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ASTROBIOLOGIA A vida no contexto csmico

C. A. Wuensche III Semana da Fsica - UFSCar 07 de agosto de 2007


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Resumo
Introduo Principais reas de discusso
Habitabilidade planetria Exoplanetas Extremfilos e origem da vida

A Biophilic Universe
A universe hospitable to life what we may call a biophilic universe has to be very special in many ways. The prerequisites for any life (longlived stars, a periodic table of elements with complex chemistry, and so on) are sensitive to physical laws and could not have emerged from a Big Bang with a recipe that was even slightly Martin Rees different.

Our Cosmic Habitat


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A cosmological perspective to search of life in the Universe...


Spergel et al., WMAP series, 2006

A cosmological perspective to search of life in the Universe...


Spergel et al., WMAP series, 2006

Other nonluminous components


Intergalactic gas: 3.6% Neutrinos: 0.1% Supermassive BHs: 0.04%

Luminous matter
Stars and luminous gas: 0.4% Radiation: 0.005%

A cosmological perspective to search of life in the Universe...


Spergel et al., WMAP series, 2006

Other nonluminous components


Intergalactic gas: 3.6% Neutrinos: 0.1% Supermassive BHs: 0.04%

Luminous matter
Stars and luminous gas: 0.4% Radiation: 0.005%

Life building blocks come from these components...


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A cosmological perspective to search of life in the Universe...


Spergel et al., WMAP series, 2006

Other nonluminous components


Intergalactic gas: 3.6% Neutrinos: 0.1% Supermassive BHs: 0.04%

Luminous matter
Stars and luminous gas: 0.4% Radiation: 0.005%

b = 0.04 T

Life building blocks come from these components...


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A cosmological perspective to search of life in the Universe...


Spergel et al., WMAP series, 2006

Other nonluminous components


Intergalactic gas: 3.6% Neutrinos: 0.1% Supermassive BHs: 0.04%

Luminous matter
Stars and luminous gas: 0.4% Radiation: 0.005%

b = 0.04 T

Life building blocks come from these components...


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A cosmological perspective to search of life in the Universe...


Spergel et al., WMAP series, 2006

Other nonluminous components


Intergalactic gas: 3.6% Neutrinos: 0.1% Supermassive BHs: 0.04%

Luminous matter
Stars and luminous gas: 0.4% Radiation: 0.005%

b = 0.04 T

LETS GIVE IT UP!

Life building blocks come from these components...


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NOT!

Fundamental questions for astrobiology


How does life begin and evolve? Does life exist elsewhere in the Universe? What is the future of life on Earth and beyond?
From The Astrophysical Context of Life (http://www.nap.edu/catalog/ 11316.html)

Astronomy provides the fundamental underpinnings for life: space and time. The Universe is filled with billions of galaxies, where there may be possible sites for the origin and evolution of life.
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How can we define life?


J. Schneider, astro-ph/9604131, Szostak et al., Nature, 2001, Bains, Astrobiology 2005, Lunine (2005)

Complex and diversified interactions with the environment System out of thermodynamical equilibrium Memory + reading/recovering mechanism High information content and self-replication capability

Restrictive hipothesis...
Complex systems? Liquid crystals, plasmas... Chemical system? C, Si? Liquid millieu? Why H2O? Existence of a solid/liquid interface?
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How can we define life?


J. Schneider, astro-ph/9604131, Szostak et al., Nature, 2001, Bains, Astrobiology 2005, Lunine (2005)

Complex and diversified interactions with the environment System out of thermodynamical equilibrium Memory + reading/recovering mechanism High information content and self-replication capability

Restrictive hipothesis...
Complex systems? Liquid crystals, plasmas... Chemical system? C, Si? Liquid millieu? Why H2O? Existence of a solid/liquid interface?
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How can we define life?


J. Schneider, astro-ph/9604131, Szostak et al., Nature, 2001, Bains, Astrobiology 2005, Lunine (2005)

Complex and diversified interactions with the environment System out of thermodynamical equilibrium Memory + reading/recovering mechanism High information content and self-replication capability

Restrictive hipothesis...
Complex systems? Liquid crystals, plasmas... Chemical system? C, Si? Liquid millieu? Why H2O? Existence of a solid/liquid interface?
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Galactic and Planetary Habitability

Cosmological and galactic issues


What sorts of environments are needed? What is the adequate time span? Once formed, planets evolve smoothly, but the same does not hold for our known life forms. Initial Universe conditions, galactic and stellar evolution have spread out the building blocks for life as we know it. How biofriendly should a galaxy be, in order to foster origin and evolution of life?
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Galaxy Formation Habitability


Galaxies are natural cells from which the Universe is composed. Stars live in galaxies, and are responsible for the galactic chemical evolution. Necessary levels of chemical abundances and radiation fields needed for the rise of life Early galactic evolution
starbursts dust and molecules complex chemistry.

