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Classical Cryptography

Background

Information Security requirements have changed in recent times traditionally provided by physical and administrative mechanisms computer use requires automated tools to protect files and other stored information use of networks and communications links requires measures to protect data during transmission

Cryptography -Lect-01

Definitions

Computer Security - generic name for the collection of tools designed to protect data and to thwart hackers. Network Security - measures to protect data during their transmission Internet Security - measures to protect data during their transmission over a collection of interconnected networks.

Cryptography -Lect-01

Security

Definition (Cambridge Dictionary of English)

Ability to avoid being harmed by any risk, danger or threat

Be as secure as needed Ability to avoid being harmed too much by reasonably predictable risks, dangers or threats .

Cryptography -Lect-01 4

Security Goals

Security Goal : Confidentiality: Confidentiality is the term used to prevent the discloser the information to unauthorized access. Integrity : Integrity means that changes need to be done only by an unauthorized entity. Availability : Available the information resources.

Overall distribution of cyber security incidents and events for fiscal year 2009 first quarter (FY09 Q1)

Source : www.us-cert.gov

Cryptography -Lect-01

Source http://www.net-security.org/

Cryptography -Lect-01

Every business has confidential information. Business would demand confidence, privacy, reliability and protection at all time. There are three aspect which are related to the information security: 1. Security threat & attack 2. Security Services. 3. Security mechanism

Any action which leads to compromise the security of information is called security attack. Such attacks must be planned efforts.

Waste

Data tapping

Unauthorized access

Abuse Theft Disclosure

Fraud

Classification of threat

There are four type of threats : > Physical threat > Accidental Error > Unauthorized access > Malicious Misuse

Cont.

Security Attack may be classified as: 1. Active Security attacks. 2. Passive security attacks. Active Attack : An active attack may change the data or harm the system. Attack that threaten the integrity and availability are active attack.

Active Threats

Replay attack

Modification

DoS

Masquerade

Network Security

Passive Attack: The attackers goal is just obtain the information. This attack threaten the confidentiality of data or information. 1. Release of message contents 2. Traffic analysis - Location and Identity of host - Frequency of messages -length of messages generally transmitted - Guessing of nature of information exchanged between the hosts.

Passive threats

Interception of Information

Cont.

Traffic Analysis

Data/Information Security

Passive attacks are more dangerous because they are not known. The only remedy to struggle this attacks is prevention rather then detection. Opposite to the passive attack, active attacks require physical protection, detection, recovery from their effects such as interruption, loss, modification or delay etc.

Security Services

International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) divides the security services in to five categories : 1. Data confidentiality - Connection confidentiality - Connectionless Confidentiality - Selective field confidentiality - Traffic flow confidentiality. 2. Data Integrity 3. Authentication - Entity Authentication (Used in association with a logical connection to provide confidence in the identity of the entities connected) - Data origin Authentication(In e connection less transfer that the source of received data is as claimed) 4. Non-repudiation 5. Access Control

Security Mechanism

The security mechanism is designed to implement the security services. ITU-T defines the security mechanism in to two part: 1. Specific Security Mechanism - Encipherment - Digital Signature - Access Control - Data Integrity - Authentication Exchange - Traffic Padding - Routing Control - Notarization 2. invasive Security Mechanism - Trusted Functionality - Security Level - Event Detection - Security Audit trial

Service

Peer Entity Auth. Data Origin Auth. Access Control Confidenti ality Y Encipherment Y Digital Signature Y Access Control Data Integrity Auth. Exchange Y Traffic Padding Routing Control Notarizati -on

Y Y

Data Integrity Nonrepudiation Availabilit y

Y

Y Y Y Y Y

Cryptography

Cryptography is the study of secret (crypto-) writing (-graphy) Concerned with developing algorithms which may be used to: cover up the context of some message from all except the sender and recipient (privacy or secrecy), and/or Verify the correctness of a message to the recipient (authentication or integrity) It is referred to the science and art of transforming messages to make them secure and resistant to attack. It basically divided in to two types: > Symmetric Key Encipherment > Asymmetric Key Encipherment

