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(This article has been taken from 'Malaysia 1994'.

If you would like to ask anything about this article, please contact the Ministry of Information, Malaysia).

Malaysia: Education
Education in Malaysia is a continuous effort to further develop individual potentials in a general and integrated manner in order to create an intellectually, spiritually, physically and emotionally strong individual who believes in God and strictly adheres to her/his respective religious teachings. These efforts are meant to inculcate praiseworthy values such as being knowledgeable, skilled, morally strong and responsible. This will surely contribute to the well-being, racial harmony and prosperity of the country and nation. PLANNING AND EDUCATION RESEARCH DIVISION The division is responsible for carrying out planning and research activities for the whole ministry. The functions of the division is to carry out complete macro-planning activities and undertake research on factors which influence the implementation of the education policy besides collecting, processing and disseminating information on education. This division is also involved in coordinating educational projects subsidised by foreign agencies and acts as secretariat to the Education Planning Committee. In addition, it also monitors and identified issues and problems pertaining to education, to be analysed before suggestions are made and alternative strategies planned to enable the attainment of set objectives under the National Education Policy and the National Development Policy. SCHOOLS DIVISION The Schools Division is responsible for the management, coordination, supervision, evaluation, guidance and implementation of all decisions made by the Ministry of Education pertaining to secondary, primary, pre-school and special education programmes carried out at state, district and division levels with the cooperation of other divisions in the Ministry and other agencies. It is also responsible for special education, discipline, health, counselling, drug prevention education, curriculum and sports matters. In addition, the division acts as secretariat to the Malaysian Schools Sports Council (MSSM) which is responsible for the development and progress of sports for Malaysian students besides organising competitions at national and international levels for them. TEACHER EDUCATION DIVISION This division plans and undertakes the selection of candidates and conducts teacher education programmes in line with the requirements of the teaching profession. It also acts as a secretariat that is responsible for the planning and management of in-service training as well as for the distribution of allocations to the nine professional divisions of the Ministry and to all State Education Departments. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE The division is responsible for the general development of the Malaysian School Curriculum and to create relevant and effective curriculum of quality at all school levels. To carry out these responsibilities the division undertakes research studies, evaluation, formulation and provides teaching aids and training for officers involved in the implementation of co-curricular programmes.

EXAMINATIONS SYNDICATE The division is responsible for handling all schools examinations such as planning, setting examination questions, conducting and supervising examinations at national levels, and with the cooperation of external examination syndicate/board, conducts Special English Examinations. London Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) and Musical Examinations. The division also provides expertise and consultative services on methods of conducting examinations. FEDERAL INSPECTORATE OF SCHOOLS The role played by the Federal Inspectorate of Schools are in accordance with the provisions of the Education Act, 1961 and The Cabinet Report (1971). Its members are responsible for inspecting schools and help in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in schools and that schools, teaching colleges and other institutions of learning are properly managed and organised. In carrying out this responsibility of inspection, its members would submit inspection reports and feed back on education in the country besides providing advisory services to teachers and principals. VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION This division deals with the planning, implementation, administration and supervision of technical and vocational education and training at vocational and technical secondary schools and polytechnics. The division works closely with the industrial and private sectors to gain their cooperation, expertise and obtain feedback on vocational and technological knowledge and skills they may require for the various industries for national development. EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY DIVISION The division was set up to improve the quality of education in schools through teaching and learning process using various electronic media. The services provide include the production and distribution of TV and Radio programmes and providing audio-visual aids and coordinating the management and use of School Resource Centre, Teaching Activity Centre and State Education Centre. ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS EDUCATION DIVISION The division is responsible for coordination and supervision of Islamic education programmes and the posting and inter-state transfer of Islamic Religious Teachers for primary and secondary schools under the Ministry of Education. It is also responsible for coordinating the posting of trained teachers and financial aid to all government-assisted secondary schools and private religious schools under the administration of the State Governments. REGISTRATION OF SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS DIVISION The main tasks of the division is to process applications for registrations to government/private schools and teachers for the consideration of School Registration and Director-General of Education respectively. The registration exercises are meant to ensure that institutions of learning in the country abide by the Education Act and that only trained qualified teachers are allowed to teach in schools. TEXT BOOKS DIVISION The division is responsible for the supply of quality text books and monitors its usage in schools through out the country. The division also implement the text books loan scheme