CNO synthesized by stars in early galaxies allow for the building blocks of organic chemistry to be present since the Universe was ~ 200 million years. Development of complexity life

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Lineweaver et al., Science, 303, 59 (2004)

HABITABLE ZONE (68% e 95%)

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Probabilities for the GHZ

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Probabilities for the GHZ


Probability of star formation rate (SFR)
Typically 1 Solar Mass/year

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Probabilities for the GHZ


Probability of star formation rate (SFR)
Typically 1 Solar Mass/year

Probability of Forming Rock Planets (Pmetals)


Highly sensitive to the metallicity Probability of destroying, producing and harboring Earths

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Probabilities for the GHZ


Probability of star formation rate (SFR)
Typically 1 Solar Mass/year

Probability of Forming Rock Planets (Pmetals)


Highly sensitive to the metallicity Probability of destroying, producing and harboring Earths

Probability of Evolution over Biological Timescales (Pevol )


Darwins theory requires long timescales Pevol depends on tevo (tevol = 4 Gyr for Earth) tevol could be shorter than 4 Gyr?

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Probabilities for the GHZ


Probability of star formation rate (SFR)
Typically 1 Solar Mass/year

Probability of Forming Rock Planets (Pmetals)


Highly sensitive to the metallicity Probability of destroying, producing and harboring Earths

Probability of Evolution over Biological Timescales (Pevol )


Darwins theory requires long timescales Pevol depends on tevo (tevol = 4 Gyr for Earth) tevol could be shorter than 4 Gyr?

Probability of Survival to Galactic Violent Events (PSN - Horvath e Galante, Astrobiology 2006)
Pevol depends on past events through tSN For Earth, tSN = tevol = 4 Gyr (maybe shorter!) Other killers: GRBs, GMClouds, AGNs
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Friaa et al., ApJ 2006 (submitted)


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Recent detection of a PANH in the IR


Hudgins et al. ApJ, 2005

H N C

Component of caffeine
Spitzer detected PANHs in various galaxies, besides our own. First direct evidence for the presence of a prebiotic interesting compound in space. Presence of N is essential in biologically interesting compounds (chlorophyll). The presence of a planet is no longer necessary for the formation of a PANH.
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Main assumptions: Surface H2O for ~ Gyear, geological activity, CO2-H2O-N2 atmosphere, B-field, climate stability, resistance to catastrophes for ~ Gyear

Stellar habitable zone

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Main assumptions: Surface H2O for ~ Gyear, geological activity, CO2-H2O-N2 atmosphere, B-field, climate stability, resistance to catastrophes for ~ Gyear

Stellar habitable zone

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IRS-46 spectrum
http://www.nasa.gov/lb/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/spitzer-20051220.html

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IRS-46 spectrum
http://www.nasa.gov/lb/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/spitzer-20051220.html

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IRS-46 spectrum
http://www.nasa.gov/lb/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/spitzer-20051220.html

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Formation and evolution of life

~ 90% of all Earths biomass!


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Catling
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Our recipe for Earths habitability


1)Liquid water allowed microbes to originate and evolve 2)Plate tectonics replenished CO2 for life to persist 3)A magnetic field protected atmospheric gases from escape (except H, He)

Microbes made O2, CH4 CH4 then O2 dominated Ozone layer formed at ~ 2.3 Gy Simple algae, fungi developed More O2 and animals at 0.6 Gy Modern humans at 2 My This seminar...

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Exoplanets

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Capacidade existente Projetada (10 20 a) Deteces primrias Acompanhamentos N-sistemas? - Incertezas

ltimo acesso: 27/07/2007 Fonte: http://www.obspm.fr/encycl/catalog.html

4 planetas

4 planetas

203 planetas 175 sist. planetrios 20 sistemas mltiplos 4 planetas

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All Catalogs (update : 27 July 2007)


All Candidates detected 248 planets Candidates detected by radial velocity 202 planetary systems 236 planets 25 multiple planet systems Candidates detected by transit 23 planetary systems 23 planets 0 multiple planet systems Candidates detected by microlensing 4 planets Candidates detected by imaging 4 planets Candidates pulsar planets 2 planetary systems 4 planets 1 multiple planet system
- Unconfirmed, controversial or retracted planets: 2 update : 06 July 2007

(update: 09/07/2007)

(update: 09/07/2007)

update : 10/06/2006 update : 24 /07/2006 update : 15/10/2006

http://exoplanet.eu/catalog.php

Candidate "cluster" and "free-floating" planets: 3

update : 31 August 2006


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Main techniques
Radial velocity (187 planets)
Both planets spin around the center of mass of the system. The larger the planet mass or the smallest the distance between star and planet, the larger the star movement.