Cryptography -Lect-01 17

Purpose of Cryptography

Secure stored information Secure transmitted information

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Confidentiality

provides privacy for messages and stored data by hiding

Message Integrity

provides assurance to all parties that a message remains unchanged

Non-repudiation

Can prove a document came from X even if X denies it

Authentication

identifies the origin of a message verifies the identity of person using a computer system

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Basic Terminology

Cryptography

The art or science encompassing the principles and methods of transforming message an intelligible into one that is unintelligible, and then retransforming that message back to its original form

Plaintext

The original intelligible message

Ciphertext

The transformed message

Cipher

An algorithm for transforming an intelligible message into one that is meaningless by transposition and/or substitution methods

Key

Some critical information used by the cipher, known only to the sender & receiver

Cryptography -Lect-01 20

Encipher (encode)

Process of converting plaintext to ciphertext using a cipher and a key

Decipher (decode)

The process of converting ciphertext back into plaintext using a cipher and a key

Cryptanalysis (codebreaking)

The study of principles and methods of transforming an unintelligible message back into an intelligible message without knowledge of the key.

Cryptology

The field encompassing both cryptography and cryptanalysis

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Encryption

The mathematical function mapping plaintext to ciphertext using the specified key: Y = EK(X) or E(K, X)

Decryption

The mathematical function mapping ciphertext to plaintext using the specified key: X = DK(Y) or D(K, X) = EK-1(Y)

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Cryptographic system (Cryptosystem)

A cryptosystem is a five-tuple (P, C, K, E, D), where following conditions are satisfied :

2. C is a finite set of possible ciphertexts 3. K, the keyspace, is a finite set of possible keys 4. For each K K, there is an encryption algorithm EK E and a corresponding decryption algorithm DK D.

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Requirements

1. Strong encryption algorithm 2. Share of the secret key in a secure fashion

Kerchhoffs Principle

Conventional

Secret-Key ( Public-Key) Single-Key ( Two-Key) Symmetric ( Asymmetric)

Cryptography -Lect-01

Encryption algorithms being used should be assumed to be publicly known and the security of the algorithm should reside only in the key chosen

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Cryptography -Lect-01

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Cryptanalysis (from the Greek krypts, "hidden", and analein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information that is normally required to do so. Cryptanalysis refers to the study of ciphers, ciphertext, or cryptosystems (that is, to secret code systems) with a view to finding weaknesses in them that will permit retrieval of the plaintext from the ciphertext, without necessarily knowing the key or the algorithm. This is known as breaking the cipher or cryptosystem.

Cryptanalysis

Brute-force attack Always theoretically possible to simply try every key Most basic attack, directly proportional to key size Assume either know or can recognize when plaintext is found

Substitution Techniques

Monoalphabetic Substitution Polyalphabetic Substitution Homophonic Substitution Polygraphic Substitution

Keyless Transposition Cipher Keyed Transposition Cipher

Product Techniques

Substitution and transposition ciphers are concatenated

Cryptography -Lect-01 28

A substitution technique is one in which the letters of plaintext are replaced by other letters or by the number or symbols. If the plaintext is viewed as a sequence of bit, then substitution involves replacing bit pattern with cipher bit pattern.

Let P and C Z26 , K, consists of all possible permutations of the 26 symbols 0,1, , 25 ( or a,b,,z). For each permutation K, , define

e(x) = (x)

and

d(y) = -1(y)

(-1 is the inverse permutation of )

Cryptography -Lect-01 29

Substitution cipherexample

Given following random permutation ,

a|b|c|d|e|f|g|h|i|j|k|l|m|n|o|p|q|r|s|t|u|v|w|x|y|z X| N| Y| A| H| P| O| G| Z|Q| W|B| T | S | F| L| R| C |V|M|U |E | K | J | D | I

Thus e(a) = X, e(b) = N, etc. Correspondingly, d(X) = a, d(N) = b, d(A) = d, d(B) = l, etc. Given plaintext: cryptography

The ciphertext: YCDLMFOCXLGD

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Question: what is the key space?

A key is a permutation of 26 letters, so 26! permutations, i.e., more than 4.0 1026 . Thus exhaustive key search is infeasible.

However, using frequency analysis, substitution cipher is easily broken. Question: what is the relationship between shift and substitution cipher?

Shift cipher is a special case of substitution cipher which includes only 26 of 26! possible permutations.

