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STUDENTS NAME: SUBJECT: TOPIC: . SCIENCE SUMMARY FOR FORM 2 SCIENCE TEACHERS NAME: CLASS: LESSON NO: DATE: TIME: Chapter 1 THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES Pathway from stimulus to Stimulus receptor nerve brain nerve response effector response Sense of touch Organ Layers Receptors ( nerve ending ) Sensitivity Sense of smell Organ Smell detected Sense of taste Organ Taste detected Types of taste Flavour of food MR CHIA CS 2 SCIENCE SPECIAL EDITION

Skin Dermis, epidermis, fatty tissues Pain, touch, heat, cold, pressure Thickness of epidermis Number of receptors Nose At nasal cavity, when mucus dissolves chemicals Tongu e At buds, When saliva dissolves chemicals Sweet ( tip ) , bitter ( back ) , sour ( side behind) , salty ( side in front ) Combination of sense of smell and taste

Sense of hearing Organ Ear Mechanism Pinna ear canal eardrum ossicles oval window cochlea auditory nerves brain Parts Name Functions Outer Pinna Collect sound waves ( gas ) Ear canal Direct sound waves to eardrum Eardrum Vibrate and transfer sound waves to ossicles Middle Ossicles Amplify sound waves 20 times ( liquid Eustachian tube Balancing of air pressure ) Oval window Transfer sound waves from ossicles to cochlea Inner Cochlea Convert sound waves into nerve impulses ( liquid Semicircular Keep head / body balance ) canals Auditory nerves Transfer nerve impulses to brain Sense of sight Organ Layers Parts Sclera Cornea Choroid Conjunctiva Iris Eye Sclera ( outer, tough, white ) Choroid ( middle, dark, a lot of blood capillaries) Retina ( inner, a lot of nerves ) Maintain shape, protection Allow light to enter, focus light on retina Supply oxygen and nutrient Absorb and prevent internal light reflection Protect cornea Give colour to eye , Control size of pupil

Pupil Lens Ciliary body Suspensory ligament Vitreous humour Aqueous humour Retina

Allow light to enter Refract and focus light onto retina Changes the thickness of lens Hold lens Maintain eye shape Focus image on retina Absorb vibration Refract and focus light Yellow spot Blind spot Photoreceptor: Sensitive to light Not sensitive to light, no receptor Spot where nerves leave the eyeball Transmit nerve impulse from retina to brain Looking at a near object Contract Relax Become thick looking at a distant object Relax Contract Becomes thin

Optic nerves Mechanism of sight Ciliary body Suspensory ligament Thickness of lens

Properties of light 1. Travels in a straight line formation of shadow 2. Can be reflected mirror 3. Can be refracted glass block 4. Can be dispersed prism Reflection of light Definition Incident ray Normal line Reflected ray Image is


light bounces off from the opaque object Ray that approaches the surface Line that is right angle with the surface Ray that bounces off the surface Upright Laterally inverted Virtual Same size Same distance from the mirror as the object Plane mirror Dressing, combing Periscope Submarines , objects on the sea Beautiful images Kaleidoscope Produce a wider scope of view. Convex mirror Security mirrors, wing mirrors of a car, blind corner mirror. Produce magnified images Dental mirror, microscopes

Concave mirror

Refraction of light Definition bending of light when pass through transparent media with different density Light Speed Angle from the normal line Denser to less Faster Further away dense Less dense to Slower Nearer denser Application Ponds and swimming pools appear shallower s Drinking straw appears bent in water Defective visions Short sightedness ( myopia ) Long sightedness ( hypermetropia ) Old sightedness ( presbyopia ) Astigmatism Problem Cant see distant object clearly Cant see near object clearly Cant see distant and near object clearly Factor Eye ball too long Eye lens too thick Eye ball too short Eye lens too thin Eye lens less elastic Ciliary body loses ability to relax and contract Corrective lens Concave lens Convex lens

Bifocal lens

Object can see Irregular surface of cornea or lens some parts clearly only Colour-blindness Certain colour cant Problems of cone photoreptors in retina differentiate Limitations of sight Cause Optical illusion Wrong interpretation of brain Blind spot Image falls on blind spot

Cylindrical lens No way to correct ( inherited )

