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INDEX

Page numbers in italics refer to figures and tables and those including an n refer to notes.
abjuration oath, 28, 301, 34 Act of Explanation (1665), 54 Act of Kingly Title (1541), 39 Act of Union (1800), 142, 217, 218 Acts of Supremacy (1536), 15, 20 (1560), 15, 20 Acts of Uniformity (1560), 15, 20 (1665), 24 Additional Excise Act (1692), 173 Adventurers Act (1642), 41 American colonies, 23, 8, 10, 734, 108, 1612, 166 American War of Independence, 108, 142, 143, 217 Anne, Queen, 82, 127, 146 Annesley, Maurice, 49 anti-union riots (1759), 62 appellate jurisdiction, 43, 46, 4850 Argument Delivered by Patrick Darcy, An, 41 Armagh (county), 87, 88 army see Irish military establishment Articles of Limerick, 19, 28, 113 Athenry, 88, 91 Athlone, 86 Athy, 85 Bagshawe, Samuel, Lieutenant Colonel, 120 Ballyshannon, 88, 90 Bandon, 91 Banishment Act (1697), 25 Bank of England, 181 Barnesmore Gap, 88, 89 Barnewell, Robert, Baron Trimleston, 148 barracks advantages of, 69 barrack board (overseers), 80, 81, 82, 93, 94, 1034 barrack-masters, 80, 81, 82, 84, 92, 93 benefits for soldiers, 106 building programme, development of, 8591 contribution to map development, 912 damage to, by soldiers, 823 definition, 75 design faults, 1023, 105 economic advantages to localities, 90 favourable public responses, 105 fluctuations in numbers, 91 funding of, 789, 835 inquiry into management of (1724), 92 Jamaica, 73 land availability, 80, 89 leasing arrangements, 80, 82, 90 maintenance and repair, 91, 94, 96, 99100, 102, 105 discrepancies in repair estimates, 978 management system, development of, 801 opposition to, 78, 79 origin of word, 69 overspending on, 925, 97, 99 regulations, 81, 82 Royal Barracks, Dublin, 845, 1045 salaries and allowances, 93

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Ireland and Empire, 16921770 Cary, Henry, Viscount Falkland (Lord Deputy), 512 Case of Ireland (Molyneux), 389, 467, 48, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66 Castle Dawson, 91 Catholic Church papacy, 18 re-establishment, 345 Regnus in Excelcis (papal bull), 18 Catholics, 3, 89 allegiance to a Protestant monarch, 1518, 17, 35, 148 anti-Catholic legislation, 22 army recruitment, 11316, 118, 1459 children, 30, 33 clergy, 21, 22, 257, 2930, 345 Confederate Catholics, 41, 523 conversion to Church of Ireland, 32 disarming of, 234 England, 201 exclusion from franchise, 29, 30 horse ownership, 24 legal profession, 279 marginalization of, 14, 15 marriages to Protestants, prevention of, 27, 30 Members of Parliament, 21 and oath of supremacy, 16, 19 penal laws, 202, 2335 Popery Act (1704), 30, 33 prohibition of foreign education, 235 property rights, 30, 334 Protestant opinions of, 113 reduction in political power, 1920 Cavan (county), 87 Cavendish, William, Marquis of Hartington (Lord Lieutenant), 103, 106, 133, 160 Charles Fort, 88 Charles I, 1617, 523, 70, 72 Charles II, 18, 22 Charleville, 91 Chichester, Arthur 4th Earl of Donegal, 123 Chichester, Sir Arthur (Lord Deputy), 51 children, 30, 33, 15960, 1645 Church of Ireland, 78, 14, 30, 31 conversion of Catholics, 32 relationship with state, 20

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Caldwell, Sir James, 120 Capell, Arthur, 1st Earl of Essex (Lord Lieutenant), 55, 57, 173 Capell, Henry, 1st Baron Capell, 24 Carleton, Christopher (Revenue Commissioner), 80 Carrickfergus, 82, 87 Carteret, John, 2nd Earl Granville (Lord Lieutenant), 83, 92, 157

