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DOI 10.

1007/s00170-004-2240-2
ORI GI NAL ARTI CLE
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2006) 27: 738746
Fakher Chaari Tahar Fakhfakh Riadh Hbaieb Jamel Louati Mohamed Haddar
Inuence of manufacturing errors on the dynamic behavior of planetary gears
Received: 27 January 2004 / Accepted: 21 April 2004 / Published online: 23 February 2005
Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005
Abstract Planetary gears are widely used in the transmissions of
helicopters, automobiles, aircraft engines, etc. They have substan-
tial advantages such as compactness and a large torque-to-weight
ratio. In this work, a plane model of a planetary gear was inves-
tigated. The energetic Lagrange formulation was used to recover
the equations of motion of the system. A modal analysis was per-
formed, and the inuence of gyroscopic effect in particular was
scrutinized. The dynamic response was computed by an iterative
spectral method. The excitation is induced by time-varying the
gearmesh stiffness. The cases of a healthy planetary gear and one
with the presence of eccentricity and prole error were compared.
The inuence on the transmission ratio was also studied.
Keywords Eccentricity Gearmesh Modal analysis
Planetary gears Prole error Spectral analysis
1 Introduction
In aerospace and automotive applications, transmissions that in-
clude planetary gear sets are widely used. The main advantages
of this transmission is its compactness and its large torque-to-
weight ratio. As with every transmission, including gear pairs,
planetary gears develop a noise induced by the gearmesh of the
sun with the planets and of the planets with the ring. On the other
hand, planetary gears may exhibit undesirable dynamic behav-
ior resulting in added noise, acoustic emissions, and unaccept-
able performance characteristics. These emissions are greatest
when the transmission works in poor conditions (prole errors
on teeth, run-out errors, teeth faults, etc.). In addition, the gy-
roscopic effect induced by the carrier rotational speed is an im-
portant parameter that alters the vibratory response. Therefore,
understanding the dynamic behavior of a planetary gear is use-
F. Chaari (u) T. Fakhfakh R. Hbaieb J. Louati M. Haddar
Mechanics Modeling and Production Research Unit,
Ecole Nationale dIng enieurs de Sfax,
BP. W. 3038, Sfax, Tunisia
E-mail: fakher.attt@gnet.tn
Tel.: +216-74-274088
Fax: +216-74-275595
ful in predicting its failure and its noise in the context of the
transmission system as a whole.
The literature on planetary gear dynamics emphasizes highly
idealized Lumped-parameter modeling wherein the gears are
rigid bodies interconnected by springs representing teeth in mesh
and support bearings. Cunliffe et al. [1], Kahraman [2], and Lin
and Parker [3] studied free vibration. Kahraman [2] used two-
and three-dimensional models to examine the dynamic response.
Saada and Velex [4] used an FEM model of the train to com-
pute the response. Much literature has attested to the fact that
a major goal in reducing gear noise is to reduce the transmission
error. This error is dened as the nonconjugacy of the gear pair
resulting in a difference of the output gears position from where
it would be if the gear teeth were perfect. Its major causes are
manufacturing and assembly imperfections and the deection of
gear teeth. Eccentricities and prole imperfections usually occur
in the manufacturing process; Kharaman [2] introduces these er-
rors as displacements modeled on the line of action. It was shown
that the signal components of defects modulate the amplitude or
the frequency of the perfect system response.
In this work, numerical analysis of a single-stage planetary
gear without defects and with prole and eccentricity errors is pre-
sented. First, we develop a plane model of the planetary gear with
three degrees of freedom per element. This model involves three
types of modes: rotational, translational, and planet modes. The
inuence of the gyroscopic effect was analytically scrutinized,
whichshowedthe bifurcationof translational modes due tothis ef-
fect. Dynamic responses of the model are developed using a spec-
tral iterative method, which has the outstanding propriety of di-
rectly giving the frequency response. The cases of perfect and de-
fective teeth with prole and eccentricity errors were computed.
Comparisons of the signal responses before and after intro-
ducing these defects are made in order to outline their features.
2 Model of the train
We are investigating a problem of plane vibration of a one-stage
planetary gear train with N planets, as presented in Fig. 1. The
739
Fig. 1. Model of the train
sun (s), ring (r), carrier (c), and planets ( p) are considered as
rigid bodies.
Bearings are modeled by linear springs. The gearmesh is
modeled by linear springs acting on the lines of action. Each com-
ponent has three degrees of freedom: two translations u
i
, v
j
and
one rotation w
j
, with w
j
= r
j

j
( j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N); r
j
is the
base radius. Damping is not considered here; nevertheless, it can
be introduced in parallel with gearmesh and bearing stiffness.
Radial and tangential coordinates u
p
, v
p
describe planet de-
ections; e
sp
(t) and e
rp
(t) represent the transmission error of the
sun-planet gearmesh and the planet-ring gearmesh, respectively.
Translations are measured with respect to the frame (O,

i ,

j,

k) xed to the carrier and rotating with a constant angular
speed
c
in relation to a stationary reference frame. Circum-
ferential planet positions are specied by the xed angles
p
measured relatively to the rotating frame with
1
= 0.
The displacements
sp
and
sp
along the lines of action are
expressed by [5]:

sp
= v
s
cos
sp
u
s
sin
sp
u
p
sin
s
v
p
cos
s
+w
s
+w
p
+e
sp
(t) (1)

rp
= v
r
cos
rp
u
c
sin
rp
+u
p
sin
r
v
p
cos
r
+w
r
w
p
+e
rp
(t) (2)
with
sp
=
p

s
and
rp
=
p
+
r
;
s
and
r
respectively
denote the pressure angles of the sun and the ring gears.
Applying Lagrange formulation allow us to recover the equa-
tions of motions of the 3N +9 degrees of freedom of the system.
Assembling the equations in matrix form leads to the global
equation of motion of the system:
M x +
c
G x +
_
K
b
+ K
e
(t)
2
c
K

_
x = T + F(t) (3)
where x represents the vector of the degrees of freedom. It is
expressed by:
x =
_
u
c
, v
c
, w
c
, u
r
, v
r
, w
r
, u
s
, v
s
, w
s
, u
1
, v
1
, w
1
, . . .,
u
N
, v
N
, w
N
_
T
(4)
M represents the mass matrix. It is expressed by:
M =

M
c
0 0 0 0 0
0 M
r
0 0 0 0
0 0 M
s
0 0 0
0 0 0 M
1
0 0
0 0 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 M
N

with M
j
=

m
j
0 0
0 m
j
0
0 0 I
j
/r
2
j

, j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N
I
j
is the inertial moment of the jth element with respect to its
rotational axis.
The matrix G, which is the gyroscopic matrix, can be ex-
pressed by:
G =

G
c
0 0 0 0 0
0 G
r
0 0 0 0
0 0 G
s
0 0 0
0 0 0 G
1
0 0
0 0 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 G
N

with G
j
=

0 2m
j
0
2m
j
0 0
0 0 0

, j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N
The bearing stiffness matrix K
b
is written as:
K
b
=

K
cb
0 0
0 K
rb
0
0 0 K
sb

, where K
jb
=

k
ju
0 0
0 k
jv
0
0 0 k
jw

and k
ju
, k
jv
, k
jw
represent the bearing stiffness along the three
degrees of freedom: j = c, r, s.
The centripetal stiffness K

matrix is expressed by:


K

K
c
0 0 0 0 0
0 K
r
0 0 0 0
0 0 K
s
0 0 0
0 0 0 K
1
0 0
0 0 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 . . . K
N

,
where K
j
=

m
j
0 0
0 m
j
0
0 0 0

The gearmeshstiffness matrixis time-varying. Generally, a square


waveform is adopted to express this variation [6]; the maximum
740
value represents the gearmesh stiffness of two pairs in contact, the
minimum value represents single-pair gearmesh stiffness. It can
be divided into a mean matrix and a time varying matrix:
K
e
(t) = K + K(t) (5)
K
e
(t) is expressed by:
K
e
(t) =

K
p
c1
0 0 K
1
c2
K
N
c2
0

K
p
r1
0 K
1
r2
K
N
r2
0 0

K
p
s1
K
1
s2
K
N
s2
K
1
c2
K
1
r2
K
1
s2
K
1
0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 0
.
.
. 0
K
N
c2
K
N
r2
K
N
s2
0 0 K
N

The components of this matrix are:


K
p
= K
p
c3
+ K
p
r3
+ K
p
s3
, K
p
c3
=

k
p
0 0
0 k
p
0
0 0 0

,
K
p
s3
= k
sp
(t)

sin
2

s
cos
s
sin
s
sin
s
cos
s
sin
s
cos
2

s
cos
s
sin
s
cos
s
1

,
K
p
r3
= k
rp
(t)

sin
2

r
cos
r
sin
r
sin
r
cos
r
sin
r
cos
2

r
cos
r
sin
r
cos
r
1

,
K
p
c1
= k
p

1 0 sin
p
0 1 cos
p
sin
p
cos
p
1

,
K
p
r1
= k
rp
(t)

sin
2

rp
cos
rp
cos
r
sin
rp
cos
rp
cos
r
cos
2

rp
cos
rp
sin
rp
cos
rp
1

,
K
p
s1
= k
sp
(t)

sin
2

sp
cos
sp
sin
sp
sin
sp
cos
sp
sin
sp
cos
2

sp
cos
sp
sin
sp
cos
sp
1

,
K
p
c2
= k
p

cos
p
sin
p
0
sin
p
cos
p
0
0 1 0

,
K
p
r2
= k
rp
(t)

sin
rp
sin
r
sin
rp
cos
r
sin
rp
cos
rp
sin
r
cos
rp
cos
r
cos
rp
sin
r
cos
r
1

,
K
p
s2
= k
sp
(t)

sin
sp
sin
s
sin
sp
cos
s
sin
sp
cos
sp
sin
s
cos
sp
cos
s
cos
sp
sin
s
cos
s
1

.
The external torques applied to the system are C
c
, C
r
, C
s
on the
carrier, the ring, and the sun (time constant), respectively. The
corresponding forces are:
T(t) = 0, 0, T
c
, 0, 0, T
r
, 0, 0, T
s
, 0, . . ., 0
T
where T
j
= C
j
/r
j
, j = c, r, s.
F(t) is the exciting force induced by the transmission error. It
can be written as:
F(t) = 0, F
c
, F
s
, F
1
, . . ., F
N

T
Its components are expressed by:
F
c
= k
rp
(t)e
rp
(t)
_
sin
rp
, cos
rp
, 1
_
T
F
s
= k
sp
(t)e
sp
(t)
_
sin
sp
, cos
sp
, 1
_
T
F
p
= k
rp
(t)e
rp
(t) sin
r
, sin
r
, 1
T
+k
sp
(t)e
sp
(t) sin
s
, cos
s
, 1
T
, p = 1. . .N
3 Modal analysis
To compute the eigenvalues, only the mean value K of K
e
(t) is
considered. For low speeds of the carrier, the gyroscopic effect
can be neglected, whereas for high speeds, it must be taken into
account. The transmission error is considered here.
3.1 Gyroscopic effect neglected
The equation of the movement can be written as:
M x +
_
K
b
+ K
_
x = T (6)
The eigenvalue problem is:

2
i
M
i
=
_
K
b
+ K
_

i
(7)
where
i
is the eigenvalue vector and
i
the corresponding
eigenfrequency.
The planetary gear train considered has a xed ring and four
satellites. The input element is the sun gear and the output elem-
ent is the carrier. In case 1 of Table 2, some eigenfrequencies of
this train having parameters specied in Table 1 are presented.
Remarkable modal properties are recovered for this transmis-
sion set [3]. They are summed up as follows:
Six distinct natural frequencies. The corresponding eigenval-
ues show purely rotational movement of the carrier, the ring,
Table 1. Parameters of the planetary gear model
Sun Ring Carrier Planet
Teeth number 30 70 20
Module 1.7 1.7 1.7
Teeth width (mm) 25 25 25
Mass (kg) 0.46 0.588 3 0.177
I/r
2
(kg) 0.272 0.759 1.5 0.1
Base radius (m) 0.024 0.056 0.016
Helix angle 0

Gearmesh stiffness (N/m) k


Sp
= k
rp
= 2.10
8
Bearing stiffness (N/m) k
p
= k
Su,v
= k
ru,v
= 10
8
Torsional stiffness (N/m) k
rw
= 10
9
; k
Sw
= k
Cw
= 0
Pressure angle
S
=
r
= 21.34

741
Table 2. Eigenfrequencies for the two cases of neglected and non-neglected
gyroscopic effect (in Hz)
Mode type Case 1: Case 2: Case 3:

c
= 0
c
= 857 rpm
c
= 1285 rpm
1986 1981
Translational 1998
2010 2015
Rotational 3166 3166 3167
3934 3933
Translational 3938
3942 3943
Planet 7998 7998 7998
Rotational 8889 8889 8889
Planet 10490 10490 10490
and the sun. The four satellites move identically and in phase.
These modes are called rotational modes.
Six natural frequencies having a multiplicity m = 2. The car-
rier, the ring, and the sun have pure translational movement
in the corresponding modes. These modes are called transla-
tional modes.
Three distinct natural frequencies. The carrier, the ring, and
the sun do not move; only motion of the planets occurs. The
corresponding vibratory modes are called planet modes.
Examples of modal deections are shown in Fig. 2.
3.2 Sensitivity of eigenvalues to carrier angular speed
In this section, the gyroscopic matrix will be taken into account
in the studied system. The equation of motion is:
M x +
c
G x +
_
K
b
+ K
2
c
K

_
x = T + F(t) (8)
Fig. 2. Modal deections for the three types of modes
The corresponding eigenvalue problem is:
_

2
i
M+ j
c
G
i
+
_
K
b
+ K
2
c
K

__

i
= 0 (9)
In this problem, equations are coupled due to the antisymmet-
ric gyroscopic matrix G in addition to the symmetric stiffness
matrix. This effect is induced by the angular carrier speed and
results in an alteration observed in the dynamic behavior of the
system.
To show the inuence of the gyroscopic effect on the eigen-
values, a study of eigensensitivity to carrier angular speed is
made in this section.
Problems of eigensensitivity have been studied extensively in
the literature [7, 8]. The main scope of this study is a follow-up
of the variation of eigenvalues with respect to model parame-
ters. In our case, an important parameter that alters the vibratory
response is the gyroscopic effect, which occurs as the carrier an-
gular speed
c
increases.
The scripts ( )

denote the rst derivative of the eigenvalues


with respect to
c
. Let an eigenvalue
i
having a multiplicity
m and = [
1
, . . .,
m
] be the corresponding eigenvectors with
norm
T
M = I
mm
. The derivation of Eq. 9 with respect to
c
yields:
_
K
2
i
M + j
c
G
i
_

i
+
_
2
i

i
M + j
i
G + j
c
G

i
_

i
= 0 (10)
if
c
= 0 we get:
_
K
2
i
M
_

i
=
_
2
i

i
M j
i
G
_

i
= f (11)
f is a Hermitian eigenvalue [7] with
i
= a
i
. Multiplying the
left side of
_
2
i

i
M j
i
G
_

i
by
T
gives:

T
i
_
2
i

i
M j
i
G
_

i
a
i
= 0 (12)
2

T
i
M
i
a
i
= j
T
i
G
i
a
i
(13)
The Hermitian eigenvalue problem is:
Da
i
=

i
a
i
with D =
1
2
j
T
G (14)
The eigenfrequency
i
at a given carrier speed
c
is obtained
by the rst order Taylor expansion:

i

i0
= (
c

c0
)

i
(15)
If
c0
= 0 and
i0
is the corresponding eigenfrequency, we
have:

i
=
i0
+
c

i
(16)
For the studied case of the planetary gear, the three types of
modes are recovered:
742
Fig. 3. Variation of eigenfrequencies with respect to carrier speed
For rotational modes, the eigenfrequencies are distinct, and
we always have
T
i
G
i
= 0. Then applying Eq. 14, we get

i
= 0, which implies that rotational modes are not sensitive
to the variation of
c
.
For planet modes and for a group of eigenvectors
1
. . .
m
,
we always get
T
i
G
i
= 0 and
T
i
G
j
= 0, which implies
also that planet modes are not sensitive to the variation of
c
.
For translational modes, which are in pairs (having eigenvec-
tors
1
et
2
):

i1
=
1
2

T
1
G
2
and

i2
=
1
2

T
2
G
1
=

i1
Then

i1,2
=
1
2

1
G
2
. (17)
In cases 2 and 3 of Table 2, we present the evolution of eigen-
frequencies due to the gyroscopic effect for an angular speed of
the carrier
c
= 1285 rpm and
c
= 857 rpm.
We note that for high speeds of the carrier, the translational
eigenfrequencies bifurcate into two distinct ones, whereas planet
and rotational eigenfrequencies remain constant. The bifurcation
increases as
c
increases.
Figure 3 represents this bifurcation for a set of carrier speeds
varying up to 4000 rpm and for the three types of modes. Modes
(2, 3), (4, 5), (6, 7), and (11, 12) are translational modes. Modes
(8, 10) are rotational modes. Mode (9) is a planet mode.
4 Dynamic response
4.1 Resolution method
Several diagrams of integration of the Eq. 3 are found in litera-
ture. The most well-known is the implicit algorithm of Newmark.
However the solution is always given in the time domain, and
the frequency response is obtained by the Fourier transform. This
method needs initial conditions and signicant calculation time.
The use of Fourier space is an interesting alternative for the
survey of dynamic behavior of the planetary gear. The method
developed by Perret-Liaudet [9], gives the response directly in
the frequency domain. A suitable transformation of the equation
of motion is made: the response is divided into a DC component
x
0
and a dynamic component x
d
:
x = x
0
+x
d
(18)
The static response is obtained from the equation:

Kx
0
= T (19)
where

K is the mean value of the stiffness matrix of the system
expressed by:

K = K
b
+ K
2
c
K

(20)
where K is given by Eq. 5.
The contribution of the transmission error will be added later.
The excitation is due to the time-varying of gearmesh stiffness.
A proportional damping is considered [10]
C = 0.03M +0.03K (21)
Rewriting Eq. 8 by taking in account the transformation
yields:
M
_
x
0
+ x
d
_
+(
c
G +C) ( x
0
+ x
d
)
+
_
K
p
+ K + K(t)
2
c
K

_
(x
0
+x
d
) = T (22)
The dynamic component of the response x
d
can be represented
by the generalized coordinates q
d
, so we can write:
x = x
0
+q
d
(23)
Rearranging Eq. 22 by eliminating of the static component and
taking in account Eq. 23 gives:

T
M q
d
+
T
(
c
G +C) q
d
+
T
_
K
p
+ K
e
(t)
2
c
K

_
q
d
=
T
K(t)x
0
(24)
Writing Eq. 24 in the frequency domain yields:
q
d
() = H()
_
t() j
c
3(N+3)

m=1;k=1
_

T
G
_
mk
q
dk
()

3(N+3)

m=1;k=1
+
_

e
jt
_

T
K(t)
_
mk
q
dk
(t)dt
_
(25)
where q
d
() represents the Fourier transform of q
d
,
H() =
_

T
M+
T

K+ j
T
C
_
1
, (26)
and t
j
() represents the Fourier transform of
T
K(t)x
0
.
743
Eq. 25 can be written as:
q
d
() = H()
_
t() j
c

T
G q
d
()

K() q
d
()
_
(27)
where denotes convolution.

K() is the Fourier transform of

T
K(t).
The resolution is driven iteratively by successive approxima-
tions beginning with an initial solution given by:
q
d
(0)
() = H()t() (28)
The operand is introduced:
() = H()
_
j
c

T
G() +

K() ()
_
(29)
Applying this to Eq. 27, we get:
q
d
() = q
d
(0)
() +( q
d
()) (30)
By successive replacement of q
d
() and a truncation to order
h, we have:
q
d
()
(h)
=
(+h)

k=0

(k)
_
q
d
(0)
()
_
(31)
where:
_

(0)
_
q
d
(0)
()
_
= q
d
(0)
()

(k+1)
() = H()
_
j
c

T
G
(k)
() +

K()
(k)
()
_
(32)
Fig. 4a,b. Frequency re-
sponse (a) and time re-
sponse (b) of the dynamic
component of the carrier
bearing displacement ( f
e
=
1000 Hz)
Fig. 5a,b. Frequency re-
sponse (a) and time re-
sponse (b) of the dynamic
component of the rst planet
bearing tangential displace-
ment ( f
e
= 1500 Hz)
The iterations are stopped and the frequency solution is obtained
by reaching an imposed small error between iterations.
4.2 Dynamic response of a healthy planetary gear
The xed carrier planetary gear is supposed to be healthy. There
are transmission errors in the system F(t) = 0. The simulations
are done with two gearmesh frequencies f
e
= 1000 Hz (
c
=
857 rpm) and f
e
= 1500 Hz (
c
= 1285 rpm). A constant torque
of 1000 Nm is applied to sun gear; N = 4. The response on the
different bearings will be discussed.
Figure 4 represents the dynamic component of the frequency
response and the time response registered on the carrier (output
element).
Figure 5 represents the dynamic component of the frequency
response and the time response registered on the bearing of the
rst planet.
It is found that the frequency response is dominated by the
gearmesh frequency and its harmonics. It is noticed that for
a healthy train, the carrier bearing is not loaded much. How-
ever, the planet bearing is loaded much more, especially in
the tangential direction. The input torque is transmitted through
the rotational degrees of freedom, which explains the light dis-
placement on the sun and carrier bearings (e.g., the carrier
bearing response given by the equation of motion isnt di-
rectly affected by gearmesh variation but is lightly inuenced by
the coupling terms due to other degree-of-freedom responses).
In general, perfect manufactured planetary gears have a low
vibratory level.
744
4.3 Effect of run-out error on dynamic response
The transmission is now assumed to have an eccentricity on the
sun gear. The eccentricity expresses the difference between the
theoretical and the real rotational axis (Fig. 6). This defect is
introduced by adding a transmission error modeled as displace-
ment on the line of action of the sun-planet gearmesh.
The introduction of this displacement in the equation of
motion yields to an exciting force, which represents an ampli-
tude modulation of the gearmesh stiffness by the eccentricity
error [11, 12].
Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the eccentricity on the sun gear
Fig. 7a,b. Frequency re-
sponse of the dynamic com-
ponent of the tangential dis-
placement of the bearing of
the second planet (a) and
the corresponding time sig-
nal (b) for e
s
=20 m ( f
e
=
1500 Hz)
Fig. 8a,b. Frequency re-
sponse of the dynamic com-
ponent of the displacement
of the bearing of the carrier
(a) and the corresponding
time signal (b) for e
s
=
200 m ( f
e
= 1500 Hz)
It is expressed by:
F(t) = e
sn
(t)K
e
(t) (33)
e
sn
(t) = e
s
sin
_
2 f
e
Z
s
t +
sn
_
(34)
where e
s
is the eccentricity modulus, Z
s
is the tooth number of
the sun, and
sn
is the phase difference between sun and planets
gearmesh. The defect frequency is:
f
d
=
f
e
Z
s
(35)
Figure 7 represents the response for an eccentricity e
s
=
20 m of the dynamic component of the rst planet bearings
tangential displacement.
We note an amplitude modulation of the gearmesh signal by
the eccentricity signal, which results into two sidebands around
the gearmesh frequency and its harmonics in addition of the pri-
mary defect frequency f
d
.
For the critical value of 200 m, the gearmesh signal will be
drowned in the defect signal and the transmission will work very
poorly as shown on Figs. 8 and 9. All of the bearings will be af-
fected due to the severity of the defect, especially those of the
planets due to the exciting force expressed by Eq. 33.
4.4 Effect of a prole error on the dynamic response
Generally, prole errors are induced by the manufacturing pro-
cess, And they result in imperfections of the geometry of the
745
Fig. 9a,b. Frequency re-
sponse of the dynamic com-
ponent of the radial dis-
placement of the bearing of
the second planet (a) and
the corresponding time sig-
nal (b) for e
s
= 200 m
( f
e
= 1500 Hz)
tooth and deviations from the perfect involute shape [1315].
The defect considered here is similar for all teeth. The defect
frequency is equal to that of gearmesh f
e
.
Figure 10 is a schematic diagram of a prole error.
As for the eccentricity, the prole defect introduced on the
sun gear is modeled by a displacement on the line of action of the
sun-planet gearmesh. An exciting force F(t) represents an ampli-
Fig. 10. Schematic diagram of a prole error
Fig. 11ac. Inuence of a pro-
le error on the dynamic com-
ponent of the carrier bearing
displacement spectrum ( f
e
=
1000 Hz).
a Healthy gear. b Prole error
of 20 m. c Prole error of
200 m
tude modulation of the gearmesh stiffness signal by the prole
error signal E
s
(t).
It is expressed by:
F(t) = E
sn
(t)K
e
(t) (36)
E
s
(t) =

m=1
E
sm
sin (2m f
e
t +
sn
) (37)
E
sm
represents the prole error modulus.
Figures 11 and 12 represent the difference between the per-
turbations of the responses for a healthy system and for a system
with prole errors on the sun gear teeth. Simulations are done
with prole errors of 20 m and 200 m. The gearmesh frequen-
cies are always f
e
= 1000 Hz or f
e
= 1500 Hz.
We notice the increase of the amplitude of the primary
gearmesh frequency due to the amplitude modulation effect. The
amplitudes of the harmonics change slightly.
746
Fig. 12ac. Inuence of a prole
error on the dynamic compon-
ent of the second planet bearing
displacement spectrum ( f
e
=
1500 Hz).
a Healthy gear. b Prole error of
20 m. c Prole error of 200 m
5 Conclusions
In this paper, a plane model of a planetarygear trainwas developed
in order to investigate the inuence of manufacturing errors on
the dynamic behavior of a planetary gear. The modal analysis of
the adoptedmodel showedparticular eigenfrequencies: rotational,
translational, and planet modes. Only translational modes are af-
fected by gyroscopic effects the frequencies bifurcate into two
distinct frequencies whereas rotational and planet didnt change.
A spectral iterative method was used to obtain the dynamic
response. This method was efcient in calculation times. The
excitation was induced by gearmesh stiffness. A low vibratory
level was observed for a healthy, perfectly designed and mounted
planetary gear. The presence of eccentricity or prole errors
signicantly alters the dynamic behavior. A modulation of the
gearmesh signal by the defect signal is observed for an eccen-
tricity this produced sidebands around gearmesh and around its
harmonics. An increase of the gearmesh frequency amplitude was
found for a prole error. High values of these errors, which mean
poorly manufactured gears, will have dramatic consequences on
the transmission. These surveys allow us to get a rst idea of the
characterization of the dynamic behavior of planetary gears in
presence of such manufacturing errors. Future work will include
investigating the inuence of assembling errors in the model.
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