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Food is a collection of chemicals taken into an organism for the following purposes: (a) Provides energy for cellular activities (b) Help in growth and repair worn-out tissues (c) Keeps the organism healthy 2. Nutrition: The process of making or obtaining food 3. 7 classes of food: - Carbohydrates - Proteins - Fats - Vitamins - Minerals Fibre - Water Carbohydrates 1. Consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 2. Carbohydrates include: (a) Sugars: - crystalline compounds that taste sweet - Water-soluble - eg: glucose (grape sugar), sucrose ( cane sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and maltose (malt sugar) (b) Glycogen is also known as anima starch because it is stored in animal cells. Glycogen is stored mainly in the liver and muscles. (c) Cellulose forms greater part of the cell walls of plants. (d) Starch, glycogen and cellulose are all made up of glucose molecules. (e) Starch and glycogen can be readily converted to glucose when needed. 3. Importance of carbohydrates: - Main source of energy for all cell activities - Form support structures such as cell walls in plants. - Can be converted to proteins and fats. Proteins 1. Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. 2. Every protein molecule is made up o basic units called amino acids. 3. Animal proteins : meat, fish and eggs Plant proteins : beans, nuts and seeds 4. Importance of proteins: (a) Need for growth and worn-out cell or damaged-cell repair (b) Synthesis of enzymes and hormones

(c) Important components of antibodies which help the body to fight diseases (d) As a source of energy 5. Insufficient protein called kwashiorkor. Fats 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Consists of carbon. Hydrogen and oxygen. Fats which are liquid in room temperature are called oils. Examples are palm oil and coconut oil. Each fat molecule consists of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids molecules. Food rich in fats: butter, margarine, cooking oil and fatty meats Importance of fats: (a) An efficient source and storage of energy. Provide twice the energy provided by carbohydrates or protein. Excess fats are stored as fatty tissue under the skin around internal organs to protect the organs from physical injuries. (b) Act as solvent for fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (c) Important component of cell membrane (d) Fats under skin act as insulator to reduce heat loss from the body. 6. Diet rich in fats will increase the risk heart disease. Vitamins 1. Organic compounds that are required in very small amounts for maintaining good health. 2. Not energy providing food. 3. Divided into 2 types: (a) Water-soluble vitamin : Vitamins B and C (b) Fat-soluble vitamin : Vitamin A, D, E and K 4. Lack of vitamins in our diet are called vitamin deficiency. Minerals 1. Inorganic chemical elements that are needed in small amount. 2. Required to regulate body processes. 3. Lack of minerals causes deficiency.

Vitamin Source A tomatoes, carrots, fish liver oil B whole grain bread, cereals, eggs, milk C fresh fruits, green vegetables D fish liver oil, egg yolk, formed in skin by sunlight E whole grain, whole germ, vegetable oil K green vegetables, egg yolk, tomatoes



Mineral Calcium

Function building healthy bones and teeth Sodium table salt, salty eggs, cheese enable the muscles to function normally Iron Liver, kidneys, eggs formation of red blood cell Iodine seafish to make hormone of thyroid gland Phosphrus Milk, whole grain bread, formation of healthy cereals, meat bones and teeth Potassium Meat, milk, fish, bananas, normal functioning of mushrooms muscles

Source milk, cheese, eggs, yogurt


Dietary Fibre (Roughage) 1. Consists mainly cellulose that is indigestible because we do not have enzymes to digest it. 2. Fruits and vegetables are rich in fibre. 3. Importance of fibre: (a) Provides bulk to the intestinal contents (b) Stimulates peristalsis (rhythmic muscular contractions passing along the disgestive tract). 4. Lack ofdietary fibre wil lead to constipation (failure to pass motions). Water 1. 60% - 70% of our body weight is water. 2. Importance of water: (a) Act as solvent in which chemicals dissolve (b) Act as transporting agent for digested food, excretory products, hormones and anitibodies (c) Take part in biochemical reactions (eg: digestion) (d) Major component of blood, body fluids, digestive juices and urine (e) Regulates body temperature by evaporation of sweat from the skin