security concerns, 86, 87, 106 surveys, 94, 956 trustees for the barracks, 80, 82 Belfast, 88 Bellings, Richard, 18 Beltubet, 91 billeting, 703, 757, 83, 85 Bladen, Martin (Chief Secretary), 115 Blayney, Lieutenant Colonel, 120 Bolton, Sir Richard (Lord Chancellor of Ireland), 41, 42 Boulter, Hugh (Archbishop), 28 Boyle, Henry (Speaker), 96, 97, 98, 1001, 102, 103, 158 Brabazon, Edward, 4th Earl of Meath, 48 Bray, 86 Brewer, John, 107 Brewster, Francis, 76 British Empire differences between Ireland and other colonies, 8 expansion after 1707, 2 Irelands early role, 910 origins of, 9 British Mutiny Act (annual), 74 Brodrick, Alan (Solicitor-General), 57, 767, 1245, 126, 151, 152 Brodrick, Thomas, 756 Brooke, Henry (playwright), 945, 100 Budgell, Eustace (Dublin Castle undersecretary), 89 Burgh, Thomas (Surveyor-General), 84 burials, 26 Burroughs Ossa, 88 Burton, Francis, 77, 86 Butler, James, 1st Duke of Ormonde (Lord Lieutenant), 18, 55, 83, 84, 112, 126, 144, 1512, 173

Index civil list, 445, 16971, 169f7.2, 170t7.1, 218 Clayton, Robert (bishop), 18990, 210 Clonmel, 87, 91 Cobh, 102 Coghill, Marmaduke, 92 coinage minting, 38, 40 Woods Halfpence affair, 623, 187 Confederation of Kilkenny (164249), 6, 17, 523 Connaught, 79, 88, 106 Connolly, Sean, 34 Conolly, William (Speaker), 89, 198 Continental Congress (1774), 74 Coote, Richard, Colonel, 115 Cork (city), 87, 89, 91 Cork (county), 86, 87 corruption, 93, 98, 106, 11011 Counter-Reformation, 14 Court and No Country (play), 100 Cox, Sir Richard (Lord Chancellor), 85, 90, 146 creditors see public creditors Cunningham, Henry, Colonel, 123 Customs Act (1662), 172, 21718 customs and excise duties, 172, 1737, 174t7.2, 175t7.3, 177t7.4, 177t7.5, 187 Darcy, Patrick (Galway MP), 41 De Laudibus Legum Angliae (Fortescue), 40, 41 Debt Repayment Acts 1749, 192, 2067 1751, 192, 208 1753 bill, 193, 209 Declaration Setting Forth, A, 41 Declaratory Acts 1689, 43 1720, 4950, 66, 186 Defoe, Daniel, 72 Delafaye, Charles (Chief Secretary), 183 Derry, 82, 87, 88 Disbanding Acts 1679, 70 1699, 445, 1234, 1334, 137 Disputatio Apologetica (OMahoney), 16, 18 Domville, William (Attorney General), 42

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Dopping, Anthony (Bishop), 46 Downpatrick, 88 Drapiers Letters (Swift), 62, 63 Drogheda, 86 Dublin, 82, 83, 86 army discipline, 111 Royal Barracks, 845, 1045 duelling, 111 Duncannon, 85 Dundalk, 88 Dungan, Thomas, Earl of Limerick, 1456 Dungannon, 91 Elizabeth Fort, 91 emigration, 1011 English Civil War, 523 English Parliament control over military establishment, 46 House of Lords, appellate jurisdiction, 43, 46, 4850 and Irish representatives, 47 national debt, 1812 right to legislate for Ireland, 40, 42, 43, 46, 478, 49 Enniscorthy, 85, 91 Ensor, George (Nevills clerk), 98 Essay upon an Union, An (Maxwell), 62 Established Church see Church of Ireland Excise Act (1662), 172 excise duties see customs and excise duties Eyre, Thomas (Surveyor-General), 99, 103, 1045

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Farmers Letters (Brooke), 94 Fermanagh (county), 87 Fitzgerald, James, Earl of Kildare, 98, 99, 101, 102, 104, 120 Flood, Francis (MP), 110 Fontenoy, Battle of, 159 Foreign Education Act (1695), 25, 30 Fortescue, John (Kings Serjeant), 3940, 41, 47 Freemans Journal, 138, 139, 141 French pension list, 125, 129, 130, 153 Furness, 98 Gaelic Irish, 15 Galway, 82, 88