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In monoalphabetic cipher, a character or symbol in the plaintext always changed to same character or symbol in the cipher text regardless of its position in the text. Plain: abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Cipher: DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABC

Key size = 26 Unique mapping of plaintext alphabet to ciphertext alphabet For a long time thought secure, but easily breakable by frequency analysis attack. There are four types of monoalphabetic Substitution cipher:

Cryptography -Lect-01 32

Cryptography -Lect-01

33

Additive Cipher

The simplest monoalphabetic cipher is additive cipher. This cipher some times called a shift cipher or Caesar cipher. In this cipher plain text consist of lower case letters and the cipher text consist of upper case letters. Each character assigned an integer from 0 to 25. The secret key K is also an integer between 0 to 25.

Let P = C = K, = Z26 , for 0 K 25, define

eK(x) = x + K mod 26

and

dK(y) = y - K mod 26

(x, y Z26 )

Cryptography -Lect-01

35

Two basic properties for a cryptosystem:

1. Each encryption function eK and each decryption dK should be efficiently computable. 2. An opponent upon seeing a ciphertext string y, should be unable to determine the key K that was used, or the plaintext string x.

Question: is shift cipher secure? Of course NOT, since there are only 26 possible keys, it is easy to be broken by exhaustive key search or by frequency analysis. Example: JBCRCLQRWCRVNBJENBWRWN

On average, a plaintext will be computed after trying 26/2=13 times.

Cryptography -Lect-01 36

Caesar Cipher

The Caesar cipher involves replacing each letter of the alphabet with the three places fuether down the alphabet. No key, just one mapping (translation) 0123456... Plain: abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Cipher: DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABC 3456789... ci=E(3,pi)=(pi+3) mod 26; pi=D(3,ci)=(ci-3) mod 26

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Integers: Z ={,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,} Natural number: Zn={0,1,,n-1} Greatest common divisor: d=gcd(a,b)

e.g., gcd(21,26)=1, gcd(6,26)=2.

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Affine cipher--introduction

Decription function : d(y) = x = a-1 (y-b) mod 26 where a, b are keys Z26 and gcd(a, 26) =1. a-1 is the multiplicative inverse of key a and b is the additative inverse of key b

Why gcd(a, 26) =1? when gcd (a, 26) =1, ax = (y b) mod 26 has a unique solution x, i.e., x = a-1(y - b) mod 26. That is to say: given ciphertext y, decrypt y to get plaintext x by computing a-1(y - b) mod 26.

Cryptography -Lect-01 39

Theorem: the congruence ax b mod m has a

unique solution x Zm for each b Zm if and only if gcd(a, m) = 1. there exists a unique element Zm , denoted by a-1, such that aa-1 a-1a 1 mod m. a-1 is called the multiplicative inverse of a.

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Affine Cipher

ci=E(k,pi)=(k1pi+k2) mod 26; gcd(k1,26)=1 pi=D(k,ci)=(k1-1(ci-k2)) mod 26 Key k = (k1,k2) Number of keys = (26) x 26 = 12 x 26 = 312 (m):= the number of integers in Zm that are relatively prime to m k1{1,3,5,7,9,11,15,17,19,21,23,25}

Caesar/Shift ciphers are special cases of affine ciphers

Cryptography -Lect-01 41

Affine ciphersecurity

In Z26 , 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23 and 25 are relatively prime to 26.

1-1 = 1, 3-1 = 9, 5-1 = 21, 7-1 = 15, ., 25-1 = 25

Therefore Affine cipher has 12 26 = 312 possible keys. (Of course this is much too small to be secure)

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Theorem: suppose m = i=1 piei , where the pis are distinct primes and ei > 0, then the number of integers in Zm that are relatively prime to m, denoted n by (m), is (m)= i=1 (piei - piei-1 ). (m) is called Euler phi-function or Euler totient function . 26=213= 21131,

(26)=(21 -20)(131- 130)=112=12

n

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Affine cipherexample

Suppose K=(7,3) then

eK(x)= (7x+3) mod 26 dK(y)= 15y-19 mod 26 (i.e., 7-1(y-3) mod 26)

