Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

LIGHT FENCE

SESSION 2009-10

A Minor Project Report Submitted to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya Bhopal (M.P.)
In partial fulfilment of awarding the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Electronics & Communication Guided by: Prof. Saurabh Gaur Electronics & Communication MIT, Ujjain (M.P.) Submitted by: Abhishek jain Ankit singh somvanshi Chitrarth gautam Kamal singh rajawat

Department of electronics & communication

MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ,UJJAIN

MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, UJJAIN (M.P.)

SESSION 2009-10

CERTIFICATE
This is certify that the Minor Project work of ABHISHEK JAIN ,ANKIT SINGH SOMVANSHI ,CHITRARTH GAUTAM ,KAMAL SINGH RAJAWAT entitled LIGHT FENCE towards partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication Engineering .

Internal Examiner --------------------------Date:

External Examiner -------------------------Date:

LIGHT FENCE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Concentration, dedication and application are necessary but not sufficient to achieve a goal. They must be awarded by guidance assistance and cooperation. I like to express my sincere gratitude towards my report guide Prof. Saurabh Gaur, Electronics and Communication Department for providing me eyes of knowledge. I am thankful to Prof. Manish Berve, HOD, Electronics and Communication for their guidance and support.

Abhishek jain (0704EC071004) Ankit singh somvanshi (0704EC071009) Chitrarth gautam (0704EC071018) Kamal singh rajawat (0704EC071037)

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

RELEVENT THEORY OF USED COMPONENT RESISTOR CAPACITOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR) OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (IC 1) 555 TIMER (IC 2)

3.

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING

4.

DESIGN & MAKING PCB

5.

APPLICATION

6.

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

APPENDIX

LIGHT FENCE

INTRODUCTION

The shadow alarm circuit can sense a moving shadow in a confined area. It can be used to protect things from theft. When somebody approaches the unit, it will give a loud alarm to abort the attempt of theft. The circuit uses the light sensing property of the Photo diode. The circuit uses the light sensing property of the PIN Photodiode. The p-n junction of the photo diode gives light current when it is forward biased. IC1 is designed as a voltage comparator. Its non inverting input is connected to a potential divider R1 and VR. By adjusting VR, input current to pin3 can be set to a reference level. The inverting input of IC1 is connected to a photo diode. IC CA3130 is a 15 MHz BiMOS Operational amplifier with MOSFET inputs and bipolar output. The inputs contain MOSFET transistors to provide very high input impedance and very low input current as low as 10pA. It has high speed of performance and suitable for low input current applications This opto-sensitive circuit sounds an alarm whenever a shadow falls on it. So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms.

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

RELEVENT THEORY OF USED COMPONENT


Resister
A Resistor is a heat-dissipating element and in the electronic circuits it is mostly used for either controlling the current in the circuit or developing a voltage drop across it, which could be utilized for many applications. There are various types of resistors, which can be classified according to a number of factors depending upon: 1. Material used for fabrication 2. Wattage and physical size 3. Intended application 4. Ambient temperature rating 5. Cost

fig 3.11 Resistor

Basically the resistor can be split in to the following four parts from the construction view point. 1. Base 2. Resistance element 3. Terminals 4. Protective means following characteristics are inherent in all resistors and may be controlled by design considerations and choice of material i.e. Temperature co efficient of resistance, Voltage coefficient of resistance, high frequency characteristics, power rating, tolerance & voltage rating of resistors. Resistors may be classified as. 1. Fixed

LIGHT FENCE

2. Semi Variable 3. Variable resistor

Capacitors
The fundamental relation for the capacitance between two flat plates separated by a dielectric material is given by:-

fig 3.12 Capacitor

Capacitor C=0.08854KA/D Where C= capacitance in pf. K= dielectric constant A=Area per plate in square cm. D=Distance between two plates in cm Design of capacitor depends on the proper dielectric material with particular type of application. The dielectric material used for capacitors may be grouped in various classes like Mica, Glass, air, ceramic, paper, Aluminum, electrolyte etc. The value of capacitance never remains constant. It changes with temperature, frequency and

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

aging. The capacitance value marked on the capacitor strictly applies only at specified temperature and at low frequencies.