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Ireland and Empire, 16921770 Irish military establishment 1749 report, 110 annual summer camps, 112 billeting, 703, 757, 83, 85 contribution to British policies overseas, 14366 corruption, 11011 desertion, 109 disbanding of regiments, 126, 130, 1378 discipline, 109, 11113 finance and costs, 456, 122, 1267, 130, 132, 132f5.1, 138f5.2, 144, 264n162 while overseas, 1512, 154, 1578, 15960, 1634, 164t6.2 See also public income and expenditure half-pay list, 125, 126, 12930 historians opinion of, 1089 Huguenot regiments, 79, 1245 Lord Lieutenant, role of, 109 nationality of soldiers, 1755, 118, 118t5.2 numbering of regiments, 164 numbers of soldiers, 117t5.1, 135t5.3, 139t5.5 officers, 82, 109, 119, 125, 1312 opposition to, 712 peacetime army, 1078 policing, role in, 113 recruitment British based regiments, 11920 Catholics, 11316, 118, 1459 effects of Jacobite rebellion 1715, 1289 Irish recruitment, prevention of, 11718 Protestant dissenters, exclusion of, 11617 regiments raised at private expense, 1201, 126, 1356 for service abroad, 1459 reduced regiment system, 108, 130, 139, 165 regulation, 10911 relations with local communities, 11112, 113 Scotland, 124 size of, 108, 12132

Galway, Lord see Massue, Henry de, Earl of Galway gavelkind, 30, 33, 34 George I, 155 George II, 64, 120, 134 George III, 74, 108 Germany, 162 Gibralter, 154, 156, 157 Gore, Sir Ralph, 120 Gorges, Richard, Colonel (Quarter-MasterGeneral), 80, 81 Graces, 1617, 52 Groans of Ireland (pamphlet), 100 half-pay list, 125, 126, 12930 Hamilton, James, 6th Earl of Abercorn, 204 Hamilton, James (army officer), 11415 Hanover, 148 Harley, Edward, 122 Headford, 88 Hogarth, William, 71, 109 Huguenot regiments, 79, 1245 see also French pension list Hyde, Laurence , 1st Earl of Rochester (Lord Lieutenant), 151

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India, 160 Ingoldesby, Brigadier Richard, 80, 81 inheritance legislation, 30 Inter-Marriage Act (1697), 30 Invasion, The (Hogarth), 71 Ireland allegiance to English crown, 5, 1516 anglicization, 6 Anglo-Irish union, 617 constitutional relationship with Britain, 389, 49, 61, 217 differences with other colonies, 8 early role in British Empire, 910 English government of, 68 historical and social background, 56 identities, 34 map development, 912 population ethnicity, 1415 society, development of, 4 state sponsored plantation and settlement, 6

Index augmentation process, 13342, 135t5.3, 137t5.4, 139t5.5, 160, 161, 1656 staff officers, 1278 transfer of regiments abroad, 1267, 131, 133, 142, 14966, 156t6.1 horses, 1523 lack of provisions, 149 logistical preparations, 1523 security concerns, 154, 162 women and children, 15960, 1645 troop rotation, 139, 163, 1645, 166 Volunteers, 142 Irish Parliament 166166 Parliament, 534 Catholic political power, 1920 ceases to exist, 66, 217 compromise agreement 16935, 578 conflict over appellate jurisdiction, 4850 early history, 8 elections, 65 factional rivalries, 967, 96102 heads of bills procedure, 56, 578, 5960, 66 historians opinion of, 1089 Jacobite Parliament 1689, 424, 54 legislative autonomy, 401, 43, 46, 49 and national debt, 18195 parliamentary taxation, 1729, 174t7.2, 175t7.3, 177t7.4, 177t7.5 and Poynings Law, 5161 regularity of assembly, 55, 59, 178 role in amending and initiating legislation, 51, 52, 534, 556 standing orders, failure to comply with, 60 status of, 378, 39 supply legislation, 556, 579, 60, 645, 66, 184 Irish Remonstrance 1661, 18 Jacobites exiles, 20, 23, 24, 11314, 145 forfeited property, 48 Parliament 1689, 424, 54 rebellion 1715, 1289, 155, 182 Jamaica, 73 James I, 51 James II, 1819, 223, 423, 44, 54, 71, 1212 justices of the peace, 29 Keightley, Thomas (Lord Justice), 126 Kilkenny, 86 Kilworth, 79 King, William (Archbishop), 46, 48, 63, 89, 155 Kinsale, 82, 87, 88, 91 legal profession, 279 Leinster, 85 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, 25 Lewis, Richard, 105 Limerick, 77, 82, 867 army discipline, 11112 Locke, John, 47 London Society, 46, 48 Londonderry (county), 87 Longford, 86 Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 7, 45, 109 Loughrea, 88 Louis XIV, 23 Louisbourg, 165 Lucas, Charles (Dublin apothecary), 64 Luttrell, Henry, Colonel (ex-Jacobite officer), 145