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Ciphertext PCQ VMJYPD LBYK LYSO KBXBJXWXV BXV ZCJPO EYPD KBXBJYUXJ LBJOO KCPK. CP LBO LBCMKXPV XPV IYJKL PYDBL, QBOP KBO BXV OPVOV LBO LXRO CI SX'XJMI, KBO JCKO XPV EYKKOV LBO DJCMPV ZOICJO BYS, KXUYPD: 'DJOXL EYPD, ICJ X LBCMKXPV XPV CPO PYDBLK Y BXNO ZOOP JOACMPLYPD LC UCM LBO IXZROK CI FXKL XDOK XPV LBO RODOPVK CI XPAYOPL EYPDK. SXU Y SXEO KC ZCRV XK LC AJXNO X IXNCMJ CI UCMJ SXGOKLU?' OFYRCDMO, LXROK IJCS LBO LBCMKXPV XPV CPO PYDBLK

Any Guesses???

45

Frequency Analysis

Identyfying comon letters, digrams and trigrams...

PCQ VMJYPD LBYK LYSO KBXBJXWXV BXV ZCJPO EYPD KBXBJYUXJ LBJOO KCPK. CP LBO LBCMKXPV XPV IYJKL PYDBL, QBOP KBO BXV OPVOV LBO LXRO CI SX'XJMI, KBO JCKO XPV EYKKOV LBO DJCMPV ZOICJO BYS, KXUYPD: 'DJOXL EYPD, X LBCMKXPV XPV CPO PYDBLK Y BXNO ZOOP JOACMPLYPD LC UCM LBO IXZROK CI FXKL XDOK XPV LBO RODOPVK CI XPAYOPL EYPDK. SXU Y SXEO KC ZCRV XK LC AJXNO X IXNCMJ CI UCMJ SXGOKLU?' OFYRCDMO, LXROK IJCS LBO LBCMKXPV XPV CPO PYDBLK

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Frequency Analysis

Assuming LBO represents THE we replace L with T, B with H, and O with E and get PCQ VMJYPD THYK TYSE KHXHJXWXV HXV ZCJPE EYPD KHXHJYUXJ THJEE KCPK. CP

THE THCMKXPV XPV IYJKT PYDHT, QHEP KHO HXV EPVEV THE LXRE CI SX'XJMI, KHE JCKE XPV EYKKOV THE DJCMPV ZEICJE HYS, KXUYPD: 'DJEXT EYPD, ICJ X LHCMKXPV XPV CPE PYDHLK Y HXNE ZEEP JEACMPTYPD TC UCM THE IXZREK CI FXKL XDEK XPV THE REDEPVK CI XPAYEPT EYPDK. SXU Y SXEE KC ZCRV XK TC AJXNE X IXNCMJ CI UCMJ SXGEKTU?' EFYRCDME, TXREK IJCS THE LHCMKXPV XPV CPE PYDBTK

More guesses?

47

Code

X Z A V O I D B Y G E R S P C F H J K L M N Q T U W A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Plaintext Now during this time Shahrazad had borne King Shahriyar three sons. On the thousand and first night, when she had ended the tale of Ma'aruf, she rose and kissed the ground before him, saying: 'Great King, for a thousand and one nights I have been recounting to you the fables of past ages and the legends of ancient kings. May I make so bold as to crave a favour of your majesty? Epilogue, Tales from the Thousand and One Nights

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In addition to the frequency info of single letters, the frequency info of two-letter (digram) or three-letter (trigram) combinations can be used for the cryptanalysis Most frequent digrams

TH, HE, IN, ER, AN, RE, ED, ON, ES, ST, EN, AT, TO, NT, HA, ND, OU, EA, NG, AS, OR, TI, IS, ET, IT, AR, TE, SE, HI, OF

THE, ING, AND, HER, ERE, ENT, THA, NTH, WAS, ETH, FOR, DTH

Cryptography -Lect-01 49

Polyalphabetic Cipher

In polyalphabetic ciphers, each occurrence of a character may have different substitute. The relationship between a character in the plaintext to a character in the plaintext to a character in the ciphretext is one-to-many.