Transit (9 planets)
Orbits practically perpendicular to the plane of the sky (i=90o). The planet mass is determined by radial velocity; the transit tells us about the radius. Telescopes on the ground are able to detect only large planets; for Earth-like planets, satellite observations are required.

Microlensing (4 planets)
Gravity due to an object between the source and us bends the ligth of the source Massive objects in the Galactic halo may act as gravitational lens.
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Radial Velocity

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Gravitational

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Transit of extrasolar planets

HD20945

~0,02

http://www.iac.es/galeria/hdeeg/OSNanimlastmont.gif
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Kepler

TPF (Terrestrial Planet Finder)

COROT

com 30% de participao brasileira (INPE tambm)!

Darwin

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Possibility of remote detection of life


Explore the contrast star/planet in thermal IR (Des Marais et al. 2002, Segura et al. 2003)
Window at 8-12 m: Tsurface

Porto de Melo et al., Astrobiology, 2006


H2O 6.3 m + 12 m band > 106 CH4 7.7 m O3 9.6 m CO2 15 m

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A. Chian presented a technique to detect exoplanets via radio emission. Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) from a stellar active region may cause geomagnetic storms, which can be seen at large distances.

Chian
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Extremophiles and the origin of life

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The highest and lowest temperature for each major taxon is given. Archaea are in red, bacteria in blue, algae in light green, fungi in brown, protozoa in yellow, plants in dark green and animals in purple.

Life in extreme environments, LJ Rothschild & RL Mancinelli, Nature 409, 1092-1101 (22 February 2001)

Temperature limits for life

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Extremophiles who are they?


We have more microbe cell than us-cells in our body. The first life form on Earth, and the only one for the first 3 billion years, was a microbe. Microbes can live in REALLY extreme conditions. There is more life within the Earth (a few feet below) than on the Earths surface. Most probable candidates to an E.T. life form.
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Extremophiles who are they?


We have more microbe cell than us-cells in our body. The first life form on Earth, and the only one for the first 3 billion years, was a microbe. Microbes can live in REALLY extreme conditions. There is more life within the Earth (a few feet below) than on the Earths surface. Most probable candidates to an E.T. life form.
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Extremophiles survival chart


Temperature: -15 C < T < 230 C 0.06 < pH < 12.8 0 < Pressure < 1200 atm No mandatory oxygen-based metabolism 20-40 Myears of dormancy 2 years in space, at 20 K, with no nutrients, water and exposed to radiation (Strep. Mitis)

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Adapted from F. Souza-Barros, 2006


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Adapted from F. Souza-Barros, 2006


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What is being done in Brazil?


Astronomy Biology Chemistry

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20 Amino acids

Survival of aminoacids and nucleobases in ISM and IPM (Pilling et al., 2006)

Glycine

Alanine

Valine

Glutamic acid

Aspartic acid

Leucine

Isoleucine

Lysine

Arginine

Serin e

Threonine

Glutamine

Asparagine
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Our heroes
20 Amino acids (cont)
Proline Methionine Cysteine Histidine

Tyrosine

Phenylalanine

Tryptophane

Detected precursor molecules!


NH

Acetic acid Formic acid Methanolamine Hidroxylamine

NH2CH2

NH2CH
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Our heroes
5 Nucleobases

Uracil Pyrimidines

Cytosine

Thymine

Adenine Purines

Guanine

Detected precursor molecules!

Acetylene

Hydrogen Cyanide

Pyridine

Pyrimidine

Purine
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How they are born?


UV UV

X-ray

X-ray

HCOOH

HCOOH

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How they are found?


IR-Telescopes
(vibrational lines)

Radiotelescopes
VLA

(rotational lines)

Itapetinga, SP

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How they are found?


IR-Telescopes
(vibrational lines)

Radiotelescopes
VLA

(rotational lines)

Itapetinga, SP

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Where they are found?


Gaseous Pillars Eagle Nebula Key hole Nebula

Titan

Hale-Bopp

Murchinson
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Photoionization using synchrotron light

TGM e SGM bean line (VUV & soft Xray) 12-22eV C1s (290eV) N1s (410eV) O1s (540ev)
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The technique
Time-of-Flight Mass Spectometry; TOF-MS

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Where are the nucleobases?

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Where are the nucleobases? Why we don't observe them?


Main reasons for no detection.
Life time to short to sustain the column density above the detection limit. Low resistance to radiation field. Low efficient pathway formation. Low density Large partition function. Many ro-vibrational lines with low intensity.

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Where are the nucleobases? Why we don't observe them?


Main reasons for no detection.
Life time to short to sustain the column density above the detection limit. Low resistance to radiation field. Low efficient pathway formation. Low density Large partition function. Many ro-vibrational lines with low intensity.