LED (Light Emitting Diodes)


As its name implies it is a diode, which emits light when forward biased. Charge carrier recombination takes place when electrons from the N-side cross the junction and recombine with the holes on the P side. Electrons are in the higher conduction band on the N side whereas holes are in the lower valence band on the P side. During recombination, some of the energy is given up in the form of heat and light.

LIGHT FENCE

LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR)

LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms, but when they are illuminated with light resistance drops dramatically. The animation opposite shows that when the torch is turned on, the resistance of the LDR falls, allowing current to pass through it. When the light level is low the resistance of the LDR is high. This prevents current from flowing to the base of the transistors. Consequently the LED does not light.

However, when light shines onto the LDR its resistance falls and current flows into the base of the first transistor and then the second transistor. The LED lights. The preset resistor can be turned up or down to increase or decrease resistance, in this way it can make the circuit more or less sensitive.

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (741 IC)

An operational amplifier, which is often called an op-amp, is a DC-coupled highgain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.[1] An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically millions of times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals

Typically the op-amp's very large gain is controlled by negative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output ("closed-loop") voltage gain in amplifier applications, or the transfer function required (in analog computers). Without negative feedback, and perhaps with positive feedback for regeneration, an op-amp essentially acts as a comparator. High input impedance at the input terminals (ideally infinite) and low output impedance at the output terminal(s) (ideally zero) are important typical characteristics. Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today, being used in a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices. Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume; however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over

LIGHT FENCE

$100 US in small quantities. Op-amps sometimes come in the form of macroscopic components, (see photo) or as integrated circuit cells; patterns that can be reprinted several times on one chip as part of a more complex device. The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp, but with two outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op-amps), the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but which works fine with common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp), and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from one or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network).

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Used as Voltage Comparator


In the shadow alarm OpAmp is used as a voltage comparator.

In the fig fixed reference voltage applied to its inverting terminal & in the same manner time varying signal voltage Vin is applied to the non inverting terminal. When voltage Vin is less than the ref vtg output voltage in Vsat or Vee because voltage at inverting terminal is higher than non inverting terminal in the same that when voltage Vin is higher than the ref. voltage output voltage is Vsat or Vcc because voltage at non inverting terminal is higher than inverting The comparator is also known as Voltage Level Detector because derived value of ref. voltage the input voltage level can be detected. The diode D1 & D2 protects the Opamp from doemame due to excessive value of input voltage. The resistor R connected in series with Vin is used to limit the current through diode D1 & D2 and another resistor in series with inverting terminal & Vref to reduce offset problem.

LIGHT FENCE

IC 555 TIMER

The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. The IC was designed by Hans R. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine".[1] It has been claimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5 k resistors used in typical early implementations, [2] but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. [3] The part is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year.[3] Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dualin-line package (DIP-8).[4] Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip), and the 558 (a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally, and TR falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive).

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Ultra-low power versions of the 555 are also available, such as the 7555 and TLC555.[5] The 7555 requires slightly different wiring using fewer external components and less power. The 555 has three operating modes:

Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc

Astable - free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc.

Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bouncefree latched switches, etc.

