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Structural Analysis Guide

ANSYS Release 8.1

001972

April 2004

ANSYS, Inc. is a UL registered ISO 9001: 2000 Company

Structural Analysis Guide

ANSYS Release 8.1

ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 275 Technology Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com http://www.ansys.com

(T)

724-746-3304

(F)

724-514-9494

Revision History

Number

Release

Date

001612

ANSYS 6.1

April 2002

001695*

ANSYS 7.0

October 2002

001788*

ANSYS 7.1

May 2003

001901*

ANSYS 8.0

October 2003

001972*

ANSYS 8.1

April 2004

* ANSYS Documentation on CD.

Trademark Information

ANSYS, DesignSpace, DesignModeler, ANSYS DesignXplorer VT, ANSYS DesignXplorer, ANSYS Emax, ANSYS Workbench environment, CFX, AI*Environment, CADOE and any and all ANSYS, Inc. product names referenced on any media, manual or the like, are registered trademarks or trademarks of subsidiaries of ANSYS, Inc. located in the United States or other countries.

Copyright © 2004 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. Unpublished rights reserved under the Copyright Laws of the United States.

ANSYS, Inc. is a UL registered ISO 9001: 2000 Company

ANSYS Inc. products may contain U.S. Patent No. 6,055,541

Microsoft, Windows, Windows 2000 and Windows XP are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Inventor and Mechanical Desktop are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation. Unigraphics, Solid Edge and Parasolid are registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation (EDS). ACIS and ACIS Geometric Modeler are registered trademarks of Spatial Technology, Inc.

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Table of Contents

1. Overview of Structural Analyses

1–1

1.1. Definition of Structural Analysis

1–1

1.2. Types of Structural Analysis

1–1

1.3. Elements Used in Structural Analyses

1–2

1.4. Material Model Interface

1–2

1.5. Types of Solution Methods

1–2

2. Structural Static Analysis

2–1

2.1. Definition of Static Analysis

2–1

2.2. Linear vs. Nonlinear Static Analyses

2–1

2.3. Performing a Static Analysis

2–1

2.3.1.

Build the Model

2–1

2.3.1.1.

Points to Remember

2–1

2.3.2.

Set Solution Controls

2–2

2.3.2.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box

2–2

2.3.2.2. Using the Basic Tab

2–2

2.3.2.3. The Transient Tab

2–3

2.3.2.4. Using the Sol'n Options Tab

2–4

2.3.2.5. Using the Nonlinear Tab

2–4

2.3.2.6. Using the Advanced NL Tab

2–5

2.3.3.

Set Additional Solution Options

2–5

2.3.3.1. Stress Stiffening Effects

2–5

2.3.3.2. Newton-Raphson Option

2–6

2.3.3.3. Prestress Effects Calculation

2–6

2.3.3.4. Mass Matrix Formulation

2–6

2.3.3.5. Reference Temperature

2–7

2.3.3.6. Mode Number

2–7

2.3.3.7. Creep Criteria

2–7

2.3.3.8. Printed Output

2–7

2.3.3.9. Extrapolation of Results

2–7

2.3.4.

Apply the Loads

2–7

2.3.4.1.

Load Types

2–7

2.3.4.1.1. Displacements (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ)

2–7

2.3.4.1.2. Forces (FX, FY, FZ) and Moments (MX, MY, MZ)

2–7

2.3.4.1.3. Pressures (PRES)

2–8

2.3.4.1.4. Temperatures (TEMP)

2–8

2.3.4.1.5. Fluences (FLUE)

2–8

2.3.4.1.6. Gravity, Spinning,

2–8

2.3.4.2.

Apply Loads to the Model

2–8

2.3.4.2.1.

Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters

2–8

2.3.4.3.

Calculating Inertia Relief

2–9

2.3.4.3.1. Inertia Relief Output

2–9

2.3.4.3.2. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations

2–9

2.3.4.3.3. Using a Macro to Perform Inertia Relief Calculations

2–10

2.3.5. Solve the Analysis

2–10

2.3.6. Review the Results

2–10

 