Typically a set of monoalphabetic substitution rules is used There are five type of polyalphebetic cipher: Auto key cipher Playfier cipher Hill cipher Vigenere cipher One time pad (vernam cipher)

Cryptography -Lect-01

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In this cipher, the key is a stream of subkeys, in which each subkey is used to encrypt the corresponding character in the plaintext. The first subkey is predetermined and secret. The second subkey is the value of first plain text character. The third subkey is the value of second plain text character. Encryption function : Ci = (Pi+ki) mod 26 Decryption function : Pi = (Ci-ki) mod 26 Example : Consider the plaintext is attack is today and initial secret key is 12. What will be the ciphetext? Attack on auto key cipher : The auto key cipher definitely hides the single letter frequency statistic of the plain text. The first subkey can be only one value of 25. So brute-force attack can easily break it.

Cryptography -Lect-01 51

Playfair Cipher

Best-known multiple-letter substitution cipher Digram cipher (digram to digram, i.e., E(pipi+1) = cici+1 through keyword-based 5x5 transformation table) M O N A R

Keyword = monarchy

C E L U H F P V Y G Q W B I/J S X D K T Z

Plaintext: H S E A A R M U Ciphertext: B P I M R M C M

Great advance over simple monoalphabetic cipher (26 letters 26x26=676 digrams) Still leaves much of the structure of the plaintext language relatively easy to break

Cryptography -Lect-01 52

plaintext is encrypted two letters at a time

1. if a pair is a repeated letter, insert filler like 'X 2. if both letters fall in the same row, replace each with letter to right 3. if both letters fall in the same column, replace each with the letter below it 4. otherwise each letter is replaced by the letter in the same row and in the column of the other letter of the pair

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security much improved over monoalphabetic since have 26 x 26 = 676 digrams would need a 676 entry frequency table to analyse (verses 26 for a monoalphabetic) . was widely used for many years

eg. by US & British military in WW1

it can be broken, given a few hundred letters since still has much of plaintext structure

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Another polyalphabetic cipher. Invented in 1929 by Lester S. Hill. Let m be an positive integer, and let P = C (Z26)m First divide the characters in plaintext into blocks of m characters, take m linear combinations of the m characters, thus producing the m characters in ciphertext.

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Suppose m=2, a plaintext element is written as x=(x1,x2) and a ciphertext element as y=(y1,y2). Here y1 would be a linear combination of x1 and x2, as would y2. Suppose we take: y1=(11x1 + 3x2) mod 26 y2=(8x1 + 7x2) mod 26 then y1 and y2 can be computed from x1 and x2 We can write the above computations in matrix notation:

) ( )

56

or y = xK where y=(y1, y2) , x=(x1, x2), and K= 11 8 3 7 Assume all operations are performed by modulo 26.

Cryptography -Lect-01

Example 1.5, suppose key is:

K=

11 8 3 7

then

K-1=

7 18 23 11

Given plaintext: july , the ciphertext is: On the other hand, from DELW, we can get july.

DELW

Cryptography -Lect-01

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1. Determinant of a matrix A, denoted by det A : -- if A(aij) is 22, then det A =a11a22 a12a21 -- if A(aij) is 33, then det A =a11a22a33 + a12a23a31 + a13a21a32 - a13a22a31 - a12a21a33 - a11a23a32 k11 k12 k21 k22

2. Theorem: suppose

K=

with kij

Z26

Then K has an inverse if and only if det K is invertible in if and only if gcd(det K, 26)=1 Moreover, K-1=(det K)-1

Z26

Cryptography -Lect-01

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Hill Cipher

Multi-letter cipher Takes m successive plaintext letters and substitutes for them m ciphertext letters c1 = (k11p1 + k12p2 + k13p3) mod 26 3x3 Hill cipher:

K=

C = EK(P) = KP ; P = DK(C) = K-1C = K-1KP = P m x m Hill cipher hides (m-1)-letter frequency info Strong against for the ciphertext-only attack, but easily broken with known plaintext attack

with m plaintext-ciphertext pairs, each of length m; K = CP-1

Cryptography -Lect-01 59

Vigenere cipher--introduction

In substitution ciphers, once a key is chosen, each character in the plaintext is constantly mapped into a unique character in ciphertext, called monoalphabetic cryptosystems. If the same character at different locations in plaintext is mapped into different characters in ciphertext, called polyalphabetic cryptosystems. Vigenere cipher is a kind of polyalphabetic cipher: Each key consists of m characters, called keyword. Encrypt m characters at a time, i.e., each plaintext element is equivalent to m characters.

