filter by stochastic regeneration tested in KIMM. There is no means to solve this problem in the current passive system, which is a technical weakness of the passive filter. Thus, it may essentially necessary to devise a combustion control technology during regeneration.

Fig. 12 Melted sintered metal filter by stochastic regeneration

4.4 Filter
Filter configurations and materials are an important factor determining the performance of the DPF system. Wall flow monolithic cell honeycomb - is the most popular shape, and cartridge, knitted and cross flow filters are used as well. Cordierite - synthetic ceramics - is the most popular, and silicon carbide, fibers and sintered metal are also important materials. Filtration capacity, porosity, pressure drop, heat capacity, thermal durability, thermal expansion and strength, thermal shock


6. References
(1) (2) Particulate traps for heavy duty vehicles, Environmental documentation No. 130, SAEFL, 2000. (3) Application particulate trap systems for diesel engines, VERT TTM W04/4/98, 1998. (4) Presentation from Corning. (5) Presentation from DaimlerChrysler (6) Presentation from Bosch