2.3.6.1. Postprocessors

2–11

2.3.6.2. Points to Remember

2–11

2.3.6.3. Reviewing Results Data

2–11

2.3.6.4. Typical Postprocessing Operations

2–11

2.4. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

2–13

Structural Analysis Guide

2.4.1. Problem Description

2–13

2.4.2. Problem Specifications

2–13

2.4.3. Problem Sketch

2–14

2.4.3.1. Set the Analysis Title

2–14

2.4.3.2. Set the System of Units

2–14

2.4.3.3. Define Parameters

2–14

2.4.3.4. Define the Element Types

2–15

2.4.3.5. Define Material Properties

2–15

2.4.3.6. Create Hexagonal Area as Cross-Section

2–15

2.4.3.7. Create Keypoints Along a Path

2–16

2.4.3.8. Create Lines Along a Path

2–16

2.4.3.9. Create Line from Shank to Handle

2–17

2.4.3.10. Cut Hex Section

2–17

2.4.3.11. Set Meshing Density

2–17

2.4.3.12. Set Element Type for Area Mesh

2–17

2.4.3.13. Generate Area Mesh

2–18

2.4.3.14. Drag the 2-D Mesh to Produce 3-D Elements

2–18

2.4.3.15. Select BOTAREA Component and Delete 2-D Elements

2–18

2.4.3.16. Apply Displacement Boundary Condition at End of Wrench

2–19

2.4.3.17. Display Boundary Conditions

2–19

2.4.3.18. Apply Pressure on Handle

2–19

2.4.3.19. Write the First Load Step

2–21

2.4.3.20. Define Downward Pressure

2–21

2.4.3.21. Write Second Load Step

2–22

2.4.3.22. Solve from Load Step Files

2–22

2.4.3.23. Read First Load Step and Review Results

2–22

2.4.3.24. Read the Next Load Step and Review Results

2–23

2.4.3.25. Zoom in on Cross-Section

2–23

2.4.3.26. Exit ANSYS

2–23

2.5. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

2–24

2.6. Where to Find Other Examples

2–26

3. Modal Analysis

3–1

3.1. Definition of Modal Analysis

3–1

3.2. Uses for Modal Analysis

3–1

3.3. Overview of Steps in a Modal Analysis

3–1

3.4. Build the Model

3–1

3.5. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution

3–2

3.5.1. Enter the Solution Processor

3–2

3.5.2. Define Analysis Type and Options

3–2

3.5.2.1. Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE]

3–2

3.5.2.2. Option: Analysis Type: Modal [ANTYPE]

3–3

3.5.2.3. Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT]

3–3

3.5.2.4. Option: Number of Modes to Extract [MODOPT]

3–4

3.5.2.5. Option: Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND]

3–4

3.5.2.6. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation [LUMPM]

3–4

3.5.2.7. Option: Prestress Effects Calculation [PSTRES]

3–4

3.5.2.8. Additional Modal Analysis Options

3–4

3.5.3. Define Master Degrees of Freedom

3–4

3.5.4. Apply Loads

3–5

3.5.4.1. Applying Loads Using Commands

3–5

3.5.4.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI

3–5

3.5.4.3. Listing Loads

3–6

Structural Analysis Guide

3.5.5. Specify Load Step Options

3–6

3.5.6. Participation Factor Table Output

3–6

3.5.7. Solve

3–7

3.5.7.1. Output

3–7

3.5.7.1.1. Output From Subspace Mode-Extraction Method

3–7

3.5.8.

Exit the Solution Processor

3–8

3.6. Expand the Modes

3–8

3.6.1. Points to Remember

3–8

3.6.2. Expanding the Modes

3–8

3.7. Review the Results

3–10

3.7.1. Points to Remember

3–10

3.7.2. Reviewing Results Data

3–10

3.7.3. Option: Listing All Frequencies

3–10

3.7.4. Option: Display Deformed Shape

3–11

3.7.5. Option: List Master DOF

3–11

3.7.6. Option: Line Element Results

3–11

3.7.7. Option: Contour Displays

3–11

3.7.8. Option: Tabular Listings

3–11

3.7.9. Other Capabilities

3–12

3.8. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method)

3–12

3.8.1. Problem Description

3–12

3.8.2. Problem Specifications

3–12

3.8.3. Problem Sketch

3–12

3.9. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

3–13

3.10. Where to Find Other Examples

3–14

3.11. Prestressed Modal Analysis

3–14

3.12. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution

3–15

3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods

3–16

3.13.1. Block Lanczos Method

3–17

3.13.2. Subspace Method

3–17

3.13.3. PowerDynamics Method

3–17

3.13.4. Reduced Method

3–18

3.13.5. Unsymmetric Method

3–18

3.13.6. Damped Method

3–18

3.13.6.1. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvalue

3–18

3.13.6.2. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvector

3–18

3.13.7.

QR Damped Method

3–19

3.14.

Matrix Reduction

3–19

3.14.1.

Theoretical Basis of Matrix Reduction

3–19

3.14.1.1. Guidelines for Selecting Master DOF

3–19

3.14.1.2. A Note About Program-Selected Masters

3–21

4. Harmonic Response Analysis

4–1

4.1. Definition of Harmonic Response Analysis

4–1

4.2. Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis

4–1

4.3. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis

4–2

4.4. The Three Solution Methods

4–2

4.4.1. The Full Method

4–2

4.4.2. The Reduced Method

4–2

4.4.3. The Mode Superposition Method

4–3

4.4.4. Restrictions Common to All Three Methods

4–3

4.5. How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis

4–3

4.5.1.

Full Harmonic Response Analysis

4–3

Structural Analysis Guide

4.5.2.

Build the Model

4–4

4.5.2.1.

Points to Remember

4–4

4.5.3.

Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution

4–4

4.5.3.1. Enter the ANSYS Solution Processor

4–4

4.5.3.2. Define the Analysis Type and Options

4–4

4.5.3.3. Apply Loads on the Model

4–5

 

4.5.3.3.1. Applying Loads Using Commands

4–8

4.5.3.3.2. Applying Loads and Listing Loads Using the GUI

4–9

4.5.3.4.

Specify Load Step Options

4–9

4.5.3.4.1. General Options

4–9

4.5.3.4.2. Dynamics Options

4–10

4.5.3.4.3. Output Controls

4–10

4.5.3.5. Save a Backup Copy of the Database to a Named File

4–11

4.5.3.6. Start Solution Calculations

4–11

4.5.3.7. Repeat for Additional Load Steps

4–11

4.5.3.8. Leave SOLUTION

4–11

4.5.4.