to benefit deserving students. In 1993, a total of RM63,047,174.60 was spent on this scheme. AMINUDDIN BAKI INSTITUTE This Institute is a centre for excellence in education. Its main roles to develop and conduct training in management and administration in education for all management staff, senior officers and auxiliary staff. It is also involved in planning and implementing study and research on management and administration in education and disseminates the findings amongst certain target groups concerned; and provides advisory and consultative services in education management in order to improve the quality of management and administrative system for schools, institutions of learning and education in the Ministry. ESTABLISHMENT AND SERVICE DIVISION The division is responsible for the planning and development of man power for all types of services under the supervision of the Ministry. Its tasks include the management of matters pertaining to establishment, services, discipline, salary and allowances, pro motion and relations with teachers unions. FINANCE DIVISION The division is responsible for coordinating and preparing annual budget and supervising and controlling the budget management. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPLY DIVISION The division is responsible for planning allocations for development purposes, supervising, controlling and implementing development projects and providing supply. It is also responsible for coordinating development programmes and supplying equipment/ facilities to institutions of learning under the external loan divisions to assist in the process of teaching and learning. HIGHER EDUCATION DIVISION The division is responsible for planning policy matters and coordinating the activities of all higher institutions of learning as well as the intake of students into universities and institutions of higher education in accordance with the national needs for professional manpower. COMPUTER SERVICE DIVISION The division was set up to provide computer processing services and development services concerning technology. information to all divisions and departments in the Ministry with the objective of improving efficiency in administration and management. EXTERNAL AFFAIRS DIVISION The External Affairs Division deals with matters related to international and regional organisations involved in education such as United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisations (UNESCO), South-East Asian Minister of Education Organisation (SEAMEO), Colombo Plan Staff College (CPSC), Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (IESCO), ICTVTR, Commonwealth Secretariat and International Bureau of Education, and ensures that Malaysia gains the maximum benefit from participation in the programmes of the said organisations. It also handles all bilateral agreements between Malaysia and other countries concerning education. SCHOLARSHIP DIVISION The division administers all scholar ships/grants to students at secondary and higher institutions of learning within and outside the country. The division also manages the in-

service training programmes for officers in the teaching services and administers the training pool posts, catering for officers pursuing tertiary education at home and abroad to improve their teaching skills and professionalism. AUXILIARY SERVICES The division is responsible for planning, providing auxiliary services and other advisory services concerning general administration to all divisions, departments under the Ministry of Education with the object of enhancing their services. Included in the division are the administration, legal aid and public units. STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENTS State Education Departments are headed by Directors of Education who are responsible for implementing programmes, projects and activities on education. The main functions of State Education Departments are conducting and coordinating administration of schools in the states in manners concerning establishment of officers and staff, finance and physical development; supervising educational programmes in the states, especially concerning school curriculum, educational media service, text books loan scheme, School Resource Centre, co-curriculum activities, career guidance, language teaching, Malaysian School Sports Council and cocurriculum programmes and activities; and assist in the formulation of education policy and implementation of educational development projects in the country. DISTRICT EDUCATION OFFICES District Education Offices were set up in June 1982 in all states except Perlis, Melaka, and the Federal Territory, to act as communicator between schools and State Education Departments. In Sabah and Sarawak school administration at district level are known as Divisional Education Office. It also assists the Sate Education Department in supervising the implementation of education programmes, projects and activities at district level. MALAYSIAN STUDENTS DEPARTMENT ABROAD At present there are nine students departments located in London, Washington, Los Angeles, Chicago, Toronto, Cairo, Jakarta, Wellington and Sydney. Six students centres were established in Birmingham, Glasgow, Cardiff, Adelaide, Melbourne and Perth besides the Malaysia Hall in London, Dublin, Cairo, Sydney and Jakarta. The main functions of the departments are to provide advisory services, guidances and counselling, welfare aids besides coordinating in the award of scholarship to government and government agencies sponsored students. LOCAL HIGHER INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING At present there are eight universities in the country, namely Universiti Malaya (UM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Universiti Islam Antarabangsa (UIA) and Universiti Malaysia Sarawak besides two colleges, namely Institut Teknologi MARA and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman. These institutions offer programmes at Certificate, Diploma, First Degree, Post Grad Diplomas, Advanced Degrees in Arts, Professional Arts, Basic Science, Applied Science and Technology as well as Medicine. Apart from teaching, local universities also carry out activities such as research, publication, consultation and social services. In view of the importance of education in a rapidly developing country, the government will set up a University in Sabah, making it the ninth in Malaysia.