The connection of the pins is as follows:

S.No. Name

Purpose

GND

Ground, low level (0 V)

TRIG

A short pulse high-to-low on the trigger starts the timer

OUT

During a timing interval, the output stays at +VCC

RESET

A timing interval can be interrupted by applying a reset pulse to low (0 V)

CTRL

Control voltage allows access to the internal voltage divider (2/3 VCC)

LIGHT FENCE

THR

The threshold at which the interval ends (it ends if the voltage at THR is at least 2/3 VCC)

DIS

Connected to a capacitor whose discharge time will influence the timing interval

V+, VCC

The positive supply voltage which must be between 3 and 15 V

Monostable mode The relationships of the trigger signal, the voltage on C and the pulse width in monostable mode In the monostable mode, the 555 timer acts as a one-shot pulse generator. The pulse begins when the 555 timer receives a trigger signal. The width of the pulse is determined by the time constant of an RC network, which consists of a capacitor (C) and a resistor (R). The pulse ends when the charge on the C equals 2/3 of the supply voltage. The pulse width can be lengthened or shortened to the need of the specific application by adjusting the values of R and C. [6] The pulse width of time t, which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3 of the supply voltage, is given by where t is in seconds, R is in ohms and C is in farads. See RC circuit for an explanation of this effect.

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

555 TIMER

Astable mode In astable mode, the '555 timer ' puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specified frequency. Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7) and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7), and the trigger (pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node. Hence the capacitor is charged through R1 and R2, and discharged only through R2, since pin 7 has low impedance to ground during output low intervals of the cycle, therefore discharging the capacitor.

LIGHT FENCE

Specifications These specifications apply to the NE555. Other 555 timers can have better specifications depending on the grade (military, medical, etc).

Supply voltage (VCC)

4.5 to 15 V

Supply current (VCC = +5 V)

3 to 6 mA

Supply current (VCC = +15 V)

10 to 15 mA

Output current (maximum)

200 mA

Power dissipation

600 mW

Operating temperature

0 to 70 C

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING
The basic problem with most of standard light sensors is that they require precise alignment of light beam to mute the circuit during standby mode. The circuit described here is so sensitive that it will detect a moving person at a distance of few metres in daylight or under electric lighting without cumbersome alignment of light beam. It requires virtually no set up, and may be simply placed within the line-of-sight of almost any light source including ambient day light or fluorescent electric light. The beep generated from the circuit will be loud enough to detect the entry of a person in the room or the protected area being guarded. The circuit uses a voltage comparator and a monostable timer to give the warning alarm on detecting a moving person. IC A741 (IC1) is used as a voltage comparator with two potential dividers in its inverting and noninverting inputs. Resistors R1 and R2 provide halfsupply voltage of 4.5 volts to its inverting input (pin 2). LDR1 and preset VR1 form another potential divider to provide a variable voltage input to the non-inverting input (pin 3). If VR1 is properly adjusted for the required light level, the output of IC1 will be high, which drives pnp transistor T1 out of conduction. This is due to the high potential at the base of T1. The emitter voltage of T1 will be high in this condition, which inhibits IC2 from oscillation and LED1 from lighting. IC2 is wired as a monostable timer. R6 and C2 provide a preset time delay. As a person crosses the protected area, his shadow will be sensed by LDR1 due to change in the light intensity level and the voltage at the non-inverting input of IC1 will drop momentarily. The output of IC1 suddenly becomes low, allowing T1 to conduct. This triggers the monostable (IC2) and the alarm sounds. Assemble the circuit on a common PCB and house in a plastic case. Keep LDR1 inside a black tube to increase its sensitivity. Adjust preset VR1 until LED1 turns off at the particular light level. Keep LDR1 facing the entrance of the room or the area to be protected. Sensitivity of the circuit depends on the proper adjustment of VR1. If VR1 is correctly adjusted, the circuit can detect a moving person from a distance of about three metres.