Review the Results

4–11

4.5.4.1. Postprocessors

4–11

4.5.4.2. Points to Remember

4–11

4.5.4.3. Using POST26

4–12

4.5.4.4. Using POST1

4–12

4.6. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method)

4–13

4.6.1. Problem Description

4–13

4.6.2. Problem Specifications

4–13

4.6.3. Problem Diagram

4–14

4.6.3.1. Set the Analysis Title

4–14

4.6.3.2. Define the Element Types

4–14

4.6.3.3. Define the Real Constants

4–15

4.6.3.4. Create the Nodes

4–15

4.6.3.5. Create the Spring Elements

4–15

4.6.3.6. Create the Mass Elements

4–16

4.6.3.7. Specify the Analysis Type, MDOF, and Load Step Specifications

4–16

4.6.3.8. Define Loads and Boundary Conditions

4–16

4.6.3.9. Solve the Model

4–17

4.6.3.10. Review the Results

4–17

4.6.3.11. Exit ANSYS

4–18

4.7. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

4–18

4.8. Where to Find Other Examples

4–19

4.9. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

4–20

4.9.1. Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution

4–20

4.9.2. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution

4–21

4.9.3. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass)

4–21

4.9.3.1. Points to Remember

4–21

4.9.3.2. Expanding the Modes

4–21

4.9.4. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution

4–23

4.9.5. Sample Input

4–24

4.10. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis

4–25

4.10.1. Obtain the Modal Solution

4–25

4.10.2. Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution

4–25

4.10.3. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution

4–27

4.10.4. Review the Results

4–27

4.10.5. Sample Input

4–27

Structural Analysis Guide

4.11. Other Analysis Details

4–28

4.11.1.

Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis

4–28

4.11.1.1. Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis

4–28

4.11.1.2. Prestressed Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

4–29

4.11.1.3. Prestressed Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis

4–29

5. Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–1

5.1. Definition of Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–1

5.2. Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–1

5.3. Three Solution Methods

5–2

5.3.1. Full Method

5–2

5.3.2. Mode Superposition Method

5–2

5.3.3. Reduced Method

5–3

5.4. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–3

5.4.1.

Build the Model

5–4

5.4.1.1.

Points to Remember

5–4

5.4.2. Establish Initial Conditions

5–4

5.4.3. Set Solution Controls

5–6

 

5.4.3.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box

5–6

5.4.3.2. Using the Basic Tab

5–7

5.4.3.3. Using the Transient Tab

5–7

5.4.3.4. Using the Remaining Solution Controls Tabs

5–8

5.4.4.

Set Additional Solution Options

5–8

5.4.4.1. Prestress Effects

5–9

5.4.4.2. Damping Option

5–9

5.4.4.3. Mass Matrix Formulation

5–9

5.4.5. Apply the Loads

5–9

5.4.6. Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step

5–10

5.4.7. Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step

5–10

5.4.8. Save a Backup Copy of the Database

5–10

5.4.9. Start the Transient Solution

5–10

5.4.10. Exit the Solution Processor

5–11

5.4.11. Review the Results

5–11

 

5.4.11.1. Postprocessors

5–11

5.4.11.2. Points to Remember

5–11

5.4.11.3. Using POST26

5–11

5.4.11.4. Other Capabilities

5–12

5.4.11.5. Using POST1

5–12

5.4.12.

Sample Input for a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–12

5.5. Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–13

5.5.1. Build the Model

5–13

5.5.2. Obtain the Modal Solution

5–13

5.5.3. Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution

5–14

 

5.5.3.1. Points to Remember

5–14

5.5.3.2. Obtaining the Solution

5–14

5.5.4. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution

5–18

5.5.5. Review the Results

5–18

5.5.6. Sample Input for a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–18

5.6. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–19

5.6.1.

Obtain the Reduced Solution

5–19

5.6.1.1. Define the Analysis Type and Options

5–20

5.6.1.2. Define Master Degrees of Freedom

5–20

5.6.1.3. Define Gap Conditions

5–20

Structural Analysis Guide

 

5.6.1.3.1.

Gap Conditions

5–20

5.6.1.4.

Apply Initial Conditions to the Model

5–21

5.6.1.4.1. Dynamics Options

5–22

5.6.1.4.2. General Options

5–22

5.6.1.4.3. Output Control Options

5–23

5.6.1.5. Write the First Load Step to a Load Step File

5–23

5.6.1.6. Specify Loads and Load Step Options

5–23

5.6.1.7. Obtaining the Solution

5–23

5.6.2. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution

5–23

5.6.3. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass)

5–24

5.6.3.1. Points to Remember

5–24

5.6.3.2. Expanding the Solution

5–24

5.6.4.

Review the Results of the Expanded Solution

5–25

5.7. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

5–26

 

5.7.1. Problem Description

5–26

5.7.2. Problem Specifications

5–26

5.7.3. Problem Sketch

5–27

5.7.3.1. Specify the Title

5–27

5.7.3.2. Define Element Types

5–27

5.7.3.3. Define Real Constants

5–27

5.7.3.4. Define Material Properties

5–28

5.7.3.5. Define Nodes

5–28

5.7.3.6. Define Elements

5–28

5.7.3.7. Define Analysis Type and Analysis Options

5–29

5.7.3.8. Define Master Degrees of Freedom

5–29

5.7.3.9. Set Load Step Options

5–29

5.7.3.10. Apply Loads for the First Load Step

5–29

5.7.3.11. Specify Output

5–29

5.7.3.12. Solve the First Load Step

5–30

5.7.3.13. Apply Loads for the Next Load Step

5–30

5.7.4.