In the 1992/93 academic year, a total of 114,890 students enrolled with local universities and institute of higher learning. Of this, 13,600 enrolled with the University of Malaya (UM), 13,701 with Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 14,244 with Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11,566 with Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 7,520 with Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), 7,158 with International Islamic University (UIA), 31,511 with MARA Institute of Technology (ITM) and 6,864 with Tunku Abdul Rahman College (TAR College). DEWAN BAHASA DAN PUSTAKA The objectives of the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) are to promote and enrich the national language; to pro mote literary talent especially in the national language; to print or publish or assist in the printing and publication of books, booklets and other reading material in the national language and other languages; and to standardise the spelling system and pronunciation of the national language and to formulate suitable terms for translation in the national language. In brief the main programmes implemented by DBP to achieve its set objectives are Language Development and Promotion which include research, terminology, lexicography and language socialisation; Literary Development and Promotion which include literature) and arts socialisation; and Printing which include printing of books, magazines and other reading materials on various subjects for readers of all ages. MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL The Malaysian Examinations Council was established in 1980. It was assigned the functions of handling and conducting STP/HSC examinations by the Cambridge University beginning 1982. In carrying out these functions, the syndicate is committed to formulates the school syllabus, setting the examination questions, conducting and supervising the STPM/HSC examinations. NATIONAL LIBRARY The Malaysian National Library was first established as a State Library Service Unit in the National Archives in 1966 and became a Federal Library in 1977. The library was placed under the Ministry of Education in 1990. The objectives of setting up the library are mentioned in the National Library Act (Amendment) 1989. The National Library is responsible for implementing the Library Material Trust Act, 1986 (previously known as the Books Preservation Act, 1966) whereby it functions as a National Trust Centre. It also undertakes the preservation and usage of library material published in Malaysia; keeps a standardised bibliography of library material published in Malaysia; and to maintain statistic record of library materials published in the country. PROGRAM Primary Education New Primary School Curriculum The New Primary School Curriculum (NPSC) was introduced in 1982 as a pilot project in 302 schools. It was implemented nationwide in 1983. At present the curriculum has entered a second phase of implementation. The NPSC was formulated to provide equal opportunity to students to acquire basic skills and knowledge in addition to inculcating noble moral values. The NPSC consists of three main components namely communication, man and his environment and whole some individual development. Communication in the NPSC consists of subjects such as language and arithmetic, while man and his environment consist of moral education as

well as man and his surroundings. Wholesome individual development covers such subjects like musical education, arts, physical education and health education. The emphasis of this new curriculum is on the acquisition of the three basic skills, namely reading, writing and arithmetic. This include speech, listening, reading, understanding and writing based on acquired knowledge and experience. In NPSC methods, activities and class room organisation plans are based on a flexible principle to suit the students and objectives of the curriculum. Secondary Education New Secondary School Intergrated Curriculum The New Secondary School Integrated Curriculum (NSSIC) is based on the National. Education Philosophy. The objectives are to create a wholesome individual with high moral values. The NSSIC was implemented at the lower secondary level in 1988. Its language programme is limited to four languages - Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil. In 1989 the curriculum was implemented in phase up to Form Five level. The curriculum was formulated in line with the general education concept. In addition, the curriculum provides opportunity to students to develop their talent in certain vocations. At Secondary School Level the subjects taught are divided into two, academic and elective. The aim is to provide a general and comprehensive type of education. Additional subjects taught consist of mother-tongue languages such as Chinese and Tamil as well as Arabic for communication purposes. Besides the basic core subjects taught at upper secondary level, various elective subjects are offered in line with the interest and talent of students. Elective subjects are grouped under humanity, vocational and technology as well as science and Islamic Study. The main focus of the curriculum is on an integrated educational approach. The approach incorporate knowledge with skills and moral values. It also combine theory with practical training, curriculum with co-curriculum. The strategy is to incorporate Moral Values With Curriculum and the Malay Language With Currriculum.