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Where are the nucleobases? Why we don't observe them?


Main reasons for no detection.
Life time to short to sustain the column density above the detection limit. Low resistance to radiation field. Low efficient pathway formation. Low density Large partition function. Many ro-vibrational lines with low intensity.

If we'll go there, and look for them using a microscope or other device?
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Biomolecules results
Amino acids
survival: ~ 1% (16 eV); 0% (> 20 eV ) main photoproducts (Fingertips): COOH,

HCNH, ...

Nucleobases
survival: ~ 30% (16 eV); ~ 20% (20eV ); ~ 0.5% (> 100eV) main photoproducts: HNCO,

HCN, NCO, ...

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Biomolecules results
Amino acids
survival: ~ 1% (16 eV); 0% (> 20 eV ) main photoproducts (Fingertips): COOH,

HCNH, ...

Nucleobases
survival: ~ 30% (16 eV); ~ 20% (20eV ); ~ 0.5% (> 100eV) main photoproducts: HNCO,

HCN, NCO, ...

Lets try to look for these guys using their parts (pieces)?
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SEARCHING PERSPECTIVES
Follow-up of growth & metabolism of

extremophiles under simulated planetary/ satellite conditions

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Tit

Lago de Hidrocarbonetos? Rios de Metano?

Niemam et al. 2005, Nature, 438, 779. 51

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ASTROBIOLOGICALLY INTERESTING STARS NEAR THE SUN


Porto de Mello et al., Astrobiology, 6, 308-331 (2006)

Goal: to establish state of the art criteria for selecting


stars which might be hosts to remotely detectable biospheres

Criteria:
Liquid water, geologic activity, long term climate stability stellar mass, stellar chemical composition, stellar age Adequate Time Scales: bioproductivity timescale, oxygenation time scale, stellar age
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ANALYSIS

The Habitable Zone Concept

Continuously Habitable Zone and Timescales

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ANALYSIS

The Habitable Zone Concept

Continuously Habitable Zone and Timescales


Upper mass limit M ~ 1.2 solar masses

Lower mass limit M ~ 0.7 solar masses

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ANALYSIS

The Habitable Zone Concept

The Bioproductivity Issue


Age of highly diversified biosphere is less than 20% of total biosphere lifetime

Too advanced an age is a liability


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RESULTS

Candidates: ages from stellar evolution calculations 61 Virginis

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RESULTS The 13 biostars within 33 light-years


NOT ONE OF THEM WITH PLANETS !

HD 1581 4628 10476 16160 32147 100623 102365 109358 115617 185144 190248 192310 219134

Name Tuc 107 Psc

mass age ~ < < < < < < > ~ < > < < ~ ? ? ? ~ > > ~ ~ > ~ > ?

[Fe/H] orbit ~ < < ~ > < < < ~ < > ~ ~ > ~ > > > > > ~ > > ~ > >

rank
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CVn 61 Vir Dra Pav

Present results
WE CAN quantitatively rank nearby stars as astrobiological targets : completeness of available data is essential; 7% of neighborhood stars are interesting; 2% only if we take galactic orbits as relevant; 1% only is actually similar to the Sun;

Observational and theoretical work should continue on:


Completeness of stellar database of nearby objects; Habitability of multiple stars; Stability of biospheres against galactic catastrophes; Habitability criteria for planets different from the Earth;
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Any alternatives at this point?


Other liquids may define other biochemistries Ammonia (Jupiter satellites), methane/ethane (Titan), nitrogen (silicon-oriented) Light (mostly IR) on the surface of Titan may allow photosynthesis-like processes, even at low temperatures. Chemolitotrophy possibly available in any liquid environment (Galilean satellites). Maybe a new definition of Galactic and Stellar Habitable Zones? (Wuensche, Lage, et al., Astrobiology 2006, submitted)
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OUR SOLAR SYSTEMS LIQUID POSSIBILITIES Water-based oceans


Other liquid
) e) kes urfac possibilities ace la ubs ne f s tha ) sur nia ( ( /e nia mmo ane lakes o th ) mm ter/a me rface r/a wa ace te rf (su wa (su en og r e) nit fac r bsu su n( ge itro n

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Suggestions to search for habitability conditions elsewhere?


Carbon based, DNA-like search, in planetary systems
Targeting small constituents of organic compounds Radio/IR/ X (Pilling et al., A&A 2005) Targeting PANHs IR (Hodges et al., ApJ 2005)

Other alternatives (chemical/physical/meteorological)


Other liquids/fluids demand a different chemistry (not CHON based) due to thermodynamical requirements (Bains, Astrobiology 2005). Self-sustained ability to disturb a local environment (Atmosphere search for upcoming space missions).
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