Solve the Next Load Step

5–30

5.7.4.1. Set the Next Time Step and Solve

5–30

5.7.4.2. Run the Expansion Pass and Solve

5–30

5.7.4.3. Review the Results in POST26

5–31

5.7.4.4. Review the Results in POST1

5–31

5.7.4.5. Exit ANSYS

5–31

5.8. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

5–31

5.9. Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–32

 

5.9.1. Prestressed Full Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–32

5.9.2. Prestressed Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–33

5.9.3. Prestressed Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

5–33

5.10.

Other Analysis Details

5–33

5.10.1. Guidelines for Integration Time Step

5–33

5.10.2. Automatic Time Stepping

5–35

5.10.3. Damping

5–36

5.11.

Where to Find Other Examples

5–40

6. Spectrum Analysis

6–1

6.1. Definition of Spectrum Analysis

6–1

6.2. What is a Spectrum?

6–1

 

6.2.1.

Response Spectrum

6–1

6.2.1.1. Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS)

6–1

6.2.1.2. Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS)

6–1

Structural Analysis Guide

6.2.2. Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM)

6–2

6.2.3. Power Spectral Density

6–2

6.2.4. Deterministic vs. Probabilistic Analyses

6–2

6.3. Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis

6–2

6.3.1.

Build the Model

6–3

6.3.1.1.

Points to Remember

6–3

6.3.2. Obtain the Modal Solution

6–3

6.3.3. Obtain the Spectrum Solution

6–3

6.3.4. Expand the Modes

6–6

6.3.5. Combine the Modes

6–6

6.3.6. Review the Results

6–8

6.4. Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method)

6–10

6.4.1. Problem Description

6–10

6.4.2. Problem Specifications

6–10

6.4.3. Problem Sketch

6–11

6.4.4. Procedure

6–11

6.4.4.1. Set the Analysis Title

6–11

6.4.4.2. Define the Element Type

6–11

6.4.4.3. Define the Real Constants

6–11

6.4.4.4. Define Material Properties

6–12

6.4.4.5. Define Keypoints and Line

6–12

6.4.4.6. Set Global Element Density and Mesh Line

6–12

6.4.4.7. Set Boundary Conditions

6–13

6.4.4.8. Specify Analysis Type and Options

6–13

6.4.4.9. Solve the Modal Analysis

6–13

6.4.4.10. Set Up the Spectrum Analysis

6–13

6.4.4.11. Define Spectrum Value vs. Frequency Table

6–14

6.4.4.12. Solve Spectrum Analysis

6–14

6.4.4.13. Set up the Expansion Pass

6–14

6.4.4.14. Expand the Modes

6–14

6.4.4.15. Start Expansion Pass Calculation

6–15

6.4.4.16. Set Up Mode Combination for Spectrum Analysis

6–15

6.4.4.17. Select Mode Combination Method

6–15

6.4.4.18. Combine the Modes

6–15

6.4.4.19. Postprocessing: Print Out Nodal, Element, and Reaction Solutions

6–15

6.4.4.20. Exit ANSYS

6–16

6.5. Sample Spectrum Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

6–16

6.6. Where to Find Other Examples

6–17

6.7. How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis

6–18

6.7.1. Expand the Modes

6–18

6.7.2. Obtain the Spectrum Solution

6–18

6.7.3. Combine the Modes

6–21

6.7.4. Review the Results

6–22

6.7.4.1.

Reviewing the Results in POST1

6–22

6.7.4.1.1. Read the Desired Set of Results into the Database

6–22

6.7.4.1.2. Display the Results

6–23

6.7.4.2. Calculating Response PSDs in POST26

6–23

6.7.4.3. Calculating Covariance in POST26

6–23

6.7.5.

Sample Input

6–24

6.8. How to Do DDAM Spectrum Analysis

6–25

6.9. How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis

6–25

7. Buckling Analysis

7–1

Structural Analysis Guide

7.1. Definition of Buckling Analysis

7–1

7.2. Types of Buckling Analyses

7–1

7.2.1. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis

7–1

7.2.2. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis

7–1

7.3. Commands Used in a Buckling Analysis

7–2

7.4. Procedure for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis

7–2

7.4.1. Applying Load Increments

7–2

7.4.2. Automatic Time Stepping

7–2

7.4.3. Important

7–2

7.4.4. Points to Remember

7–3

7.5. Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis

7–3

7.5.1.

Build the Model

7–3

7.5.1.1.

Points to Remember

7–4

7.5.2. Obtain the Static Solution

7–4

7.5.3. Obtain the Eigenvalue Buckling Solution

7–5

7.5.4. Expand the Solution

7–6

 

7.5.4.1. Points to Remember

7–6

7.5.4.2. Expanding the Solution

7–6

7.5.5.

Review the Results

7–7

7.6. Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method)

7–8

7.6.1. Problem Description

7–8

7.6.2. Problem Specifications

7–8

7.6.3. Problem Sketch

7–9

 

7.6.3.1. Set the Analysis Title

7–9

7.6.3.2. Define the Element Type

7–9

7.6.3.3. Define the Real Constants and Material Properties

7–10

7.6.3.4. Define Nodes and Elements

7–10

7.6.3.5. Define the Boundary Conditions

7–11

7.6.3.6. Solve the Static Analysis

7–11

7.6.3.7. Solve the Buckling Analysis

7–11

7.6.3.8. Review the Results

7–12

7.6.3.9. Exit ANSYS

7–12

7.7. Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

7–12

7.8. Where to Find Other Examples

7–12

8. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

8–1

8.1. What is Structural Nonlinearity?

8–1

8.1.1.

