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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS (UniMAP) School of Electrical System Engineering


: 4 Junction Traffic Light System Using PLC : Mohammad Hafiz Bin Ahmad Nazri

MATRIC NO. : 092160248 COURSE SESSION : Diploma Electrical Engineering : 2011/2012


CONTENTS 2.1 Introduction The traffic light system is a device that manages free flow of traffics along three, or more road junctions. The device has a sequence selector for red, green, amber and a yellow light indicates present state of the traffic flow. Green colour indicates Go, which means entry into the intersection. Red colour indicates Stop, which prohibits entry into junction. Amber light allows entry of traffic but requires clearences of intersection, while yellow means Fault indicating that there is a fault. Here, the yellow light will remain on until the fault is cleared. The device also consists of time base (555 timer), decade counterr D-flip flop and relay circuit for switching appropiate light. The automated traffic light controller was so designed on basis of electronic instrumentation and experimental techniques in electonic engineering and physics so as to allow more time of traffic flow for more busy roads across junctions while less time for less busy roads, as others remain stand still to avoid collision. The traffic light controller ensures that the waiting vehicles or motorcycles are not unnecessarilt delayed. A traffic light, traffic signal, or stop light is a signalling device positioned at a road intersection, pedestrian crossing, or other location in order to indicate when it is safe to drive, ride, or walk using universal colour code. In Malaysia, the traffic lights for vehicles commonly have three main lights, a red light means stop, a green light meaning go, and yellow light meaning ready to stop. However, for the pedestrians, there have only two lights, a red light that mean stop and green light that mean go. The traffic lights have given many benefits to all road users. Besides reducing the number of accidents, it made the traffic flow smoothly and possibly could save people time. For my project, I will produce a 4 junction traffic light system with sensors. There are two mode for these traffic lights which are busy or normal mode and night mode.

2.1.1 Problem Statement The current system of traffic light have been provides a fixed traffic control plan, which settings are based on prior traffic counts but may be manually changed. It is the most common form of a signal traffic control for now a days and result in inappropiate behaviour in traffic which differs from that which the plan was based, such as the use of unnecessary phases when the traffic is light. The traffic jams are common problem in most of the city in the world. The one of the main cause of this problem is accident. To find the way to maximize the traffic flow smoothly can reduce the numbers of accident and can reduce the people time in road. The government has carried out the few rules to overcome this problem. Beside take the punishment to all the traffic offenders, the traffic lights have been made at the location that high risk in accident. However, increasing the numbers traffic lights have contributed some contra issues/problems: (a) Traffic light cause the heavy traffic jams Increasing the number of vehicle in road, have cause the heavy traffic jams. This happened usually at the main junctions commonly at the morning, before office hour and at the evening, after the office hour. The main effect of this matter is increasing time wasting of the people at the road. (b)No traffic light, but the road user still need to wait The traffic light has contributed more wasting time people at road. At the certain junction, sometime there have no traffic. But because the traffic light still red, the road users should wait until the light turn to green. If they run the red light, unfortunately they maybe should pay the fine about RM300. (c) Emergency car stuck in the traffic jam Usually, during traffic jam, the emergency vehicle, such as ambulance, fire brigade and police will be stuck especially at the traffic light junction. This is because the road users waiting for the traffic light turn to green. This is very critical problem because it can be prevent the emergency case become complicated and involving life.

2.1.2 Objectives To study the ladder program and their programming technique 1. 2. 3. To understand the structure and operation of PLC To understand how to make the interfacing to the PLC To design a program which are working together with model of sensors for fourjunction traffic light 4. To build the model of four-junction traffic light that can overcome some of major problem of current traffic light The aim of this project is design a program for Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) that could minimize the waiting time of the cars at intersections, when the traffic volume is significantly low or high. It can also prevent the emergency transportation that stuck in the traffic jam. The programming could change timing for both operations; normal or busy mode and night mode. 2.1.3 Scope Busy Mode When the busy mode, it is a about 7.00 am to 7.00 pm. The sensors will detect transportation which are first come, first serve. The green light will on in 15 second.

Night Mode When it is a night mode, the traffic lights operation will be the normal traffic light. From 7pm to 7 am. If necessary, at 12.00am, the yellow light will on for standby mode.


Methodology The method of this project is to design and construct 4 junction traffic light system

using PLC. Based on Figure 1.1 below, first we will have a briefing about semestral project by FYP Coordinator. After the project title is approved by the supervisor, a small brief will be done by supervisor of our project and the flow of doing the proposal. Then, we will begin to search for information about the project we will do from several of references, such as internet, journal, and books. All the information will be used to make our understanding on the project more better. From the understanding, we will do a proposal on our semestral project. After proposal was accepted by the supervisor, we will start on design circuit of our project. We will buy all parts of components that needed for hardware construction of the circuit. Then, we can construct the circuit. We have to test and analyze circuit after finish construction of the circuit so that we can detect error in the circuit or failure (if have). If there are any error, we have to repair it and make sure the circuit function well. After that, we will collect all the data and informaton we have used in constructing circuit. All the data and information will used to prepare the report and presentation of the project. After all this complete, the report can be compile and submit to supervisor.














Gantt Chart (Planning)


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Semester project briefing from supervisor

Briefing a proposal and logbook with supervisor

Finish the proposal and submit to supervisor

Buy the devices for the project circuit

Start build the circuit

Start do the progress report and submit to the supervisor

Finish the progress report and submit to supervisor

Start do the draft report Finish the draft report and logbook, submit to supervisor Prepare power point slide for presentation Presentation and submit the correction final report by the internal examiner

2.4 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Materials, Equipments and Cost Equipment/components Red LED Yellow LED Green LED Relay Sensor Timer Counter Resistor Board TOTAL Quantity 4 pieces 4 piece 4piece 8 piece 4 pieces 4 piece 4 pieces 20 pieces 1 piece 53 pieces Price per unit (RM) 0.50 0.50 0.50 2.00 5.00 3.00 3.00 0.05 1.50 Net amount (RM) 2.00 2.00 2.00 16.00 20.00 12.00 12.00 1.00 1.50 68.50



Figure 1.1 A schematic diagram of traffic light