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Let m be an positive integer.

Define P = C = K,= (Z26)m. For each K= (k1,k2,,km), define eK(x1,x2,,xm) = (x1+ k1, x2+ k2,, xm+ km) and dK(y1,y2,,ym) = (y1- k1, y2- k2,, ym- km) Where all operations are performed in Z26, i.e, mod 26..

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Vigenere cipherexample

Suppose m=6 and keyword = CIPHER Given plaintext:

thiscryptosystemisnotsecure

VPXZGIAXIVWPUBTTMJPWIZITWZT

On the contrary, subtract the keyword from ciphertext to get the plaintext.

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have multiple ciphertext letters for each plaintext letter hence letter frequencies are masked but not totally lost start with letter frequencies

see if look monoalphabetic or not

if not, then need to determine number of alphabets, since then can attach each

Cryptography -Lect-01 63

Vigenere ciphersecurity

Question: what is the key space? Suppose the keyword length is m. There are total 26m possible keys. Suppose m=5, then 265 = 1.1 107 , which is large enough to preclude exhaustive key search by hand. However, we will see that there will be a systemic method to break Vigenere cipher. Finding the length of key. (Kasiski test) Finding the key itself. We see that one character could be mapped into m different characters when the character is in m different positions.

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One-Time Pad

Perfect substitution cipher Improved Vernam cipher Use a random key (pad) which is as long as the message, with no repetitions.

Key distribution is a problem Or, random key stream generation is a problem

With such key, plaintext and ciphertext are statistically independent Unconditionally secure (Unbreakable)

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A transposition cipher does not substitute one symbol for another, instead it changes the location of the symbol. A very different kind of mapping is achieved by performing some sort of permutation on the plaintext letters. A symbol in the 1st position of the plaintext may appear in the 10th position of the ciphertext. This may be two types: - Keyless transposition cipher - Keyed transposition cipher

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Hide the message by rearranging the letter order without altering the actual letters used Rail Fence Cipher(Column by Column -> Row by Row)

Write message on alternate rows, and read off cipher row by row Example:

MEMATRHTGPRYETEFETEOAAT

Message is written in rectangle, row by row, but read off column by column; The order of columns read off is the key Example:

m

m t a

e

e h r

e

a e k

t

t p

Cryptography -Lect-01 67

The keyless cipher permute the characters by using writing plaintext in one way and reading it in another way. In the keyed cipher, the plaintext is divide into groups of predetermined size, called blocks, then use a key to permute the character in each block separately. Example: Suppose the key is,

3

Encryption 1

1

2

4

3

5

4

2

5

Decryption

And the plaintext is Enemy attacks tonight . What will be the ciphertext ??

Germany (Enigma), Japan (Purple), Sweden (Hagelin)

A one-rotor machine produces a polyalphabetic cipher with period 26 Output of each rotor is input to next rotor After each symbol, the fast rotor is rotated

- An n rotor machine produces a polyalphabetic cipher with period 26n

Cryptography -Lect-01 69

The art of covered writing Covert channel or Security by obscurity Subliminal channel Hide messages in other messages Conceal the existence of message Conceal what you are communicating (Sending encrypted messages would make you a spy)

Character marking. Overwrite with a pencil Invisible ink, - Pin punctures, - First letter of each word Letter position on page, - Drawings, - Codes Typewriter correction ribbon Microdots

Steganography

Digital Watermarking

Cryptography -Lect-01 70

Steganography - Example

News Eight Weather: Tonight increasing snow. Unexpected precipitation Smothers Eastern towns. Be extremely cautious and use snowtires especially heading east. The highways are knowingly slippery. Highway evacuation is suspected. Police report emergency situations in downtown ending near Tuesday

First letter of each word yields: Newt is upset because he thinks he is President

This example was created by Neil F. Johnson, and was published in Steganography,Technical Report TR_95_11_nfj, 1995. URL: http://www.jjtc.com/pub/tr_95_11_nfj/

From WWII German spy (Kahn): Apparently neutrals protest is thoroughly discounted and ignored. Isman hard hit. Blockade issue affects pretext for embargo on by products, ejecting suets and vegetable Oils.

Cryptography -Lect-01 Second letter of each word yields: Pershing sails from NY June 1. 71

Thank you

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