Causes of Nonlinear Behavior

8–1

8.1.1.1. Changing Status (Including Contact)

8–2

8.1.1.2. Geometric Nonlinearities

8–2

8.1.1.3. Material Nonlinearities

8–2

8.1.2.

Basic Information About Nonlinear Analyses

8–2

8.1.2.1. Conservative versus Nonconservative Behavior; Path Dependency

8–5

8.1.2.2. Substeps

8–5

8.1.2.3. Load Direction in a Large-Deflection Analysis

8–6

8.1.2.4. Nonlinear Transient Analyses

8–6

8.2. Using Geometric Nonlinearities

8–6

8.2.1.

Stress-Strain

8–7

8.2.1.1.

Large Deflections with Small Strain

8–7

8.2.2. Stress Stiffening

8–7

8.2.3. Spin Softening

8–8

8.3. Modeling Material Nonlinearities

8–8

8.3.1.

Nonlinear Materials

8–8

Structural Analysis Guide

8.3.1.1.

Plasticity

8–9

8.3.1.1.1.

Plastic Material Options

8–10

8.3.1.2. Multilinear Elasticity

8–16

8.3.1.3. User Defined Material

8–16

8.3.1.4. Hyperelasticity

8–17

8.3.1.4.1. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB,HYPER)

8–18

8.3.1.4.2. Ogden Hyperelastic Option

8–18

8.3.1.4.3. Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option

8–19

8.3.1.4.4. Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Option

8–19

8.3.1.4.5. Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Option

8–19

8.3.1.4.6. Gent Hyperelastic Option

8–20

8.3.1.4.7. Yeoh Hyperelastic Option

8–20

8.3.1.4.8. Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Option

8–20

8.3.1.4.9. Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Option

8–20

8.3.1.4.10. User-Defined Hyperelastic Option

8–21

8.3.1.4.11. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB,MOONEY)

8–21

8.3.1.5.

Creep

8–29

8.3.1.5.1. Implicit Creep Procedure

8–30

8.3.1.5.2. Explicit Creep Procedure

8–31

8.3.1.6. Shape Memory Alloy

8–31

8.3.1.7. Viscoplasticity

8–32

8.3.1.8. Viscoelasticity

8–33

8.3.1.9. Swelling

8–34

8.3.2. Material Model Combinations

8–35

8.3.2.1. BISO and CHAB Example

8–35

8.3.2.2. MISO and CHAB Example

8–35

8.3.2.3. NLISO and CHAB Example

8–35

8.3.2.4. BISO and RATE Example

8–36

8.3.2.5. MISO and RATE Example

8–36

8.3.2.6. NLISO and RATE Example

8–37

8.3.2.7. BISO and CREEP Example

8–37

8.3.2.8. MISO and CREEP Example

8–37

8.3.2.9. NLISO and CREEP Example

8–38

8.3.2.10. BKIN and CREEP Example

8–38

8.3.2.11. HILL and BISO Example

8–38

8.3.2.12. HILL and MISO Example

8–39

8.3.2.13. HILL and NLISO Example

8–39

8.3.2.14. HILL and BKIN Example

8–39

8.3.2.15. HILL and MKIN Example

8–40

8.3.2.16. HILL and KINH Example

8–40

8.3.2.17. HILL and CHAB Example

8–41

8.3.2.18. HILL and BISO and CHAB Example

8–41

8.3.2.19. HILL and MISO and CHAB Example

8–41

8.3.2.20. HILL and NLISO and CHAB Example

8–42

8.3.2.21. HILL and RATE and BISO Example

8–43

8.3.2.22. HILL and RATE and MISO Example

8–44

8.3.2.23. HILL and RATE and NLISO Example

8–44

8.3.2.24. HILL and CREEP Example

8–45

8.3.2.25. HILL and CREEP and BISO Example

8–46

8.3.2.26. HILL and CREEP and MISO Example

8–47

8.3.2.27. HILL and CREEP and NLISO Example

8–47

8.3.2.28. HILL and CREEP and BKIN Example

8–47

Structural Analysis Guide

8.4. Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS

8–48

8.5. Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis

8–48

8.5.1. Build the Model

8–49

8.5.2. Set Solution Controls

8–49

8.5.2.1. Using the Basic Tab: Special Considerations

8–49

8.5.2.2. Advanced Analysis Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box

8–50

 

8.5.2.2.1.

Equation Solver

8–50

8.5.2.3.

Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box

8–51

8.5.2.3.1. Automatic Time Stepping

8–51

8.5.2.3.2. Convergence Criteria

8–51

8.5.2.3.3. Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations

8–52

8.5.2.3.4. Predictor-Corrector Option

8–52

8.5.2.3.5. Line Search Option

8–53

8.5.2.3.6. Cutback Criteria

8–53

8.5.3.

Set Additional Solution Options

8–53

8.5.3.1.

Advanced Analysis Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box

8–53

8.5.3.1.1. Stress Stiffness

8–53

8.5.3.1.2. Newton-Raphson Option

8–54

8.5.3.2.

