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MACHINE DRAWING

[ IN FIRST-ANGLE PROJECTI O N M E T H O D ]

By V. M. PANCHAL N. D. BHATT
Edition ISBN Size Binding Pages : 46th Edition : 2011 : 978-93-80358-46-8 : 170 mm 240 mm : Paperback with 4 color Jacket Cover : 350 + 16
Charotar

` 110.00 CoNteNt
1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 : 6 : 7 : 8 : 9 : 10 : 11 : 12 : 13 : 14 : 15 : 16 : 17 : 18 : 19 : 20 : PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTION SHEET LAYOUT AND SKETCHING LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO OR THOGRAPHIC VIEWS SECTIONAL VIEWS ORTHOGRAPHIC READING OR INTERPRETATION OF VIEWS SCREW THREADS SCREWED FASTENINGS KEYS, COTTER-JOINTS, PIN-JOINTS PIPE JOINTS VALVES RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS SHAFT BEARINGS, BRACKETS AND HANGERS SHAFT COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES AND BRAKES PULLEYS SPUR GEARING ENGINE PARTS ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION DRAWING ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS ELEMENTS OF COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING

This text-book follows:

About the book

(i) the metric system of length measurement and (ii) first-angle method of orthographic projection.

However, the third-angle projection method has not been completely ignored. It describes in an easy-to-follow style and with application of the principles of orthographic projection, forms, proportions and uses of simple machine, engine and boiler parts. Chapters on elements of production drawings, assembly drawings and elements of computer aided drafting (CADr) are also given. The techniques of freehand sketching, dimensioning, conversion of pictorial views, sectional views and interpretation of view are treated in clear and simple manner. Most of the orthographic views are accompanied by the pictorial views of the objects to enable the students to visualize the shapes easily. The book covers the syllabi of Machine Drawing to meet the requirements of Engineering Degree students of all the Indian Universities as well as Diploma courses in various branches of Engineering conducted by the Department of Technical Education for I.T.I. students and also to the candidates reading for the A.M.I.E. and U.P.S.C., I.E.S. and other similar Examinations.

Checklist
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Chapter 1 : PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTION 1-0 Engineering drawing 1-1 Principle of projection 1-2 Methods of projection 1-3 Orthographic projection 1-3-1 First-angle projection 1-3-2 Third-angle projection B.I.S. code of practice Symbols for methods of projection Combination of two methods 1-4 Isometric projection 1-5 Oblique projection 1-6 Perspective projection Exercises I Chapter 2 : SHEET LAYOUT AND SKETCHING 2-1 Sheet layout Sheet sizes Title block Margin List of parts or the bill of materials Border lines Revisions of drawing Borders and frames Folding marks Orientation mark Scales and scale drawing Grid reference system 2-2 Types of machine drawings (i) Production drawing (ii) Exploded assembly drawing (iii) Schematic assembly drawing (iv) Drawing for instruction manual (v) Drawing for installation (vi) Drawing for catalogue (vii) Tabular drawing (viii) Patent drawing 2-3 Sketching Sketching materials To sketch circles and arcs To sketch straight lines Sketching procedure Exercises II Chapter 3 : LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 3-0 Introduction 3-1 Lines Line thickness Leader or pointer lines Inked drawings Border lines Pencil drawings Short-break lines Types of Lines Long-break lines Outlines Hidden or dotted lines Margin lines Centre lines Dimension lines Cutting-plane lines Extension or projection lines Chain thick Construction lines Chain thick double-dashed Hatching or section lines 3-2 Lettering (IS : 9609-1990) I Single-stroke letters II Gothic letters 3-3 Dimensioning Types of dimensions 3-4 Dimensioning terms and notations Dimension line Arrowhead Extension line Leader 3-5 Placing of dimensions (i) Aligned system (ii) Unidirectional system 3-6 Unit of dimensioning 3-7 General rules for dimensioning 3-8 Practical hints on dimensioning (a) Continuous or chain dimensioning (b) Progressive or parallel dimensioning Exercises III

: CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 4-0 Introduction (i) First-angle projection method (ii) Third-angle projection method 4-1 Orthographic projection 4-2 Procedure for preparing a scale-drawing 4-3 Illustrative problems Exercises Solutions to exercises IV Chapter 5 : SECTIONAL VIEWS 5-0 Introduction 5-1 Cutting-plane line 5-2 Types of sectional views 5-2-1 Full section 5-2-2 Half section 5-2-3 Partial or broken section 5-2-4 Revolved section 5-2-5 Removed section 5-2-6 Offset section 5-3 Sectioning conventions 5-4 Hatching or section lines 5-5 Conventions of section lines Illustrative problems Exercises V Solutions to exercises V Chapter 6 : ORTHOGRAPHIC READING OR IN TERPRETATION OF VIEWS 6-0 Introduction 6-1 Reading of orthographic views (Blue-print reading) 6-2 Missing lines and missing views 6-3 Identification of planes Exercises VI Solutions to exercises VI Chapter 7 : SCREW THREADS 7-0 Introduction 7-1 Definitions Crest Core or minor diameter Root Effective diameter Flank Effective diameter Angle Pitch Depth Lead Nominal diameter Lead Outside or major diameter slope 7-2 Forms of screw threads 7-2-1 Triangular or V threads (a) Unified thread (b) Metric thread (c) Whitworth thread (d) British Standard Fine and British Standard Pipe threads (e) Sellers thread (f) British Association thread 7-2-2 Square thread (a) Acme thread IS : 7008-1988 (b) Knuckle thread (c) Buttress thread 7-3 Conventional representation of threads SP : 46- 1988 Method I (a) External threads (b) Internal threads Method II (a) External V thread (c) External square thread (b) Internal V thread (d) Internal square thread 7-4 Multiple-start threads 7-5 Right-hand and left-hand threads Exercises

Chapter 4

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Chapter 8 : SCREWED FASTENINGS 8-0 Introduction 8-1 Types of nuts 8-1-1 Hexagonal nut 8-1-2 Square nut 8-2 Types of nuts for special purpose Flanged nut Cap nut Dome nut Cylindrical or capstan nut Ring nut Wing nut 8-3 Washers 8-4 Types of bolts 8-5 Forms of bolts Hexagonal-headed bolt 8-6 Methods of preventing rotation of a bolt while screwing a nut on or off it Square-headed bolt Cylindrical or cheese-headed bolt Cup-headed or round-headed bolt T-headed bolt Countersunk-headed bolt Hook bolt Headless tapered bolt Eye-bolt Lifting eye-bolt Tap-bolt or cap-screw Stud-bolt or stud 8-7 Set-screws 8-8 Locking arrangements for nuts (i) Lock-nut or check-nut (ii) Split-pin (iii) Slotted nut (iv) Castle nut (v) Sawn nut or Wiles nut (vi) Simmonds lock-nut (vii) Penn, ring or grooved nut (viii) Stop-plate or locking-plate (ix) Spring-washer 8-9 Foundation bolts (i) Eye foundation bolt (ii) Rag bolt (iii) Lewis bolt (iv) Cotter bolt 8-10 Spanner 8-11 Longitudinal or bar stay Exercises VIII Chapter 9 : KEYS, COTTER-JOINTS, PIN-JOINTS 9-0 Introduction 9-1 Keys joints (i) Taper keys, Sunk taper key, Saddle keys, Round key or pin key Taper pin, Gib-head (ii) Parallel or feather keys, Spline shafts, Woodruff key Cone keys, Staking-on 9-2 Cotter and cotter joints (i) Socket and spigot joint (ii) Sleeve joint (iii) Strap joint 9-3 Pin-joint or Knuckle joint Exercises IX

