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PROJECT ON

REPRESENTED BY PATEL HIMANSHU N (AL013010) UNDER GIUDI BY URVASHI MAM

This is to certify that Mr. PATEL HIMANSHU N, roll no. is AL013010 and batch no. AL01210, the student of Jetking institute has successfully completed his assignment in module 3.
SIGNATURE OF FACULTY SIGNATURE OF EXAMINER

SIGNATURE WITH STAMP (HEAD OF DEPARTMENT)

INDEX INTRODUCTION IP ADDRESS IP ADDRESS CLASSES IP SUBNET & SMASK IPV4 & IPV6 UTILITY TOOLS ACKNOWLEDGEMEN

INTRODUCTION
device on the network needs an IP address to communicate with the other device. IP address is a unique 32-bit logical address written in decimal

notation assigned to each device which is connected to a network. An IP address is used to communicate with various networking device over a net work layer. IP address is same as telephone number which is unique.

IP ADDRESS
A unique address mostly used by computer to communicate over a network that uses IP as its basic protocol is known as IP address. IP address is a unique number assigned to any device operating on an ip network, for example, computer, router, printer, internet fax machines. For example IP add is

11000000.10101000.00101010.00000001 in binary format but generally we denote in dotted decimal i.e. 192.168.42.1. Each of the decimal numbers in an IP add 192.168.42.1, the first octet is 192, the second octet is 168, and so on. The range of decimal numbers in each octet varies from 0 to 255. Hence the add granted to computers is divided into two categories Dynamic IP add and Static IP add.

Dynamic IP Addresses:- Dynamic IP add are assigned to the devices that require temporary connectivity to the network or nonpermanent devices such as portable computer. The most common protocol used for assigning Dynamic IP add is DHCP also called Dynamic host configuration protocol.

Static IP Addresses:- Static IP add are assigned to the devices on the network whose existence in the network remains for a longer duration. These static IP add are semi-permanent IP add which remain allocated to a specific device for longer time.

IP ADDRESS CLASSES
The scheme of IP addressing using address lasses called Classful add. Classful addressing. Classful add allows only network blocks from class A, B, and C prefix corresponding to 8-bit , 16-bit, and 24-bit network prefix address. Class A Addressing :- Class A IP addresses use the 1st 8 bits (1st Octet) to designate the Network address. The 1st bit which is always a 0, is used to indicate the address as a Class A address & the remaining 7 bits are used to designate the Network. The other 3 octets contain the Host address. There are 128 Class A Network Addresses, but because addresses with all zeros arent used & address 127 is a special purpose address, 126 Class A Networks are available. 1. N.H.H.H 2. 1-126 3. 0 can not be used as Net ID 4. 127 is reserved for loop back functions 5. 126 Different Networks 6. 16.777.214 Hosts per Network Class B Addressing :- Class B addresses use the 1st 16 bits (two octets) for the Network address. The last 2 octets are used for the Host address. The 1st 2 bit, which are always 10, designate the address as a Class B address & 14 bits are used to designate the

Network. This leaves 16 bits (two octets) to designate the Hosts. So how many Class B Networks can there be? Using our formula, (214 2), there can be 16,382 Class B Networks & each Network can have (216 2) Hosts, or 65,534 Hosts. 1. N.N.H.H 2. 128-191 3. The first IP Address is the NET ID 4. The last IP Address is the Broadcast Address 5. 16.384 Different Networks 6. 65543 Hosts per Network

Class C Addressing :- Class C addresses use the 1st 24 bits (three octets) for the Network address & only the last octet for Host addresses. The 1st 3 bits of all class C addresses are set to 110, leaving 21 bits for the Network address, which means there can be 2,097,150 (221 2) Class C Networks, but only 254 (28 2) Hosts per Network. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. N.N.N.H 192-223 The first IP Address is the NET ID The last IP Address is the Broadcast Address 2.097.152 Different Networks

6.

254 Hosts per Network

Class D Addressing :- Class D address class is designed for multicasting. Each add in this class define a particular group of hosts over the internet. This class of add consists of only one block of address. When a group of computers are assigned an add from this class, each host within the group has a multicast add in addition to its normal address. First byte of class D specifies decimal values from 224 to 239. Class E Addressing :- Class E add is reserved for special purpose. Class E IP add consists of first bit value 1 in first byte, second bit value 1 in second byte, third bit value 1 in third byte and fourth bit value 1 in fourth byte. First byte of class E specifies decimal values from 240 to 255.
Address class Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E Starting Bit 0 10 110 1110 1111 Start Address 0.0.0.0 Finish Address 126.255.255.255 Net exist Per class 125 16384 Hosts Per Net 1,67,77,216 65,532 254

128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255

192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255 20,97,152 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

Multicast reserved Reserved for experimental use

IP SUBNET & SMASK


Subnets:Sub-netting means dividing a network further into

several sub-networks where each sub-network has its own subnetwork address. Many Org employ IP add which is divided into two level hierarchical; network address & host address. All hosts within a network have same network add or network prefix. Instead of having a huge network for an Org smaller network within a given huge net work are created.

Subnets Mask :-

A subnet mask specifies the part of IP add

that is used for identifying a subnet work. A subnet mask when logically ANDed with IP add provides a 32-bit network address. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine, server or router and is matched with the IP address.

Address class Class A Class B Class C

Default mask in binary


11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

Decimal
255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

IPV4 & IPV6


IPV4
32 bit address

IPV6
128 bit address Represent in hexadecimal Support up to 2128 address Better support for Qos

Represent in decimal Support up to 232 address IPV4 header does not identify packet flow for Qos handling by routers. IPSec support is optional Header includes a checksum 192.168.29.11

IPSec support is required Header does not include a checksum fe80::c0a8:1d0b

UTILITY TOOLS
Ping :- Packet internet protocol tool is used by computer network to test whether the intended host is reachable across the IP network. Ping implements the ICMP echo request packets to identify whether the intended host is present on network ad is active.

Trace route :- trace route tool is used by windows OS system to increase the time-to-live value of data packet sent. The user can also view how ISP connects to the internet as well as how the target system is connected.

Path Ping :- path ping is a TCP/IP network tool which combines the functionality of ping and trace route. Path ping provides with useful information about network errors, network latency and network loss at hops between the source and destination address.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
THE DISSERTATION WAS UNDERTAKEN IN PART FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE JCHNP OF JETKING HARDWARE AND NETWORKING INSTITUTE. I UNDERTAKE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO EXPRESS MY VIEWS AND INCREASE GRATITUDE OF MINE BY THE GUIDE FROM URVASHI MAM . FOR THE HELP & ADVICE THAT GIVEN BY TIME TO TIME.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
I AM VERY MUCH THANKFUL TO MRs, URVASHI MAM WHO HELPD ME IN DOING THIS PROJECT. HE ALSO HELP TO SOLVE MY PROBLEMS WHICH I HAVE FACED WHILE DOING THESE PROJECT. I ALSO WANT TO THANK JETKING INSTITUTE FOR THIS GREAT OPPORTUNITY.