Advanced Load Step Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box

8–55

8.5.3.2.1. Creep Criteria

8–55

8.5.3.2.2. Time Step Open Control

8–55

8.5.3.2.3. Solution Monitoring

8–55

8.5.3.2.4. Birth and Death

8–56

8.5.3.2.5. Output Control

8–56

8.5.4. Apply the Loads

8–56

8.5.5. Solve the Analysis

8–57

8.5.6. Review the Results

8–57

8.5.6.1. Points to Remember

8–57

8.5.6.2. Reviewing Results in POST1

8–57

8.5.6.3. Reviewing Results in POST26

8–59

8.5.7.

Terminating a Running Job; Restarting

8–59

8.6. Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis

8–59

8.6.1. Build the Model

8–60

8.6.2. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution

8–60

8.6.3. Review the Results

8–61

8.7. Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis

8–61

8.8. Restarts

8–62

8.9. Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements

8–63

8.9.1.

Element Birth and Death

8–63

8.10. Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis

8–63

8.10.1.

Starting Out with Nonlinear Analysis

8–63

8.10.1.1. Be Aware of How the Program and Your Structure Behave

8–63

8.10.1.2. Keep It Simple

8–64

8.10.1.3. Use an Adequate Mesh Density

8–64

8.10.1.4. Apply the Load Gradually

8–64

8.10.2.

Overcoming Convergence Problems

8–64

8.10.2.1. Performing Nonlinear Diagnostics

8–65

8.10.2.2. Tracking Convergence Graphically

8–66

8.10.2.3. Using Automatic Time Stepping

8–67

8.10.2.4. Using Line Search

8–68

8.10.2.5. Using the Arc-Length Method

8–68

8.10.2.6. Artificially Inhibit Divergence in Your Model's Response

8–69

Structural Analysis Guide

 

8.10.2.7. Turn Off Extra Element Shapes

8–70

8.10.2.8. Using Birth and Death Wisely

8–70

8.10.2.9. Read Your Output

8–70

8.10.2.10.

Graph the Load and Response History

8–71

8.11.

Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method)

8–71

8.11.1. Problem Description

8–72

8.11.2. Problem Specifications

8–72

8.11.3. Problem Sketch

8–73

 

8.11.3.1. Set the Analysis Title and Jobname

8–73

8.11.3.2. Define the Element Types

8–73

8.11.3.3. Define Material Properties

8–74

8.11.3.4. Specify the Kinematic Hardening material model (KINH)

8–74

8.11.3.5. Label Graph Axes and Plot Data Tables

8–74

8.11.3.6. Create Rectangle

8–74

8.11.3.7. Set Element Size

8–75

8.11.3.8. Mesh the Rectangle

8–75

8.11.3.9. Assign Analysis and Load Step Options

8–75

8.11.3.10. Monitor the Displacement

8–75

8.11.3.11. Apply Constraints

8–76

8.11.3.12. Solve the First Load Step

8–76

8.11.3.13. Solve the Next Six Load Steps

8–77

8.11.3.14. Review the Monitor File

8–77

8.11.3.15. Use the General Postprocessor to Plot

8–77

8.11.3.16. Define Variables for Time-History Postprocessing

8–78

8.11.3.17. Plot Time-History Results

8–78

8.11.3.18. Exit ANSYS

8–79

8.12. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

8–79

8.13. Where to Find Other Examples

8–82

9. Material Curve Fitting

 

9–1

9.1. Applicable Material Behavior Types

9–1

9.2. Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting

9–1

9.2.1. Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Hyperelastic Material Behavior

9–1

 

9.2.1.1. Prepare Experimental Data

9–2

9.2.1.2. Input the Data into ANSYS

9–3

9.2.1.2.1. Batch

9–3

9.2.1.2.2. GUI

9–3

9.2.1.3.

Select a Material Model Option

9–3

9.2.1.3.1. Batch

9–4

9.2.1.3.2. GUI

9–4

9.2.1.4.

Initialize the Coefficients

9–4

9.2.1.4.1. Batch

9–4

9.2.1.4.2. GUI

9–5

9.2.1.5.

Specify Control Parameters and Solve

9–5

9.2.1.5.1. Batch

9–5

9.2.1.5.2. GUI

9–5

9.2.1.6.

Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze

9–6

9.2.1.6.1. Batch

9–6

9.2.1.6.2. GUI

9–6

9.2.1.6.3. Review/Verify

9–6

9.2.1.7.

Write Data to TB Command

9–6

9.2.1.7.1. Batch

9–6

9.2.1.7.2. GUI

9–7

Structural Analysis Guide

9.3. Creep Material Curve Fitting

9–7

9.3.1.

Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Creep Material Behavior

9–7

9.3.1.1. Prepare Experimental Data

9–7

9.3.1.2. Input the Data into ANSYS

9–9

9.3.1.2.1. Batch

9–9

9.3.1.2.2. GUI

9–9

9.3.1.3.

Select a Material Model Option

9–9

9.3.1.3.1. Batch

9–9

9.3.1.3.2. GUI

9–10

9.3.1.4.

Initialize the Coefficients

9–10

9.3.1.4.1. Batch

9–10

9.3.1.4.2. GUI

9–11

9.3.1.5.

Specify Control Parameters and Solve

9–11

9.3.1.5.1. Batch

9–11

9.3.1.5.2. GUI

9–11

9.3.1.6.

Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze

9–11

9.3.1.6.1. Batch

9–12

9.3.1.6.2. GUI

9–12

9.3.1.6.3. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit

9–12

9.3.1.7.

