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# Chapter 1

1.1

## Classification of Real Numbers

The real number is any number that has a decimal representation. Figure 1 illustrates how the set of numbers are related each others. REAL NUMBERS (R)

## Irrational Numbers (I)

Integers (Z)

Non-Integers

Negative Integers (Z )
-

Zero

## Whole Numbers (W) Figure 1 : Real numbers and important subsets.

Number and Numbering System Real Numbers (R) All numbers. Rational numbers and Irrational numbers are Real numbers.

## a , where a and b are integers and b 0 . b

Example 1
Rational numbers,Q =

2 15 3 22 5 , , 3 = , , 25 = 5 = ,... . 7 16 1 7 1

## Decimal that terminate/end.

Example 2
Rational numbers,Q = {4.74, 3.29, 7.895623,...} . Decimal that has repetition of digits.

Example 3
Rational numbers,Q = {3.56565656..., 0.0987987987,...} .

## Irrational Numbers (I)

Numbers that can be represented as non-repeating and non-terminating decimal numbers.

Example 4
Irrational numbers,I = { 6, , e,1.25648379...,...} .

## Number and Numbering System Example 5

Given the set of numbers , 4, 11, a) Real numbers (R) b) Rational numbers (Q) c) Irrational numbers (I)

2 . Classify according to 3

Solution

Example 6
Given the set of numbers a) Real numbers (R) b) Rational numbers (Q) c) Irrational numbers (I)

22 , 5, 9, 2 7

Solution

## Number and Numbering System Example 7

9 Find the numbers in the set , 16, 0, 1.6, + 5, 7 that belong to the specified set. 7 a) Real numbers (R)

## b) Rational numbers (Q) c) Irrational numbers (I)

Solution

Integers (Z)
Integers are numbers that are classified into negative integers(Z-), zero and positive integers(Z+).

Example 8
Negative Integers,Z-= {..., 5, 4, 3, 2, 1} .

Example 9
Zero= {0} .

Example 10
Positive Integers, Z+= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

36 ,... . 6

## Number and Numbering System Non Integers

Non-integer means numbers that are not "integers".

Example 11
Non Integers=

2 5 22 , , ,... . 3 7 7

## Natural Numbers (N)

Counting numbers. All positive integers

Example 12
Natural numbers,N= 1, 2, 3, 4,

25 , 6, 7,... . 5

Whole Numbers(W)

Example 13
Whole numbers,W= 0,1, 2, 3,

16 , 5,... . 4

Even Numbers
Non-zero whole numbers which are divisible by 2 without any remainder. General form : 2n where n=1,2,3,4,...

Example 14
Even numbers= 2, 4, 6,

16 ,... . 2

Odd Numbers
Non-zero whole numbers which are not divisible by 2. General form : 2n+1 where n=0,1,2,3,... 5

## Number and Numbering System

Example 15
Odd numbers= 1, 3, 5, 7,

18 ,... 2

Prime Numbers
Whole numbers that are only divisible by itself and 1 without any remainder.

Example 16
Prime numbers= {2, 3, 5, 7,11,13,17,19, 23, 29,...}

Example 17
5 Find the numbers in the set -50,0, 3, , ,1.333 that belong to the specified set. 6 2 a) Whole numbers (W)

## b) Natural numbers (N)

c) Integers (Z)
d) Irrational numbers (Q) e) Real numbers (R)

Solution

## Number and Numbering System Example 18

Find the numbers in the set 5, 0, 4, , 1.8,

3 2

## that belong to the specified set.

a) Whole numbers (W) b) Natural numbers (N) c) Integers (Z) d) Irrational numbers (Q)