Chapter 10 : PIPE JOINTS 10-0 Introduction 10-1 Cast-iron pipes 10-1-1 Cast-iron flanged joint 10-1-2 Stocket and spigot joint 10-1-3 Hydraulic joint 10-2 Wrought-iron and steel pipes 10-3 Coper pipes 10-3-1 Union joint 10-4 Lead pipes 10-5 Expansion joints 10-6 Piping drawing Exercises X Chapter 11 : VALVES 11-0 Introduction 11-1 Types of valves 11-1-1 Flap valve, India-rubber disc valve 11-1-2 Ball valve 11-1-3 Metal disc valve 11-1-4 Stop valves 11-1-5 Feed-check valve 11-2 Safety valves 11-2-1 Spring-loaded safety valves 11-2-2 Lever safety valve 11-2-3 Dead-weight safety valve 11-3 Blow-off cock Exercises Chapter 12 : RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS 12-0 Introduction 12-1 Riveting 12-1-1 Caulking and fullering 12-2 Forms and proportions of rivet-heads 12-3 Failure of riveted joints 12-4 Dimensions of a riveted joint 12-5 Types of riveted joints 12-5-1 Lap joint 12-5-2 Butt joint 12-6 Rolled-steel sections 12-6-1 Connection of plates at right angles 12-6-2 Gusset stay 12-7 Welded joints 12-7-1 Welding 12-7-2 Types of welding process (i) Pressure welding or forge welding (ii) Fusion welding (iii) Fusion and pressure welding Types of welded joints Types of welds 12-7-3 Representation of welded joints Exercises XII Chapter 13 : SHAFT BEARINGS, BRACKETS AND HANGERS 13-0 Introduction (i) A journal bearing (iii) A collar or thrust bearing (ii) A pivot bearing 13-1 Journal bearings 13-1-1 Solid bearing 13-1-2 Bushed bearing 13-1-3 Pedestal bearing or plummer block 13-1-4 Methods of preventing rotation of brasses in a bearing 13-2 Pivot bearing 13-2-1 Foot-step bearing 13-3 Wall brackets 13-4 Hangers 13-5 Wall-plates 13-6 Wall-box Exercises XIII

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Chapter 14 : SHAFT COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 14-0 Introduction 14-1 Fast or rigid couplings 14-1-1 Box or muff coupling 14-1-2 Half-lap coupling 14-1-3 Split-muff coupling 14-2 Flanged coupling 14-2-1 Protected type flange-coupling 14-2-2 Solid flanged coupling 14-3 Flexible couplings 14-3-1 Universal coupling or Hooks joint 14-3-2 Oldhams coupling 14-3-3 Gear coupling 14-4 Loose or disengaging couplings or clutches 14-4-1 Claw coupling or clutch 14-4-2 Conical friction coupling or cone friction clutch 14-4-3 Single plate clutch 14-5 Brakes Exercises XIV Chapter 15 : PULLEYS 15-0 Introduction 15-1 Types of pulleys 15-2 C. I. belt pulleys 15-3 Fast and loose pulleys 15-4 Speed cones or stepped pulleys 15-5 Split pulleys 15-6 Built-up pulleys 15-7 Rope pulleys 15-8 V-belt pulleys Exercises XV Chapter 16 : SPUR GEARING 16-0 Introduction 16-1 Spur gear definitions Pitch 16-1-1 Relationship between the pitches 16-1-2 Tooth proportions 16-1-3 Involute spur gears 16-1-4 Construction of base circles 16-1-5 Approximate construction of teeth profile (1) For gears of 30 teeth and over (2) For gears of less than 30 teeth Gears in mesh 16-2 Rack and pinion 16-3 Cycloidal tooth profile Exercises XVI Chapter 17 : ENGINE PARTS 17-0 Introduction 17-1 Steam engine 17-1-1 Cylinder cover 17-1-2 Pistons 17-1-3 Stuffing boxes 17-1-4 Cross-heads 17-1-5 Connecting rods (i) Big end (ii) Small end 17-1-6 Cranks (i) Overhung crank (ii) Disc crank 17-1-7 Eccentrics 17-1-8 Slide valves, Internal combustion engine 17-2 An I. C. engine 17-2-1 Piston 17-2-2 Connecting rod 17-2-3 Crankshaft (i) Forged crankshaft (ii) Built-up crank Exercises XVII