LIGHT FENCE

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DESIGN & MAKING PCB


A PCB is a rigid flat board, which holds electronics component. This board is made up of layers that interconnect component via a pathway. Let us know how to prepare a PCB. Step I Firstly arrange all of the component of the project & testing them for a Proper working. Step II Perform pre testing of circuit on bread board, if the circuit working properly then start to make PCB. Step III Draw the layout of circuit on inch graph paper with proper dimension .Ensure that if layout correct then draw it on trace paper. The layout can be traced on the board by screen printing. Step IV Step V Cut the CCB (Copper Clad Board) of the same size of layout. Put the carbon paper on the PCB and trace from the reverse side of the layout. Outline the impression of layout on PCB and apply permanent marker. Step VI Etching: Etching is the process in which excess layer of copper is removed to leave the individual tracks as they are. The PCB plate is immersed in solution of FeCl3 + some drops of HCL or H2So4. Shake it well till the copper is totally removed excepting the printed layout path. Step VII After taking off the solution rinse the PCB plate with clean water and dry it. Then removed the print layer with the help of thinner and a piece of cloth. Check the continuity of tracks with the help of multimeter. Step VIII Drill the end points of the component on the lay out with the help of drill machine. Clean the legs of the component with the help of sand paper tip it with the help of soldering iron. Place the component as per circuit on PCB in the proper way. Step IX Apply Flux on legs of the component & solder them. Cut the remaining legs of the components. Now the PCB is ready to connect the external power supply and the external output or input devices.

LIGHT FENCE

APPLICATIONS
1. Photodiodes are often used for accurate measurement of light intensity in science and industry. They generally have a better, more linear response than photoconductor. 2. The shadow alarm circuit can sense one or more moving shadow in a confined area. 3. It can be used to protect things from theft. 4. This opto-sensitive circuit sounds an alarm whenever anyone crosses the fence. So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms. 5. LDR does not require an aligned light beam to illuminate the photo-sensor 6. It has low cost comparing other security systems.

LIMITATIONS
1. A dim lighting in the room is necessary to detect the moving shadow. 2. It is necessary that shadow falls properly on LDR. 3. Shadow alarm is an electronic device so we have to prevent it by moisture. 4. If alarm is not properly audible then device can not be used as a security purpose.

CONCLUSION
The shadow alarm work as a watchman in our houses to protect our valuable things. The shadow alarm circuit can sense a moving shadow in a confined area. It can be used to protect things from theft. When somebody approaches the unit, it will give a loud alarm to abort the attempt of theft.

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

REFERENCE
1. Idea about shadow alarm from www.electronics4u.com 2. www.electroschematics.com 3. http://www.ic-on-line.cn/IOL/datasheet/l14f1_201714.pdf 4. Information about Photodiode from R.S.Sedha & A.K. Sawhny. 5. Information about Opamp from Gayakwad. 6. www.wikipedia.com 7. And other electronic Books.

LIGHT FENCE

APPENDIX
1. DATASHEET OF PHOTO-TRANSISTOR L14F1
The L14F1 are silicon photodarlingtons mounted in a narrow angle, TO-18 package. Some of their Features include Hermetically sealed package Narrow reception angle It is the most sensitive photo-sensor to detect shadows. It is portable and can be used at any place that is to be monitored.

Dimensions

1. Dimensions for all drawings are in inches (mm). 2. Tolerance of .010 (.25) on all non-nominal dimensions unless otherwise specified.

SPECTRAL RESPONCE

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

LIGHT FENCE

2. DATASHEET OF 741 Opamp


The A741 is a general-purpose operational amplifier featuring offset-voltage null capability. The high common-mode input voltage range and the absence of latch-up make the amplifier ideal for voltage-follower applications. The device is short-circuit protected and the internal frequency compensation ensures stability without external components. A low value potentiometer may be connected between the offset null inputs to null out the offset voltage as shown in Figure 2. The A741C is characterized for operation from 0C to 70C. The A741I is characterized for operation from 40C to 85C.The A741M is characterized for operation over the full military temperature range of 55C to 125C.

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

LIGHT FENCE

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

3. DATASHEET OF 555 TIMER


The 555 monolithic timing circuit is a highly stable controller capable of producing accurate time delays, or oscillation. In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor. For a stable operation as an oscillator, the free running frequency and the duty cycle are both accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms, and the output structure can source or sink up to 200mA.

LIGHT FENCE

MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY