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1007/s00170-004-2240-2

ORI GI NAL ARTI CLE

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2006) 27: 738746

Fakher Chaari Tahar Fakhfakh Riadh Hbaieb Jamel Louati Mohamed Haddar

Inuence of manufacturing errors on the dynamic behavior of planetary gears

Received: 27 January 2004 / Accepted: 21 April 2004 / Published online: 23 February 2005

Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Abstract Planetary gears are widely used in the transmissions of

helicopters, automobiles, aircraft engines, etc. They have substan-

tial advantages such as compactness and a large torque-to-weight

ratio. In this work, a plane model of a planetary gear was inves-

tigated. The energetic Lagrange formulation was used to recover

the equations of motion of the system. A modal analysis was per-

formed, and the inuence of gyroscopic effect in particular was

scrutinized. The dynamic response was computed by an iterative

spectral method. The excitation is induced by time-varying the

gearmesh stiffness. The cases of a healthy planetary gear and one

with the presence of eccentricity and prole error were compared.

The inuence on the transmission ratio was also studied.

Keywords Eccentricity Gearmesh Modal analysis

Planetary gears Prole error Spectral analysis

1 Introduction

In aerospace and automotive applications, transmissions that in-

clude planetary gear sets are widely used. The main advantages

of this transmission is its compactness and its large torque-to-

weight ratio. As with every transmission, including gear pairs,

planetary gears develop a noise induced by the gearmesh of the

sun with the planets and of the planets with the ring. On the other

hand, planetary gears may exhibit undesirable dynamic behav-

ior resulting in added noise, acoustic emissions, and unaccept-

able performance characteristics. These emissions are greatest

when the transmission works in poor conditions (prole errors

on teeth, run-out errors, teeth faults, etc.). In addition, the gy-

roscopic effect induced by the carrier rotational speed is an im-

portant parameter that alters the vibratory response. Therefore,

understanding the dynamic behavior of a planetary gear is use-

F. Chaari (u) T. Fakhfakh R. Hbaieb J. Louati M. Haddar

Mechanics Modeling and Production Research Unit,

Ecole Nationale dIng enieurs de Sfax,

BP. W. 3038, Sfax, Tunisia

E-mail: fakher.attt@gnet.tn

Tel.: +216-74-274088

Fax: +216-74-275595

ful in predicting its failure and its noise in the context of the

transmission system as a whole.

The literature on planetary gear dynamics emphasizes highly

idealized Lumped-parameter modeling wherein the gears are

rigid bodies interconnected by springs representing teeth in mesh

and support bearings. Cunliffe et al. [1], Kahraman [2], and Lin

and Parker [3] studied free vibration. Kahraman [2] used two-

and three-dimensional models to examine the dynamic response.

Saada and Velex [4] used an FEM model of the train to com-

pute the response. Much literature has attested to the fact that

a major goal in reducing gear noise is to reduce the transmission

error. This error is dened as the nonconjugacy of the gear pair

resulting in a difference of the output gears position from where

it would be if the gear teeth were perfect. Its major causes are

manufacturing and assembly imperfections and the deection of

gear teeth. Eccentricities and prole imperfections usually occur

in the manufacturing process; Kharaman [2] introduces these er-

rors as displacements modeled on the line of action. It was shown

that the signal components of defects modulate the amplitude or

the frequency of the perfect system response.

In this work, numerical analysis of a single-stage planetary

gear without defects and with prole and eccentricity errors is pre-

sented. First, we develop a plane model of the planetary gear with

three degrees of freedom per element. This model involves three

types of modes: rotational, translational, and planet modes. The

inuence of the gyroscopic effect was analytically scrutinized,

whichshowedthe bifurcationof translational modes due tothis ef-

fect. Dynamic responses of the model are developed using a spec-

tral iterative method, which has the outstanding propriety of di-

rectly giving the frequency response. The cases of perfect and de-

fective teeth with prole and eccentricity errors were computed.

Comparisons of the signal responses before and after intro-

ducing these defects are made in order to outline their features.

2 Model of the train

We are investigating a problem of plane vibration of a one-stage

planetary gear train with N planets, as presented in Fig. 1. The

739

Fig. 1. Model of the train

sun (s), ring (r), carrier (c), and planets ( p) are considered as

rigid bodies.

Bearings are modeled by linear springs. The gearmesh is

modeled by linear springs acting on the lines of action. Each com-

ponent has three degrees of freedom: two translations u

i

, v

j

and

one rotation w

j

, with w

j

= r

j

j

( j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N); r

j

is the

base radius. Damping is not considered here; nevertheless, it can

be introduced in parallel with gearmesh and bearing stiffness.

Radial and tangential coordinates u

p

, v

p

describe planet de-

ections; e

sp

(t) and e

rp

(t) represent the transmission error of the

sun-planet gearmesh and the planet-ring gearmesh, respectively.

Translations are measured with respect to the frame (O,

i ,

j,

k) xed to the carrier and rotating with a constant angular

speed

c

in relation to a stationary reference frame. Circum-

ferential planet positions are specied by the xed angles

p

measured relatively to the rotating frame with

1

= 0.

The displacements

sp

and

sp

along the lines of action are

expressed by [5]:

sp

= v

s

cos

sp

u

s

sin

sp

u

p

sin

s

v

p

cos

s

+w

s

+w

p

+e

sp

(t) (1)

rp

= v

r

cos

rp

u

c

sin

rp

+u

p

sin

r

v

p

cos

r

+w

r

w

p

+e

rp

(t) (2)

with

sp

=

p

s

and

rp

=

p

+

r

;

s

and

r

respectively

denote the pressure angles of the sun and the ring gears.

Applying Lagrange formulation allow us to recover the equa-

tions of motions of the 3N +9 degrees of freedom of the system.

Assembling the equations in matrix form leads to the global

equation of motion of the system:

M x +

c

G x +

_

K

b

+ K

e

(t)

2

c

K

_

x = T + F(t) (3)

where x represents the vector of the degrees of freedom. It is

expressed by:

x =

_

u

c

, v

c

, w

c

, u

r

, v

r

, w

r

, u

s

, v

s

, w

s

, u

1

, v

1

, w

1

, . . .,

u

N

, v

N

, w

N

_

T

(4)

M represents the mass matrix. It is expressed by:

M =

M

c

0 0 0 0 0

0 M

r

0 0 0 0

0 0 M

s

0 0 0

0 0 0 M

1

0 0

0 0 0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 0 M

N

with M

j

=

m

j

0 0

0 m

j

0

0 0 I

j

/r

2

j

, j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N

I

j

is the inertial moment of the jth element with respect to its

rotational axis.

The matrix G, which is the gyroscopic matrix, can be ex-

pressed by:

G =

G

c

0 0 0 0 0

0 G

r

0 0 0 0

0 0 G

s

0 0 0

0 0 0 G

1

0 0

0 0 0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 0 G

N

with G

j

=

0 2m

j

0

2m

j

0 0

0 0 0

, j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N

The bearing stiffness matrix K

b

is written as:

K

b

=

K

cb

0 0

0 K

rb

0

0 0 K

sb

, where K

jb

=

k

ju

0 0

0 k

jv

0

0 0 k

jw

and k

ju

, k

jv

, k

jw

represent the bearing stiffness along the three

degrees of freedom: j = c, r, s.

The centripetal stiffness K

K

K

c

0 0 0 0 0

0 K

r

0 0 0 0

0 0 K

s

0 0 0

0 0 0 K

1

0 0

0 0 0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 0 . . . K

N

,

where K

j

=

m

j

0 0

0 m

j

0

0 0 0

waveform is adopted to express this variation [6]; the maximum

740

value represents the gearmesh stiffness of two pairs in contact, the

minimum value represents single-pair gearmesh stiffness. It can

be divided into a mean matrix and a time varying matrix:

K

e

(t) = K + K(t) (5)

K

e

(t) is expressed by:

K

e

(t) =

K

p

c1

0 0 K

1

c2

K

N

c2

0

K

p

r1

0 K

1

r2

K

N

r2

0 0

K

p

s1

K

1

s2

K

N

s2

K

1

c2

K

1

r2

K

1

s2

K

1

0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 0

.

.

. 0

K

N

c2

K

N

r2

K

N

s2

0 0 K

N

K

p

= K

p

c3

+ K

p

r3

+ K

p

s3

, K

p

c3

=

k

p

0 0

0 k

p

0

0 0 0

,

K

p

s3

= k

sp

(t)

sin

2

s

cos

s

sin

s

sin

s

cos

s

sin

s

cos

2

s

cos

s

sin

s

cos

s

1

,

K

p

r3

= k

rp

(t)

sin

2

r

cos

r

sin

r

sin

r

cos

r

sin

r

cos

2

r

cos

r

sin

r

cos

r

1

,

K

p

c1

= k

p

1 0 sin

p

0 1 cos

p

sin

p

cos

p

1

,

K

p

r1

= k

rp

(t)

sin

2

rp

cos

rp

cos

r

sin

rp

cos

rp

cos

r

cos

2

rp

cos

rp

sin

rp

cos

rp

1

,

K

p

s1

= k

sp

(t)

sin

2

sp

cos

sp

sin

sp

sin

sp

cos

sp

sin

sp

cos

2

sp

cos

sp

sin

sp

cos

sp

1

,

K

p

c2

= k

p

cos

p

sin

p

0

sin

p

cos

p

0

0 1 0

,

K

p

r2

= k

rp

(t)

sin

rp

sin

r

sin

rp

cos

r

sin

rp

cos

rp

sin

r

cos

rp

cos

r

cos

rp

sin

r

cos

r

1

,

K

p

s2

= k

sp

(t)

sin

sp

sin

s

sin

sp

cos

s

sin

sp

cos

sp

sin

s

cos

sp

cos

s

cos

sp

sin

s

cos

s

1

.

The external torques applied to the system are C

c

, C

r

, C

s

on the

carrier, the ring, and the sun (time constant), respectively. The

corresponding forces are:

T(t) = 0, 0, T

c

, 0, 0, T

r

, 0, 0, T

s

, 0, . . ., 0

T

where T

j

= C

j

/r

j

, j = c, r, s.

F(t) is the exciting force induced by the transmission error. It

can be written as:

F(t) = 0, F

c

, F

s

, F

1

, . . ., F

N

T

Its components are expressed by:

F

c

= k

rp

(t)e

rp

(t)

_

sin

rp

, cos

rp

, 1

_

T

F

s

= k

sp

(t)e

sp

(t)

_

sin

sp

, cos

sp

, 1

_

T

F

p

= k

rp

(t)e

rp

(t) sin

r

, sin

r

, 1

T

+k

sp

(t)e

sp

(t) sin

s

, cos

s

, 1

T

, p = 1. . .N

3 Modal analysis

To compute the eigenvalues, only the mean value K of K

e

(t) is

considered. For low speeds of the carrier, the gyroscopic effect

can be neglected, whereas for high speeds, it must be taken into

account. The transmission error is considered here.

3.1 Gyroscopic effect neglected

The equation of the movement can be written as:

M x +

_

K

b

+ K

_

x = T (6)

The eigenvalue problem is:

2

i

M

i

=

_

K

b

+ K

_

i

(7)

where

i

is the eigenvalue vector and

i

the corresponding

eigenfrequency.

The planetary gear train considered has a xed ring and four

satellites. The input element is the sun gear and the output elem-

ent is the carrier. In case 1 of Table 2, some eigenfrequencies of

this train having parameters specied in Table 1 are presented.

Remarkable modal properties are recovered for this transmis-

sion set [3]. They are summed up as follows:

Six distinct natural frequencies. The corresponding eigenval-

ues show purely rotational movement of the carrier, the ring,

Table 1. Parameters of the planetary gear model

Sun Ring Carrier Planet

Teeth number 30 70 20

Module 1.7 1.7 1.7

Teeth width (mm) 25 25 25

Mass (kg) 0.46 0.588 3 0.177

I/r

2

(kg) 0.272 0.759 1.5 0.1

Base radius (m) 0.024 0.056 0.016

Helix angle 0

Sp

= k

rp

= 2.10

8

Bearing stiffness (N/m) k

p

= k

Su,v

= k

ru,v

= 10

8

Torsional stiffness (N/m) k

rw

= 10

9

; k

Sw

= k

Cw

= 0

Pressure angle

S

=

r

= 21.34

741

Table 2. Eigenfrequencies for the two cases of neglected and non-neglected

gyroscopic effect (in Hz)

Mode type Case 1: Case 2: Case 3:

c

= 0

c

= 857 rpm

c

= 1285 rpm

1986 1981

Translational 1998

2010 2015

Rotational 3166 3166 3167

3934 3933

Translational 3938

3942 3943

Planet 7998 7998 7998

Rotational 8889 8889 8889

Planet 10490 10490 10490

and the sun. The four satellites move identically and in phase.

These modes are called rotational modes.

Six natural frequencies having a multiplicity m = 2. The car-

rier, the ring, and the sun have pure translational movement

in the corresponding modes. These modes are called transla-

tional modes.

Three distinct natural frequencies. The carrier, the ring, and

the sun do not move; only motion of the planets occurs. The

corresponding vibratory modes are called planet modes.

Examples of modal deections are shown in Fig. 2.

3.2 Sensitivity of eigenvalues to carrier angular speed

In this section, the gyroscopic matrix will be taken into account

in the studied system. The equation of motion is:

M x +

c

G x +

_

K

b

+ K

2

c

K

_

x = T + F(t) (8)

Fig. 2. Modal deections for the three types of modes

The corresponding eigenvalue problem is:

_

2

i

M+ j

c

G

i

+

_

K

b

+ K

2

c

K

__

i

= 0 (9)

In this problem, equations are coupled due to the antisymmet-

ric gyroscopic matrix G in addition to the symmetric stiffness

matrix. This effect is induced by the angular carrier speed and

results in an alteration observed in the dynamic behavior of the

system.

To show the inuence of the gyroscopic effect on the eigen-

values, a study of eigensensitivity to carrier angular speed is

made in this section.

Problems of eigensensitivity have been studied extensively in

the literature [7, 8]. The main scope of this study is a follow-up

of the variation of eigenvalues with respect to model parame-

ters. In our case, an important parameter that alters the vibratory

response is the gyroscopic effect, which occurs as the carrier an-

gular speed

c

increases.

The scripts ( )

with respect to

c

. Let an eigenvalue

i

having a multiplicity

m and = [

1

, . . .,

m

] be the corresponding eigenvectors with

norm

T

M = I

mm

. The derivation of Eq. 9 with respect to

c

yields:

_

K

2

i

M + j

c

G

i

_

i

+

_

2

i

i

M + j

i

G + j

c

G

i

_

i

= 0 (10)

if

c

= 0 we get:

_

K

2

i

M

_

i

=

_

2

i

i

M j

i

G

_

i

= f (11)

f is a Hermitian eigenvalue [7] with

i

= a

i

. Multiplying the

left side of

_

2

i

i

M j

i

G

_

i

by

T

gives:

T

i

_

2

i

i

M j

i

G

_

i

a

i

= 0 (12)

2

T

i

M

i

a

i

= j

T

i

G

i

a

i

(13)

The Hermitian eigenvalue problem is:

Da

i

=

i

a

i

with D =

1

2

j

T

G (14)

The eigenfrequency

i

at a given carrier speed

c

is obtained

by the rst order Taylor expansion:

i

i0

= (

c

c0

)

i

(15)

If

c0

= 0 and

i0

is the corresponding eigenfrequency, we

have:

i

=

i0

+

c

i

(16)

For the studied case of the planetary gear, the three types of

modes are recovered:

742

Fig. 3. Variation of eigenfrequencies with respect to carrier speed

For rotational modes, the eigenfrequencies are distinct, and

we always have

T

i

G

i

= 0. Then applying Eq. 14, we get

i

= 0, which implies that rotational modes are not sensitive

to the variation of

c

.

For planet modes and for a group of eigenvectors

1

. . .

m

,

we always get

T

i

G

i

= 0 and

T

i

G

j

= 0, which implies

also that planet modes are not sensitive to the variation of

c

.

For translational modes, which are in pairs (having eigenvec-

tors

1

et

2

):

i1

=

1

2

T

1

G

2

and

i2

=

1

2

T

2

G

1

=

i1

Then

i1,2

=

1

2

1

G

2

. (17)

In cases 2 and 3 of Table 2, we present the evolution of eigen-

frequencies due to the gyroscopic effect for an angular speed of

the carrier

c

= 1285 rpm and

c

= 857 rpm.

We note that for high speeds of the carrier, the translational

eigenfrequencies bifurcate into two distinct ones, whereas planet

and rotational eigenfrequencies remain constant. The bifurcation

increases as

c

increases.

Figure 3 represents this bifurcation for a set of carrier speeds

varying up to 4000 rpm and for the three types of modes. Modes

(2, 3), (4, 5), (6, 7), and (11, 12) are translational modes. Modes

(8, 10) are rotational modes. Mode (9) is a planet mode.

4 Dynamic response

4.1 Resolution method

Several diagrams of integration of the Eq. 3 are found in litera-

ture. The most well-known is the implicit algorithm of Newmark.

However the solution is always given in the time domain, and

the frequency response is obtained by the Fourier transform. This

method needs initial conditions and signicant calculation time.

The use of Fourier space is an interesting alternative for the

survey of dynamic behavior of the planetary gear. The method

developed by Perret-Liaudet [9], gives the response directly in

the frequency domain. A suitable transformation of the equation

of motion is made: the response is divided into a DC component

x

0

and a dynamic component x

d

:

x = x

0

+x

d

(18)

The static response is obtained from the equation:

Kx

0

= T (19)

where

K is the mean value of the stiffness matrix of the system

expressed by:

K = K

b

+ K

2

c

K

(20)

where K is given by Eq. 5.

The contribution of the transmission error will be added later.

The excitation is due to the time-varying of gearmesh stiffness.

A proportional damping is considered [10]

C = 0.03M +0.03K (21)

Rewriting Eq. 8 by taking in account the transformation

yields:

M

_

x

0

+ x

d

_

+(

c

G +C) ( x

0

+ x

d

)

+

_

K

p

+ K + K(t)

2

c

K

_

(x

0

+x

d

) = T (22)

The dynamic component of the response x

d

can be represented

by the generalized coordinates q

d

, so we can write:

x = x

0

+q

d

(23)

Rearranging Eq. 22 by eliminating of the static component and

taking in account Eq. 23 gives:

T

M q

d

+

T

(

c

G +C) q

d

+

T

_

K

p

+ K

e

(t)

2

c

K

_

q

d

=

T

K(t)x

0

(24)

Writing Eq. 24 in the frequency domain yields:

q

d

() = H()

_

t() j

c

3(N+3)

m=1;k=1

_

T

G

_

mk

q

dk

()

3(N+3)

m=1;k=1

+

_

e

jt

_

T

K(t)

_

mk

q

dk

(t)dt

_

(25)

where q

d

() represents the Fourier transform of q

d

,

H() =

_

T

M+

T

K+ j

T

C

_

1

, (26)

and t

j

() represents the Fourier transform of

T

K(t)x

0

.

743

Eq. 25 can be written as:

q

d

() = H()

_

t() j

c

T

G q

d

()

K() q

d

()

_

(27)

where denotes convolution.

K() is the Fourier transform of

T

K(t).

The resolution is driven iteratively by successive approxima-

tions beginning with an initial solution given by:

q

d

(0)

() = H()t() (28)

The operand is introduced:

() = H()

_

j

c

T

G() +

K() ()

_

(29)

Applying this to Eq. 27, we get:

q

d

() = q

d

(0)

() +( q

d

()) (30)

By successive replacement of q

d

() and a truncation to order

h, we have:

q

d

()

(h)

=

(+h)

k=0

(k)

_

q

d

(0)

()

_

(31)

where:

_

(0)

_

q

d

(0)

()

_

= q

d

(0)

()

(k+1)

() = H()

_

j

c

T

G

(k)

() +

K()

(k)

()

_

(32)

Fig. 4a,b. Frequency re-

sponse (a) and time re-

sponse (b) of the dynamic

component of the carrier

bearing displacement ( f

e

=

1000 Hz)

Fig. 5a,b. Frequency re-

sponse (a) and time re-

sponse (b) of the dynamic

component of the rst planet

bearing tangential displace-

ment ( f

e

= 1500 Hz)

The iterations are stopped and the frequency solution is obtained

by reaching an imposed small error between iterations.

4.2 Dynamic response of a healthy planetary gear

The xed carrier planetary gear is supposed to be healthy. There

are transmission errors in the system F(t) = 0. The simulations

are done with two gearmesh frequencies f

e

= 1000 Hz (

c

=

857 rpm) and f

e

= 1500 Hz (

c

= 1285 rpm). A constant torque

of 1000 Nm is applied to sun gear; N = 4. The response on the

different bearings will be discussed.

Figure 4 represents the dynamic component of the frequency

response and the time response registered on the carrier (output

element).

Figure 5 represents the dynamic component of the frequency

response and the time response registered on the bearing of the

rst planet.

It is found that the frequency response is dominated by the

gearmesh frequency and its harmonics. It is noticed that for

a healthy train, the carrier bearing is not loaded much. How-

ever, the planet bearing is loaded much more, especially in

the tangential direction. The input torque is transmitted through

the rotational degrees of freedom, which explains the light dis-

placement on the sun and carrier bearings (e.g., the carrier

bearing response given by the equation of motion isnt di-

rectly affected by gearmesh variation but is lightly inuenced by

the coupling terms due to other degree-of-freedom responses).

In general, perfect manufactured planetary gears have a low

vibratory level.

744

4.3 Effect of run-out error on dynamic response

The transmission is now assumed to have an eccentricity on the

sun gear. The eccentricity expresses the difference between the

theoretical and the real rotational axis (Fig. 6). This defect is

introduced by adding a transmission error modeled as displace-

ment on the line of action of the sun-planet gearmesh.

The introduction of this displacement in the equation of

motion yields to an exciting force, which represents an ampli-

tude modulation of the gearmesh stiffness by the eccentricity

error [11, 12].

Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the eccentricity on the sun gear

Fig. 7a,b. Frequency re-

sponse of the dynamic com-

ponent of the tangential dis-

placement of the bearing of

the second planet (a) and

the corresponding time sig-

nal (b) for e

s

=20 m ( f

e

=

1500 Hz)

Fig. 8a,b. Frequency re-

sponse of the dynamic com-

ponent of the displacement

of the bearing of the carrier

(a) and the corresponding

time signal (b) for e

s

=

200 m ( f

e

= 1500 Hz)

It is expressed by:

F(t) = e

sn

(t)K

e

(t) (33)

e

sn

(t) = e

s

sin

_

2 f

e

Z

s

t +

sn

_

(34)

where e

s

is the eccentricity modulus, Z

s

is the tooth number of

the sun, and

sn

is the phase difference between sun and planets

gearmesh. The defect frequency is:

f

d

=

f

e

Z

s

(35)

Figure 7 represents the response for an eccentricity e

s

=

20 m of the dynamic component of the rst planet bearings

tangential displacement.

We note an amplitude modulation of the gearmesh signal by

the eccentricity signal, which results into two sidebands around

the gearmesh frequency and its harmonics in addition of the pri-

mary defect frequency f

d

.

For the critical value of 200 m, the gearmesh signal will be

drowned in the defect signal and the transmission will work very

poorly as shown on Figs. 8 and 9. All of the bearings will be af-

fected due to the severity of the defect, especially those of the

planets due to the exciting force expressed by Eq. 33.

4.4 Effect of a prole error on the dynamic response

Generally, prole errors are induced by the manufacturing pro-

cess, And they result in imperfections of the geometry of the

745

Fig. 9a,b. Frequency re-

sponse of the dynamic com-

ponent of the radial dis-

placement of the bearing of

the second planet (a) and

the corresponding time sig-

nal (b) for e

s

= 200 m

( f

e

= 1500 Hz)

tooth and deviations from the perfect involute shape [1315].

The defect considered here is similar for all teeth. The defect

frequency is equal to that of gearmesh f

e

.

Figure 10 is a schematic diagram of a prole error.

As for the eccentricity, the prole defect introduced on the

sun gear is modeled by a displacement on the line of action of the

sun-planet gearmesh. An exciting force F(t) represents an ampli-

Fig. 10. Schematic diagram of a prole error

Fig. 11ac. Inuence of a pro-

le error on the dynamic com-

ponent of the carrier bearing

displacement spectrum ( f

e

=

1000 Hz).

a Healthy gear. b Prole error

of 20 m. c Prole error of

200 m

tude modulation of the gearmesh stiffness signal by the prole

error signal E

s

(t).

It is expressed by:

F(t) = E

sn

(t)K

e

(t) (36)

E

s

(t) =

m=1

E

sm

sin (2m f

e

t +

sn

) (37)

E

sm

represents the prole error modulus.

Figures 11 and 12 represent the difference between the per-

turbations of the responses for a healthy system and for a system

with prole errors on the sun gear teeth. Simulations are done

with prole errors of 20 m and 200 m. The gearmesh frequen-

cies are always f

e

= 1000 Hz or f

e

= 1500 Hz.

We notice the increase of the amplitude of the primary

gearmesh frequency due to the amplitude modulation effect. The

amplitudes of the harmonics change slightly.

746

Fig. 12ac. Inuence of a prole

error on the dynamic compon-

ent of the second planet bearing

displacement spectrum ( f

e

=

1500 Hz).

a Healthy gear. b Prole error of

20 m. c Prole error of 200 m

5 Conclusions

In this paper, a plane model of a planetarygear trainwas developed

in order to investigate the inuence of manufacturing errors on

the dynamic behavior of a planetary gear. The modal analysis of

the adoptedmodel showedparticular eigenfrequencies: rotational,

translational, and planet modes. Only translational modes are af-

fected by gyroscopic effects the frequencies bifurcate into two

distinct frequencies whereas rotational and planet didnt change.

A spectral iterative method was used to obtain the dynamic

response. This method was efcient in calculation times. The

excitation was induced by gearmesh stiffness. A low vibratory

level was observed for a healthy, perfectly designed and mounted

planetary gear. The presence of eccentricity or prole errors

signicantly alters the dynamic behavior. A modulation of the

gearmesh signal by the defect signal is observed for an eccen-

tricity this produced sidebands around gearmesh and around its

harmonics. An increase of the gearmesh frequency amplitude was

found for a prole error. High values of these errors, which mean

poorly manufactured gears, will have dramatic consequences on

the transmission. These surveys allow us to get a rst idea of the

characterization of the dynamic behavior of planetary gears in

presence of such manufacturing errors. Future work will include

investigating the inuence of assembling errors in the model.

References

1. Cunliffe F, Smith JD, Welbourn DB (1974) Dynamic tooth loads in

epicyclic gears. J Eng Ind 94:578584

2. Kahraman A (1994) Load sharing characteristics of planetary transmis-

sions. Mech Mach Theory 29:11511165

3. Lin J, Parker RG (1999) Analytical characterization of the unique prop-

erties of planetary gear free vibration. J Vib Acoust 121:316321

4. Velex P, Flamand L (1996) Dynamic response of planetary trains to

mesh parametric excitations. ASME J Mech Des 118:714

5. Saada A, Velex P (1995) An extended model for the analysis of the

dynamics of planetary trains. ASME J Mech Des 117:241247

6. Fakhfakh T, Chaari F, Haddar M (2003) Etude num erique et exp erimen-

tale du comportement dynamique dune transmission par engrenages

en pr esence de d efauts de dentures. In: 16ime Congs Franais de

m ecanique, Nice, 15 September 2003

7. Friswell MI (1996) The derivatives of repeated eigenvalues and their

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109128

9. Perret-Liaudet J (1996) An original method for computing the re-

sponse of a parametrically excited forced system. J Sound Vib 196:

165177

10. Kasuba R, August R (1984) Gear mesh stiffness and load sharing

in planetary gearing. In: ASME 4th Power Transmission Conference,

Cambridge, MA, ASME Paper 84-DET-229

11. Hidaka T, Terauchi Y, Dohi K (1979) On the relation between the run-

out errors and the motion of the center of sun gear in a Stoeckicht

planetary gear. Bull JSME 22(167):748754

12. Hidaka T, Terauchi Y, Fujii M (1980) Analysis of dynamic tooth load

on planetary gear. Bull JSME 23(176):315323

13. Wajag P, Kahraman A (2002) Inuence of tooth prole modication on

helical gear durability. ASME J Mech Des 124:501510

14. Ma P, Botman M (1984) Load sharing in a planetary gear stage in the

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104:17

15. Bodas A, Kahraman A (2001) Inuence of carrier and gear manufac-

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