Write Data to TB Command

9–12

9.3.1.7.1. Batch

9–12

9.3.1.7.2. GUI

9–12

9.3.2.

Tips For Curve Fitting Creep Models

9–12

9.4. Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting

9–14

9.4.1.

Using Curve Fitting to Determine the Coefficients of Viscoelastic Material Model

9–14

9.4.1.1. Prepare Experimental Data

9–15

9.4.1.2. Input the Data into ANSYS

9–16

9.4.1.2.1. Batch

9–16

9.4.1.2.2. GUI

9–16

9.4.1.3.

Select a Material Model Option

9–16

9.4.1.3.1. Batch

9–17

9.4.1.3.2. GUI

9–17

9.4.1.4.

Initialize the Coefficients

9–17

9.4.1.4.1. Batch

9–18

9.4.1.4.2. GUI

9–18

9.4.1.5.

Specify Control Parameters and Solve

9–18

9.4.1.5.1. Batch

9–19

9.4.1.5.2. GUI

9–20

9.4.1.6.

Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze

9–20

9.4.1.6.1. Batch

9–20

9.4.1.6.2. GUI

9–20

9.4.1.6.3. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit

9–20

9.4.1.7.

Write Data to TB Command

9–20

9.4.1.7.1. Batch

9–20

9.4.1.7.2. GUI

9–21

10. Gasket Joints Simulation

10–1

10.1. Overview of Gasket Joints

10–1

10.2. Performing a Gasket Joint Analysis

10–1

10.3. Finite Element Formulation

10–2

10.3.1. Element Topologies

10–2

10.3.2. Thickness Direction

10–2

10.4.

ANSYS Family of Interface Elements

10–3

Structural Analysis Guide

 

10.4.1. Element Selection

10–3

10.4.2. Applications

10–3

10.5.

Material Definition

10–4

10.5.1. Material Characteristics

10–4

10.5.2. Input Format

10–5

10.5.2.1. Define General Parameters

10–6

10.5.2.2. Define Compression Load Closure Curve

10–6

10.5.2.3. Define Linear Unloading Data

10–6

10.5.2.4. Define Nonlinear Unloading Data

10–7

10.5.3. Temperature Dependencies

10–8

10.5.4. Plotting Gasket Data

10–11

10.6. Meshing Interface Elements

10–12

10.7. Solution Procedure and Result Output

10–16

 

10.7.1.

Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing

10–17

10.8.

Reviewing the Results

10–19

10.8.1. Points to Remember

10–19

10.8.2. Reviewing Results in POST1

10–19

10.8.3. Reviewing Results in POST26

10–20

10.9.

Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

10–20

11. Contact

11–1

11.1.

Contact Overview

11–1

11.1.1.

Explicit Dynamics Contact Capabilities

11–1

11.2. General Contact Classification

11–1

11.3. ANSYS Contact Capabilities

11–2

 

11.3.1. Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements

11–3

11.3.2. Node-to-Surface Contact Elements

11–3

11.3.3. Node-to-Node Contact Elements

11–4

11.4.

Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis

11–4

11.4.1. Using Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements

11–4

11.4.2. Steps in a Contact Analysis

11–5

11.4.3. Creating the Model Geometry and Mesh

11–5

11.4.4. Identifying Contact Pairs

11–5

11.4.5. Designating Contact and Target Surfaces

11–6

11.4.5.1.

Asymmetric Contact vs. Symmetric Contact

11–7

11.4.5.1.1. Background

11–7

11.4.5.1.2. Using KEYOPT(8)

11–7

11.4.6.

Defining the Target Surface

11–7

11.4.6.1. Pilot Nodes

11–8

11.4.6.2. Primitives

11–8

11.4.6.3. Element Types and Real Constants

11–8

11.4.6.3.1.

Defining Target Element Geometry

11–8

11.4.6.4. Using Direct Generation to Create Rigid Target Elements

11–9

11.4.6.5. Using ANSYS Meshing Tools to Create Rigid Target Elements

11–10

11.4.6.5.1. Some Modeling and Meshing Tips

11–12

11.4.6.5.2. Verifying Nodal Number Ordering (Contact Direction) of Target Surface

11–13

11.4.7.

Defining the Deformable Contact Surface

11–14

11.4.7.1. Element Type

11–14

11.4.7.2. Real Constants and Material Properties

11–15

11.4.7.3. Generating Contact Elements

11–16

11.4.8.

Set the Real Constants and Element KEYOPTS

11–17

11.4.8.1.

Real Constants

11–17

11.4.8.1.1.

Positive and Negative Real Constant Values

11–19

Structural Analysis Guide

11.4.8.2. Element KEYOPTS

11–20

11.4.8.3. Selecting a Contact Algorithm (KEYOPT(2))

11–21

 

11.4.8.3.1.

Background

11–21

11.4.8.4.

Determining Contact Stiffness and Allowable Penetration

11–22

11.4.8.4.1. Background

11–22

11.4.8.4.2. Using FKN and FTOLN

11–23

11.4.8.4.3. Using FKT and SLTO

11–23

11.4.8.4.4. Using KEYOPT(10)

11–24

11.4.8.4.5. Chattering Control Parameters

11–25

11.4.8.5.

Choosing a Friction Model

11–25

11.4.8.5.1. Background

11–25

11.4.8.5.2. Using TAUMAX, FACT, DC, and COHE

11–26

11.4.8.5.3. Static and Dynamic Friction Coefficients

11–26

11.4.8.6.

