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EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Chapter 1
An Overview of Electric Power Systems
I. A.Odigwe

EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Overview of Electric Power Systems What is a Power System? A Power System is a network of Components designed to efficiently transmit and distribute energy produced by generators to the locations where it is used (i.e. Load Centers)

EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Overview of Electric Power Systems (Contd.) Major Components of a Power System

I. Generators (Produce the Electrical Energy distributed by the power system). II. Transformers (Convert AC Electrical
Energy at one level to AC Electrical Energy at another voltage level at a relatively high efficiency).
EIE 321 - Electrical Power Systems

Overview of Electric Power Systems (Contd.) III. Power-Lines :Connect Generators to Loads, transmitting electrical power from one to the other with minimal losses. IV. Loads :Of three major types; Industrial, Commercial and Residential.
EIE 321 - Electrical Power Systems

Generators Generators produce the Electrical Energy distributed by a power system by converting Mechanical Energy to Electrical Energy through Electromagnetic Induction. The above mentioned Mechanical Energy
comes from a prime mover which is the device that spins the generator.
EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Generators (Contd.)
Prime movers can come from Water, Coal,
Natural Gas, Oil, Wind e.t.c. Water and Wind are perhaps the best because they are non polluting and is available at no-cost. Transformers convert AC Electrical Energy at one level to AC Electrical Energy at another voltage level at a relatively high efficiency.
EIE 321 - Electrical Power Systems

Generators (Contd.) They are essential for the operation of a modern power system, since transformers allow power to be transmitted with minimal losses over long distances and then reducing the voltage to the level required by the end-user.

EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Power Lines Power Lines connect generators to loads, transmitting electrical power from one to the other with minimal losses. They are usually divided into two categories: Transmission Lines and Distribution Lines.

EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Power Lines (Contd.)


Transmission Lines are designed to transmit Electrical Power efficiently over long
distances. They run at very high voltages to reduce the resistive (I2R) losses. Standard Transmission line voltages in Nigeria are 132kV and 330kV. Once the power reaches the vicinity of the user, the voltage is stepped down and the power is supplied through distribution lines to the final consumer. EIE 321 - Electrical Power Systems

Power Lines (Contd.) Distribution Lines carry much less power than transmission lines, and for shorter distances so they can operate at lower voltages with minimal losses. In Nigeria, Distribution Line voltages are 33kV, 11kV and 415V. Distribution Lines supply power directly to the consumers premises through the service mains at 220V (Single Phase) or 415V (Three Phase).
EIE 321 - Electrical Power Systems

Loads They are of three types in modern power systems: Industrial Commercial Residential The most important are motors, Electrical Lighting and Electronic Products (PCs, TVs, Phones e.t.c)

EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Protective Systems In addition to the major components, there are some devices assigned to protect these Power Systems. Some of these devices include Voltage, Current and Power Sensors Relays, -Fuses, -Circuit Breakers These are essential in order to protect the Power system from possible failure.

EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Failures in Power Systems There are two common types of failures in Power systems: Overloads: Overloads occur when some or all of the components in the Power system are supplying more power than they can safely handle. Occurs because the total demand on the Power System simply exceeds the ability of the system to supply power.
EIE 321 Introduction to Power Systems

Failures in Power Systems (Contd.) Faults: These are conditions in which one or more of the phases in a Power system are shorted to ground or each other. Faults also occur if a phase is Opencircuited.
EIE 321 - Electrical Power Systems

Failures in Power Systems (Contd.) When a short-circuit occurs, very large current flows and this can damage the power system if it is not stopped quickly. Unlike overloads, faults must be cleared immediately, so relays are designed to automatically open circuit breakers and
isolate faults as soon as they are detected.
EIE 321 - Electrical Power Systems