Chapter 18 : ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION DRAWING 18-0 Introduction 18-1 Geometrical tolerances 18-2 Types of geometrical tolerances I Form tolerances II Position tolerances 18-2-1 Terminology for geometrical deviations (i) Tolerance of straightness (ii) Tolerance of flatness (iii) Barrel form, bow form and curvature of axes (iv) Taper (v) Oval form and lobed form (vi) Radial run out and axial run out (vii) tMisalignment (viii) Incorrect location of intersecting axes (ix) Non-perpendicular surfaces (x) Datum 18-3 Representation of geometrical tolerance on a drawing 18-4 Dimensional tolerances 18-4-1 Terminology for dimensional tolerances (i) Basic dimension (viii) Bilateral limits (ii) Upper deviation (ix) Maximum material condition (iii) Lower deviation (x) Allowance (iv) Tolerance zone (xi) Mating surfaces and mating dimensions (v) Actual size (xii) Basic shaft (vi) Zero line (xiii) Basic hole (vii) Unilateral limits 18-4-2 Selection of tolerances 18-4-3 Representation of dimensional tolerances (i) Letter symbol (ii) Number or grade method 18-4-4 Representation of dimensional tolerances on drawings 18-5 Fits (i) Clearance fit (iii) Transition fit (ii) Interference fit (iv) Sliding fit 18-5-1 Hole basis and shaft basis system (i) Hole basis system (ii) Shaft basis system 18-5-2 Representation of holes, shafts and fits 18-6 Surface-roughness 18-6-1 Terminology for surface roughness (i) Ideal surface (ii) Roughness (a) Roughness height (b) Mean roughness index (c) Surface roughness number (iii) Waviness (iv) Lay 18-7 Representation of surface-roughness on drawings Exercises XVIII Chapter 19 : ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS 19-0 Introduction 19-1 Types of assembly drawings (i) Designed assembly (iv) Working drawing assembly (ii) Layout assembly (v) General assembly (iii) Installation assembly 19-2 Accepted norms to be observed for assembly drawings (i) Selection of views (iv) Dimensions (ii) Sectioning (v) Bill of materials (iii) Dotted lines 19-3 Sequences of preparing the assembly drawing Illustrative problems Exercises XIX

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Chapter 20 : ELEMENTS OF COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING 20-0 Introduction 20-1 Computer Aided Drafting 20-2 Computer (CPU) 20-2-1 Processor 20-2-2 Display 20-2-3 INPUT Devices (a) Keyboard (c) Tablet or digitizer (b) Mouse 20-2-4 Graphic output devices (a) Dot Matrix Printers (DMP) and Laser Printers (b) Pen plotters (c) Ink-Jet printers/plotters 20-3 CAD software (1) Modelling and drafting (4) Modularity (2) Ease of use (5) Low maintenance cost (3) Flexibility 20-4 AutoCAD 20-4-1 Drawing entities (1) Line (6) Donut (2) Circle (7) Polygon (3) Arc (8) Ellipse (4) Trace (9) Solid (5) Pline

20-4-2 Drafting aids (1) Layer (2) Blocks (3) Dimensioning (4) Object snap (5) Hatch patterns (6) Zoom (7) Text 20-4-3 Editing of a drawing (1) Move (11) Change (2) Rotate (12) Extend (3) Copy (13) Offset (4) Mirror (14) Stretch (5) Array (15) Trim (6) Erase (16) Scale (7) Oops (17) Pedit (8) Break (18) Explode (9) Fillet (19) Undo (10) Chamfer 20-5 Symbol library 20-6 Three dimensional modelling Illustrative problem Exercises XX

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