Selecting Location of Contact Detection

11–28

11.4.8.6.1. Background

11–28

11.4.8.6.2. Using KEYOPT(4) and TOLS

11–28

11.4.8.7.

Adjusting Initial Contact Conditions

11–30

11.4.8.7.1. Background

11–30

11.4.8.7.2. Using PMIN, PMAX, CNOF, ICONT, KEYOPT(5), and KEYOPT(9)

11–30

11.4.8.8. Physically Moving Contact Nodes Towards the Target Surface

11–37

11.4.8.9. Determining Contact Status and the Pinball Region

11–38

11.4.8.9.1. Background

11–38

11.4.8.9.2. Using PINB

11–39

11.4.8.10. Avoiding Spurious Contact in Self Contact Problems

11–39

11.4.8.11. Selecting Surface Interaction Models

11–40

11.4.8.11.1. Background

11–40

11.4.8.11.2. Using KEYOPT(12) and FKOP

11–40

11.4.8.12.

Modeling Contact with Superelements

11–41

11.4.8.12.1. Background

11–41

11.4.8.12.2. Using KEYOPT(3)

11–41

11.4.8.13.

Accounting for Thickness Effect

11–42

11.4.8.13.1. Background

11–42

11.4.8.13.2. Using KEYOPT(11)

11–42

11.4.8.14.

Using Time Step Control

11–42

11.4.8.14.1. Background

11–42

11.4.8.14.2. Using KEYOPT(7)

11–42

11.4.8.15.

Using the Birth and Death Option

11–42

11.4.9. Controlling the Motion of the Rigid Target Surface (Rigid-to-Flexible Contact)

11–43

11.4.10. Modeling Thermal Contact

11–44

11.4.10.1. Thermal Contact Behavior vs. Contact Status

11–44

11.4.10.2. Free Thermal Surface

11–44

11.4.10.3. Temperature on Target Surface

11–45

11.4.10.4. Modeling Conduction

11–45

11.4.10.4.1. Using TCC

11–45

11.4.10.4.2. Using the Quasi Solver Option

11–46

11.4.10.5. Modeling Convection

11–46

11.4.10.6. Modeling Radiation

11–46

11.4.10.6.1. Background

11–46

11.4.10.6.2. Using SBCT and RDVF

11–47

11.4.10.7.

Modeling Heat Generation Due to Friction

11–47

11.4.10.7.1. Background

11–47

11.4.10.7.2. Using FHTG and FWGT

11–47

Structural Analysis Guide

 

11.4.10.8.

Modeling External Heat Flux

11–48

11.4.11.

Modeling Electric Contact

11–48

11.4.11.1.

Modeling Surface Interaction

11–48

11.4.11.1.1. Background

11–48

11.4.11.1.2. Using ECC

11–49

11.4.11.2.

Modeling Heat Generation Due to Electric Current

11–49

11.4.12.

Modeling Magnetic Contact

11–50

11.4.12.1. Using MCC

11–50

11.4.12.2. Modeling Perfect Magnetic Contact

11–51

11.4.13. Applying Necessary Boundary Conditions to the Deformable Elements

11–51

11.4.14. Defining Solution and Load Step Options

11–51

11.4.15. Solving the Problem

11–52

11.4.16. Reviewing the Results

11–53

11.4.16.1. Points to Remember

11–53

11.4.16.2. Reviewing Results in POST1

11–53

11.4.16.3. Reviewing Results in POST26

11–54

11.5.

GUI Aids for Contact Analyses

11–54

11.5.1. The Contact Manager

11–54

11.5.2. The Contact Wizard

11–55

11.5.3. Managing Contact Pairs

11–56

11.6.

Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis

11–57

11.6.1.

Using the Node-to-Surface Contact Elements

11–57

11.6.1.1.

CONTA175 KEYOPTS

11–59

11.6.1.1.1. KEYOPT(3)

11–59

11.6.1.1.2. KEYOPT(4)

11–59

11.6.1.2. CONTA175 Real Constants

11–60

11.6.1.3. Multiphysics Contact

11–60

11.7.

Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints

11–60

11.7.1. Modeling Solid-solid and Shell-shell Assemblies

11–61

11.7.2. Modeling a Shell-solid Assembly

11–62

11.7.3. Surface-based Constraints

11–66

11.7.3.1. Defining Surface-based Constraints

11–67

11.7.3.2. Modeling a Beam-solid Assembly

11–68

11.7.4.

Restrictions and Recommendations for Internal MPC

11–69

11.8.

Performing a Node-to-Node Contact Analysis

11–70

11.8.1. Creating Geometry and Meshing the Model

11–71

11.8.2. Generating Contact Elements

11–71

11.8.2.1. Generating Contact Elements Automatically at Coincident Nodes

11–72

11.8.2.2. Generating Contact Elements Automatically at Offset Nodes

11–72

11.8.2.3. Node Ordering

11–72

11.8.3. Defining the Contact Normal

11–73

11.8.4. Defining the Initial Interference or Gap

11–74

11.8.5. Selecting the Contact Algorithm

11–74

11.8.6. Applying Necessary Boundary Conditions

11–74

11.8.7. Defining the Solution Options

11–75

11.8.8. Solving the Problem

11–76

11.8.9. Reviewing the Results

11–76

12. Fracture Mechanics

12–1

12.1. Definition of Fracture Mechanics

12–1

12.2. Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems

12–1