Stereoscopic and monocular vision Stereoscopic vision monocular vision 1. Overlapping vision 1. No overlapping 2. Eyes in front of 2. Eyes at each side of the head head 3. Smaller field of 3. Wider field of vision vision 4. 3 dimensional 4. No 3 dimensional 5. Can judge distance 5. Cannot judge distance well well 6. Mostly predators 6. Mostly preys Soun d Propertie s 1. Is a form of energy 2. Produced by vibrations 3. Need medium ( gas, liquid, solid < fastest > ) 4. Cannot travel through vacuum Reflection of sound Hard and smooth

Absorption of sound Echoes Can be reduced by

Defective hearing Causes

Correction Limitation of hearing Stereophonic hearing Benefit

surface Soft and rough surface e.g. caves, halls, tunnels, valley 1. Cover floor with carpet 2. Hang thick curtains 3. Line walls with soft board or sponge 4. Use chairs and sofa sets with soft cushions Deafness 1. Aging 2. Accide nt 3. Infectio n 4. Exposure to loud sound Hearing aid 20-20 000 hz Two ears to listen Determine direction of sound

Stimuli and responses in plants Stimuli 1. Light 2. Gravity 3. Water 4. Touch 5. Temperatu re 6. Chemicals Respons es Tropisms ( depends on direction of stimuli ) Nastic movement (Does not depend on the direction of stimuli ) Types Phototropism Geotropism Hydrotropism Thigmotropis m Seismonastic Stimuli Light Gravity Water Touch Touch Shoots + Roots -

+ + e.g. tendrils ( cucumber ) e.g. Mimosa , Venus fly trap


Classes of food

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Fibres Water

Carbohydrates Components Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen ( ratio H to O : 2: 1 ) Basic unit Glucose Types 1. Monosaccharid Glucose, fructose, e galactose 2. Disaccharides Lactose, maltose, sucrose 3. Polysaccharide Starch, glycogen, cellulose s Sources 1. Starchy Bread, rice, potatoes 2. Sugary Honey, fruits, sugar cane 3. Cellulose Vegetables. Function Energy Storage ( excess) Animals Glycoge n Plants Starch Food test Glucose Benedict test ( ) blue to red precipitate Starch Iodine test ( no heating ) brown to blue black Protein Components Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus Basic unit Amino acids Types Animals Contain all amino acids ( class one proteins ) e.g. fish, eggs, milk, cheese, butter, meat Plants Lack of several amino acids ( class two proteins ) e.g. legumes, cereals Functions 1. Growth of the body 2. Formation of new cells 3. Synthesis of enzymes, hormones, antibodies 4. Provide energy ( when no carbohydrates and fats ) Food test Millon test ( ) no colour to red precipitate Fat Components Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen ratio hydrogen to oxygen more than 2 ( 2: 1) e.g. 18 : 1 Basic unit Fatty acids and glycerol States Solid Fats Liquid Oils Solubility Insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol Sources Animals High cholesterol e.g. Butter, cheese, egg yolk, cod fish oil Plants No cholesterol ( except coconut oil ) e.g. olive oil, palm oil, soya oil. Functions 1. Energy 2. Heat insulator 3. Solvent of vitamin A, D, E, and K. 4. Prevent loss water from skin surface Food test 1. Emulsion test ( add ethanol and shake) milk like emulsion produced 2. Filter paper test , translucent Vitamin s Compou

Organic compound ( contain carbon )


nd Energy Solubility

Do not provide energy Water B,C soluble Fat soluble A, D, E, K

Types A B

Source Carrots, tomato Liver, green bean Citrus fruit ( oranges ) Fish, milk, eggs, sunlight Wheat, butter, eggs Liver, tomatoes, spinach

Functions Night vision Healthy skin Formation of red blood cells Nervous system Muscular system Healthy skin Preserve blood vessels Resistance to diseases Help in absorption of calcium and phosphorus Reproduction Function of enzymes Slow down aging of cells Blooding clotting


deficiency diseases Night blindness Dry skin Anaemia, ( deficiency of red blood cells ) Pellagra ( swelling at the tongue and mouth ) Beriberi ( swollen legs, ankle etc) Wound heal slowly Scurvy ( gum bleeding ) Always sick Rickets ( brittleness of bones in children ) Dental caries ( children ) Infertility Hair loss Aging of skin Prolonged bleeding ( internal bleeding in nose and intestine )