Solution

Example 19
Find the numbers in the set 17,

## 15 , 81, + 7, 0 that belong to the specified set. 5

a) Whole numbers (W) b) Natural numbers (N) c) Integers (Z) d) Prime numbers

Solution

## Number and Numbering System

TUTORIAL 1
1. List two elements of each of the following sets of numbers a) Whole numbers b) Natural numbers c) Rational numbers d) Irrational numbers e) Prime numbers 2. Determine whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE.
7 is a rational number. 2 b) 10 is a non-negative integer.

a)

c) Negative four when divided by zero is zero. d) All prime numbers are integers. e) 0 is an integer number. f) An odd number when divided by zero will result in zero. g) 2 is a real number. h) 3 is a rational number. i) Every rational number is an integer. j) Every irrational number is a real number. k) All integers are natural numbers. l) All odd numbers are whole numbers. 1 m) is a real number. 5 n) All integers are whole numbers o) 4 is a rational number. p) All prime numbers are odd numbers. q) A positive number when multiplied by a negative number will result in positive number. r) All real numbers are rational numbers. s) t) 2 is a natural number.
is a Irrational number. 1 u) is a rational number. 6 v) + 2 is an irrational number.

## Number and Numbering System

3. Tick the following boxes according to the given numbers. Number Prime Number Integer Irrational Number Whole Number 4. Tick the following boxes according to the given numbers. Number Natural Number Non-Integer Number Even Number Prime Number 5. Tick the following boxes according to the given numbers. Natural Number
2 5
7

11

20 5

20

2 3

Integer

Rational Number

Irrational Number

Real Number

5 25
7

50 42 3 5
5 22 7 7.5

49 9

1.2

## Representation of Real Numbers

Number Line
The number line is an excellent tool for developing numerical understanding and making connections across number systems. Real numbers are represented graphically by a real nections number line. Through the use of number lines you can visually represent the relationships among W resent Whole numbers, Integers, Rational numbers and Irrational numbers. ational A number line is a line on which numbers are represented in ascending order.

## Figure 2: Number Line

Positive numbers are represented on the right of the zero and negative numbers are represented on the left of the zero as shown in the above diagram.

Interval Notation
Interval notation translates the information from the real number line into symbols. Table 1 show the interval notation symbols, meaning and representation on the number line.

## Table 1: Symbol, Meaning and representation on the number line.

Symbol
( ) [ ]

Meaning
not included or open not included or open included or closed included or closed

On a number line
empty circle empty circle
dense circle dense circle

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## Number and Numbering System Inequality Notation

Inequalities can be used to describe subsets of real numbers called intervals. An inequality is a relationship between two unequal quantities and it can be reprented on a number line. Table 2 show the inequlity notation symbols, meaning and representation on the number line.

## Table 2: Symbol, Meaning and representation on the number line.

Symbol
> <

Meaning
greater than less than greater than or equal to less than or equal to

On a number line
empty circle empty circle
dense circle dense circle

## Bounded Intervals on the Real Number Line

In the bounded intervals below, the real numbers a and b are the endpoints of each interval.

Interval Notation

Inequality Notation

Number Line

Type
Closed Half-open Half-open

[a, b] [a, b )
( a, b]
( a, b )

Open

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Number and Numbering System Unbounded Intervals on the Real Number Line
The symbols , positive infinity and , negative infinity do not represent real numbers. They are simply convenient symbols used to describe the unboundedness of an interval such as ( 7, ) or ( , 4] .

Interval Notation

Inequality Notation

Number Line

Type
Entire Real line Open Half-open Open Half-open

( , ) ( a, )

[a, )
( , b )

( , b]

Example 20
Fill in the blank spaces with the correct answers.

Interval Notation
a) b)

Inequality Notation

Number Line

( , )

[ 5, 2 )
x0

c)

d) 2 e)

( 5, 3]
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## Number and Numbering System

Interval Notation

Inequality Notation

Number Line

f) 9 g) h) x<3 x4

i) j)

( 3, 6]
2<x4

k) 2 l) m) n) o) 3

( 5,12 )
4x

( , 3 )

[ 8, 3 )
5 x 6

p) q)

[7, )

r) 9 s) t) u) 11

( 7, 0 )
5 x

[ 0, 9 ]

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## Number and Numbering System

TUTORIAL 2
Fill in the blank spaces with the correct answers.