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Mallow, 91 maps, 912 March to Finchley, The (Hogarth), 71 Marching of Soldiers Act (1707), 85, 92 marriage, 27, 30 Marshall, P. J., 2 Mary of Modena, 27 Massue, Henry de, Earl of Galway, 82 Maxwell, Henry (Irish Whig), 62, 201 Methuen, John (Irish Lord Chancellor), 38, 150 Minorca, 154, 156 Modus tenendi Parliamenta, 46, 55 Molyneux, William, 389, 44, 467, 61 monastic houses, suppression, 26 money bill dispute (1753), 64 Montague-Dunk, George, Earl of Halifax (Lord Lieutenant), 104, 136, 1489

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Ireland and Empire, 16921770 Octennial Act (1768), 65 OHara, Charles, Baron Tyrawley (army commander-in-chief ), 8990 Old English, 56, 15, 16 OMahoney, Conor ( Jesuit), 1516, 18 Ormonde, Duke of see Butler, James, 1st Duke of Ormonde outlaw activity, 87 Pagden, Anthony, 4 pamphlet campaigns, 99100, 102, 123, 190 Patriot, The (handbill), 100 penal laws, 201, 2335 Penn, William, 25 Percy, Hugh, Duke of Northumberland (Lord Lieutenant), 104, 138, 164 Pery, Edmond Sexton (Patriot MP), 135 Petition of Right (1628), 70, 73 Philipstown, 91 Pitt, William (Prime Minister), 119, 120 political rivalries, 96102, 1924 Ponsonby, John, 103 Popery Act (1704), 30, 33 Popish Plot, 22 Porter, Sir Charles (Lord Justice), 76, 10910, 123 Portugal, 144, 148, 1523, 154, 163 Portumna, 88 Poynings Law, 389, 44, 5161, 64, 65, 667, 189 Poynings, Sir Edward (English Lord Deputy), 51 praemunire, 30, 323 Presbyterians, 14, 31 Price, Nicholas (landowner), 90 Prior, Matthew, 72 privy councils, 7, 63, 64, 66 property rights, 46, 48, 49 Protestants, 3 Church of Ireland, 119, 145 dissenters, 31, 11617 effects of 1689 Irish Parliament actions, 434 and English legislation, 445 legal definition of, 301 marriages to Catholics, prevention of, 27, 30 Patriotic politics, 627, 13941

Moore, Charles, Earl of Drogheda, 120 Morgan, Hugh (Lieutenant Colonel), 120 Moyle, Walter, 72 Mullingar, 94 Munster, 86 Mutiny Act (annual), 44, 46 Myart, Sir Samuel (Serjeant-at-Law), 41 Nary, Cornelius (Catholic priest), 35 national bank, 1867, 199201, 200t9.1, 2034 national debt, 64, 18195, 218 conflict over control of expenditure, 1924 England, 1812 establishment pay arrears, 1879, 1912 first official record in Ireland, 182 legislation, 184, 1856, 194 loan amounts, 184, 188, 191, 194, 195 loan interest, 183, 1856, 187, 189 necessity for, 1823 opposition in Irish parliament, 184, 194 proposals for a national bank, 1867, 200t9.1 provisions for servicing, 1889, 1901 repayment, 1923, 194 treasury surplus, 1912, 193, 194 unease with growing debt, 190 see also public creditors Navan, 86 navy, 146, 147, 259n3 Nenagh, 87 Nevill, Arthur Jones (surveyor-general), 96102 New Ross, 856 Newry, 79 Newton, Sir Isaac, 38 Nine Years War (1689), 2, 6, 23, 71, 123, 143, 181 Norman English, 5 Nova Scotia, 159 Nugent, Christopher, Lord Delvin, 35 Oath Act (1691), 19, 23, 25, 27, 28, 44, 545, 114 oath of supremacy, 16, 19, 20 OBrien, William, 4th Earl of Inchiquin, 145, 151, 154

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Index perceptions of Catholics, 113 as public creditors, 1978 security of Protestant interests, 23, 25, 26, 35 Public Accounts Committee, 84, 92 public creditors, 182, 197216 army officers, 21314 assurances from government, 197, 216 bishops, 21011 comparison with Britain, 212 debentures and warrants, 2012 establishment of public credit system, 198204 judges, 215 peers, 21415 profiles of subscribers, 1989, 2014, 203t9.2, 21015, 213t9.8 and proposed national bank, 199201, 200t9.1, 2034 repayments and interest, 20410, 205t9.3, 207t9.5, 208t9.6, 209t9.7 subscriptions over 1,000, 2056, 206t9.4 public income and expenditure, 16779 annual establishment, expenditure, 445, 16970, 169f7.2, 170t7.1, 21718 collection arrears, 168, 168f7.1, 169f7.2 income, 1701, 171f7.3, 178, 218 income yields, 167, 168, 168f7.1 money sent to England, 168 non-parliamentary revenue, 1712 parliamentary taxation, 1729, 174t7.2, 175t7.3, 177t7.4, 177t7.5 provision from England, 167 Restoration financial settlement, 1678, 172 see also national debt quartering see billeting Quebec, 165 Reformation, 56, 13 Registration Act (1704), 34 revenue commissioners, 7 Rinuccini, GianBattista (papal nuncio), 17 Robinson, William (Deputy PaymasterGeneral), 80, 81, 84, 91 Rosse Castle, 102

