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JiTCA: An Accounting Framework for Just in Time Clouds

Centro de Informtica Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Francisco Airton Pereira da Silva March, 2012

Contextualization Mapping Study
Mapping Study Process Mapping Results Results Analysis Conclusions of Mapping The Idea The Proposed Architecture The Functionalities Actual Release Demonstration Planned tasks

Framework Implementation

Framework Experiments


The art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof."

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3
Framework Evaluation



Monitoring and Billing


Accounting Models for Cloud Computing: A Systematic Mapping Study

Mapping Study Process

Research Questions
RQ1: Is there any taxonomy for concepts related to accounting process in cloud computing? RQ2: Which are the existing accounting models for cloud computing? RQ3: Which are the existing pricing schemes for cloud/grid computing? RQ4: Which are the aspects taken into account to compose a SLA in cloud/grid computing scenario?

Mapping Study Process


SLA OR Service Level Agreement OR billing OR pricing OR payment OR accounting

Cloud computing OR Grid computing OR Infraestructure as a Service OR Plataform as a Service OR Software as a Service

580 papers (total)

Mapping Study Process

First Filter
98 papers
Inclusion Criteria Papers related to accounting process taxonomy, acconting models, pricing schemes and SLA composition. Exclusion Criteria Papers that just mentioned the studied research issue. Studies only available as abstracts or presentations Duplicate studies

Second Filter
23 papers

Mapping Study Process

Contribution Type Research type

Method, Process, Technique, Model and Framework Validation Research, Evaluation Research, Solution Proposal, Philosophical Papers, Opinion Papers, Experience Papers Pricing, Metering, Mediation, Accounting, Roaming, Billing, Charging, Financial Clearing, Cloud Federation, Just in Time Clouds, User Interface, Security Support, SLA Support and Variable Payment Models;

Accounting Model Features

Mapping Study Process

The full paper was read and the

following information was extracted from each study: Contribution Type Research Type Information required to answer some research question


Mapping Results
RQ1 - Is there any taxonomy for concepts related to accounting process in cloud computing?


Mapping Results
RQ2: Which are the existing accounting models for cloud computing?
Flexible Accounting Model [2]
Based on existing accounting process previous defined IPDR (Internet Protocol Detail Record)

A Model for Federated Clouds [3]

Used in federated cloud environments like the RESERVOIR project (funded by European Union) Organized in layers

ABS for SOA [4]

authentication of the clients and billing of services used by client is carried out

Mutually erifiable billing system has as main requirements the transparency, security and low latency in billing transactions introduces the concept of a Cloud Notary Authority to supervise billing transactions

Cloud Supply Chain [6]

proposes the Cloud Supply Chain concept represents a network of interconnected businesses Includes the idea of Information Model that encompass a plenty of record languages

Mapping Results
RQ3: Which are the existing pricing schemes for cloud/grid computing?

23 different pricing schemes found


Cumulus pricing

Edge pricing Priority pricing


Real-Time Pricing (RTP)


Mapping Results
RQ4: Which are the aspects taken into account to compose a SLA in cloud/grid computing scenario?
A framework for sla-based cloud services verification and composition [7]
SLA-Description based on XML specification which defines the main Quality of Services (QoS) It also defines the period of service provision, the cost of using the service, and the possible actions that should be taken presented a framework which the SLA pa-rameters are specified by metrics for different types of services They designed an SLA-aware web servers management system defining important economic variables to this kind of technology

Conceptual SLA framework for cloud computing [8]

Sla-driven elastic cloud hosting provider [9]

Specifying and monitoring guarantees in commercial grids through sla [10]

proposed an unambiguous and flexible language for formalizing SLAs Includes the components: Purpose, Parties, Validity Period, Scope, Restrictions, ServiceLevel Objectives, Service-Level Indicators, Penalties, Optional Services, Exclusions and Administration.


Results Analysis
Research Type Classification
Experience Paper Opinion Paper Philosophical Paper Solution Proposal Evaluation Research Validation Research 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


Results Analysis
Contribution Type Classification
Model Technique Process

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15


Results Analysis
Research Types X Research Questions

RQ1 :taxonomy RQ2: accounting models RQ3: pricing schemes RQ4: SLA composition


Results Analysis
Accounting Models Analysis


Conclusions of Mapping
As major contribution, this mapping provides an overview of the area and specific findings related to i) taxonomy for accounting process, ii) accounting models, iii) pricing schemes and iv) SLA composition.

i) The terms pricing, accounting and billing are the most used terms. ii) Few studies related to industry environment. iii) The need for expose how pricing schemes are applied in a detailed way. iv) Related to SLA composition, its missing a study that gather all the aspects here exposed.

JiTCA - Implementation


JiTCA - The Idea

Build a billing framework with the following aspects: Based on a previous stablished taxonomy, Combining a suitable set of pricing schemes, Design an architecture that fit Cloud Federation and Just in Time Clouds concepts, Encompass User Interface/SLA Support and Variable Payment Models


JiTCA - The Proposed Architecture



JiTCA - The Proposed Architecture


JiTCA - The Functionalities

Not started Partial done Done

Capture resource usage records. Send resource usage records to JiTBillingService. Set client credentials and start automatically with virtual machine. SLA Monitoring Variable Payment Models Support Security Support User Interface Support Multiple Charging Policy Support Multiple Virtual Machine Profile Charging Charging Simulation Reports


JiTCA JiTBillingService (web service interface)


JiTCA - Evaluation


JiTCA - Evaluation
Tasks to be performed in future:
Study Formal Experiment Processes Choose the appropriate criteria to validate the framework quality Run the experiments at C.E.S.A.Rs computational environment


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Agundez, I. et al. (2010). A taxonomy of the future internet accounting process. In Int. Conference on Advanced Engineering Computing and Applications in Sciences (ADVCOMP 10), pages 111117. I. R. Agundez et al., A flexible accounting model for cloud computing, in Proc. Global Conference (SRII 11). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, Jul. 2011, pp. 277284. E. Elmroth et al., Accounting and billing for federated cloud infrastructures, in Proc. Int. Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing (GCC 09), Aug. 2009, pp. 2729. T. Pandey et al., Authentication and billing framework for service oriented architecture, in Proc. Int. Conference on Systems, (ICONS 09), Mar. 2009, pp. 9195. K. W. Park et al., Themis: Towards mutually verifiable billing transactions in the cloud computing environment, in Proc.Int. Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD 10), Jul. 2010, pp. 139147. M. Lindner et al., The cloud supply chain : A framework for information, monitoring, accounting and billing, in 2nd International ICST Conference on Cloud Computing (CloudComp 11), 2011.


References (...)
7) A. A. Falasi and M. A. Serhani, A framework for sla-based cloud services verification and composition, in Proc. Int. Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (IIT), Apr. 2011, pp. 287292. 8) M. Alhamad et al., Conceptual SLA framework for cloud computing, in Proc. International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies (DEST), Apr. 2010, pp. 606610. 9) J. O. Fito et al., Sla-driven elastic cloud hosting provider, in Proc. 18th Euromicro Int. Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing (PDP 10), Feb. 2010, pp. 111118. 10) A. Sahai et al., Specifying and monitoring guarantees in commercial grids through sla, in Proc. Int. Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGrid 2003), May 2003, pp. 292299.


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