No.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Interval Notation

Inequality Notation

Number Line

x6

( 2, 8 ]
x < 4

( 0, 4 ]

5.
7

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

3 x < 6

[ 4,12]
0x<8 x 2

( 3, 6]

11.

( 100, )
3 x < 10 6 x

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1.3

## Different Form of Numbers

Fraction
A fraction has two parts, known as the numerator and denominator.

4 7

## Numerator (the top part) Denominator (the bottom part)

The denominator shows that the whole been split into 7 parts. The numerator shows 4 parts of the whole.

Mixed Numbers
A mixed number is a number which consists of a whole number and a fraction.
4 7

2 is a whole number

Proper Fraction
Fractions where the numerator is smaller than the denomirator.
4 5 1 , , 7 11 2

Improper Fraction
Fractions where the numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator.
7 15 10 , , 7 11 2

Decimal
A decimal is another way of expressing a fraction. The decimal point separates the whole number from its fractional part. A number written with a decimal point is known as a decimal.

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## Number and Numbering System Example 21

4 = 0.4 10 8 = 0.08 100 12 = 0.012 1000 5 21 = = 2.625 8 8

a)

b)

c)

d) 2

Example 22
Fill in the blank spaces below with the correct answers.

Fraction
a) b) c) d) e) f)
1 13 15 4 32

Decimal

5 100 0.258

0.023

1.54

Percentage
Percentages are expressed as the number of parts in every 100 which means the fraction with 100 as the denominator. The symbol for percentage is %.

Example 23
4 = 4% 100 88 = 88% 100 12.5 = 12.5% 100 0.5 = 0.5% 100

b)

b)

c)

d)

## and vice versa

Example 24
79 100 3 100 2.5 100 0.99 100

c) 79% =

b) 3% =

c) 2.5% = 16

d) 0.99% =

## Number and Numbering System

A fraction or decimal can be changed into a percentage by multiplying it with 100%.

Fraction/Decimal

100%

Percentage

Example 25
Express each of the following values as a percentage. a) 0.235 b) 0.054 c) 1.89 d) 742 e) 100

Solution

## A percentage can be changed into a fraction or a decimal by dividing it with 100.

Percentage

100%

Fraction/Decimal

Example 26
Change the following into a fraction or s decimal a) 15% b) 2.5% c) 297% d) 0.012% e) 100%

Solution

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## Number and Numbering System Standard Form/Scientific Form

We can use standard form to name very large and very small positive numbers and to perform computations. A number can be written in standard form by expressing it in the form, A 10n where 1 A < 10 and n is an integer. The following steps can be used to express a positive number in standard form.

Step 1: Place a decimal point after the first non-zero digit to obtain the
number A,where 1 A < 10 .

Step 2: Count the number of decimal places between the new point and the
original decimal point. The number gives the value of n.

Step 3: For numbers 10, n is positive and for numbers < 1, n is negative. Step 4: Write the number in the form A 10n Example 27
Write the number below in standard form. a) 0.2004 b) 0.006987 c) 423000 d) 7.22 e) 100

Solution

Example 28
Fill in the blanks below.

Fraction
a) b) c)
1 3 5

Decimal

Percentage
45.7%

Standard Form

0.052

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## Number and Numbering System

Fraction
d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v)
2 25 27 4000 3 3 25 3 4 3 1 5 2 29 32

Decimal

Percentage

Standard Form

6.875 101

0.02 0.044

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## Number and Numbering System

TUTORIAL 3
Fill in the blank spaces with the correct answers.

Fraction
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
1 3 100 1 4 2 2 5 1 9 32

Decimal

Percentage

Standard Form

0.75 1.125

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