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Royal Scotch regiment, 158 Rules, Orders, Powers, and Directions, for the Good Government and Preservation of the Barracks (1701), 81 Russell, John, Duke of Bedford (Lord Lieutenant), 91, 103, 120, 135, 147, 162 Ryswick, Treaty of, 77, 78, 169 Sackville, George (Chief Secretary), 96, 97 Sackville, Lionel Cranfield, Duke of Dorset (Lord Lieutenant), 96, 97, 989, 157 Sacramental Test (1704), 312, 33, 116 Saintfield, 90 Schulenberg, Melusine von der (George Is mistress), 63 Scotland, 75, 124 Seasonable Advice (Swift), 63 Secret History and Memoirs of the Barracks of Ireland (Brooke), 94 Seven Years War, 23, 107, 108, 112, 134, 143, 147, 163, 165 Sharkin, 88 Sherlock, Hester (widow), 49 Short History of Standing Armies in England (Trenchard), 72 Singleton, Edward (Tory MP), 1256 Sligo, 90 South Sea Company, 187 Southwell, Edward (Chief Secretary), 83, 115 Southwell, Sir Thomas (Revenue Commissioner), 80 Spain, 136, 154, 156 Stanhope, Philip Dormer, Earl of Chesterfield (Lord Lieutenant), 934, 112 Stanhope, William, Earl of Harrington (Lord Lieutenant), 95, 96, 131 Stearne, John (bishop), 21011 Stone, George (Archbishop), 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 103, 137 Stuart, John, Earl of Bute, 108 supply legislation, 556, 579, 60, 645, 66, 102, 184, 195 Surveyor-General, office of, 104 Swift, Jonathan, 62, 63 Sydney, Henry, Viscount Sydney (Lord Lieutenant), 55, 567, 76, 77, 145 Story of the Injured Lady, The (Swift), 62

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Ireland and Empire, 16921770 Ulster, 31, 878 United Provinces, 14, 122, 144, 147 Wade, General George, 70 Waite, Thomas (Dublin Castle undersecretary), 75, 97, 98, 100, 106, 110, 111 Walsh, Peter (Franciscan priest), 18 War of the Austrian Succession, 112, 130, 143, 170 War of the Spanish Succession, 85, 125, 130, 143 Ward, Edward, 3rd Baron Ward, 48 Wentworth, Thomas, 1st Earl of Strafford, 51, 52 West Indies, 10, 11, 144, 150, 151, 152, 158 Weston, Edward (chief secretary), 95 Wexford, 85 Wharton, Thomas, 1st Marquess of Wharton (Lord Lieutenant), 154 William III, 19, 45, 47, 54, 61, 82, 111, 11314, 150 Wood, William, 63 Woods Halfpence affair, 623, 187 wool exports, 478 Yorke, Charles (British Attorney-General), 137

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Talbot, Charles, Duke of Shrewsbury (Lord Lieutenant), 85, 154 Talbot, Peter (Catholic archbishop), 18 Talbot, Richard, Earl of Tyrconnell, 22, 122 taxation, 3940, 55, 1712 overtaxing, 42 parliamentary taxation, 1729, 174t7.2, 175t7.3, 177t7.4, 177t7.5 poll tax, 173 right to consent to, 40, 41, 42, 47, 50, 66 Thurles, 91 Thurot, Franois (French privateer), 194 Tipperary (county), 86, 87 To the Whole People of Ireland (Swift), 63 Toland, John (Irish deist), 49 Townshend, George, Viscount Townshend (Lord Lieutenant), 65, 139, 140, 141, 149 trade, 11 Trenchard, John, 71, 72, 123, 240n29, 259n8 Tuam, 91 Tudor era, 5, 15 Tullamore, 102 Two Treatises of Government (Locke), 47 Tyrconnell, Earl of see Talbot, Richard, Earl of Tyrconnell