Minerals Compounds Energy Major elements Trace elements

inorganic compounds do not provide energy Potassium ( kalium ) , sodium ( natrium ), calcium, magnesium, iron, iodine, phosphorus Fluorine, chlorine Sources Fish, grains, bananas Table salt, salted fish Milk, grains, cheese Soya beans, milk Liver, meat, milk Seafood Milk, nuts, cheese Drinking water Green vegetables Functions Preserves nervous system Maintain body fluid balance Control water content Strong bones and teeth, Blood clotting Muscles and nerves Muscular system, tissues function Form hemoglobin to increase efficiency in transporting oxygen Production of thyroxine Strong teeth and bone Strong teeth Deficiency diseases Paralysis Weak muscles Muscular cramps Abnormal heart beats Rickets Osteoporosis Prolonged bleeding High blood pressure Weak muscles ( fatique ) Anaemia Weak body and breathing difficulty Goitre ( swollen thyroid glands ) Ricket Tooth decay Dental caries

Types Potassium Sodium Calcium

Magnesium Ferum ( iron ) Iodine Phosphorus Fluorine

Human digestive system Types of 1. Physical digestion digestion 2. Chemical digestion

Cutting with knife, chewing, peristalsis ( contraction and relaxation of muscles ) Enzymes ( amylase, protease, lipase, carbohydrase )

Parts of the digestive system Alimentary Enzyme Secretion Digestive action canal s Mouth Amylas Saliva Starch maltose e Oesophagus Peristalsis Stomach Protease Gastric juice ( + Protein amino acids hydrochloric acid ) Duodenum Protease Pancreatic juice and Protein amino acids Lipase bile Fats fatty acids and glycerol Amylase Starch maltose Small intestine Protease Intestinal juice Protein amino acids Lipase Fats fatty acids and glycerol Carbohydra Carbohydrate ( starch ) glucose se Large intestine Rectum Anus Absorption of nutrients Organs Small intestine villi microvilli End product to be absorbed after digestion Glucose, amino acids, glycerol, fatty acids Other nutrients to be absorbed without Vitamins, minerals, water digestion Types of nutrients Nutrients Parts in villi 1. Water soluble nutrients Vitamin B , C, Amino acids, glucose, Blood capillaries minerals 2. Fat soluble nutrients Vitamin A, D, E, K, glycerol and fatty Lacteal acids Reabsoption of water Organ large intestine Other nutrients to be absorbed Defecati on Cause Nutrients help in defecation Problem of defecation Anima ls Plants Vertebrates Invertebrat es Flowering Nonflowering
Vertebrates Blood type Fertilisation Fish Cold External

Water soluble nutrients ( BC, Minerals )

Stimulation of faeces on wall of rectum Fibres ( absorb water ) and water Constipation ( faeces too small, dry )

Chapter 3 BIODIVERSITY Fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, mammal

1.Monocotyledon 2.Dicotyledon Fern, moss, algae, conifer

Amphibian Cold External

Reptile Cold Internal

bird Warm Internal

mammal Warm Internal 7

Offspring Outer covering Breathing

Lay eggs Slimy scales Gills

Lay eggs Moist skin Gills ( young ) Lungs & skin ( adult ) Frog, salamander, toads, newts

Lay eggs Dry scaly skin Lungs

Lay eggs Feather Lungs

Give birth Hair and fur Lungs

e. g.

Golden fish, shark

Crocodiles, tortoises, lizards, snakes

Special features

Slim line Fins and tails

Webs on legs

Snakes has no legs

Pigeons, eagles, penguins, parrots, kiwis, chicken Usually fly Duck and penguin can swim Beak

Whales, dolphins, tigers, bats, platypus

Usually live on land Whales and dolphin live in water Mammary glands Platypus lay eggs Bats have wings Porcupine with spines

Flowering plants Seedling Root system Leaf vein Stem e.g.

Monocotyledons 1 seed Fibrous roots Parallel vein Non woody Grass, paddy, sugar cane, maize, palm tree Algae In water & damp areas No Yes Spores Spirogyra, sea weed Moss

Dicotyledons 2 seeds Tap roots Network vein Woody Rose tree, durian tree Fern Damp shaded area Yes Yes Spores Bird Nest fern, Staghorn fern Yes Yes Seeds ( cone ) Pine tree, Cycad Conifer

Non flowering plant Habitat True leaf, root, stem Chlorophyll Reproduction e.g.

Damp areas No Yes Spores Club moss

Chapter 4 INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG LIVING ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Interdepende nce Species Species can breed among e.g. elephant, durian tree themselves Population A group of organism ( same e.g. a group of goats living in a field species) Communit Groups of populations in the e.g. a pond community ( a group of tadpoles, y same habitat fishes, etc ) Ecosyste Organisms and non living things Non-living things : gases, sunlight, minerals, m water, soil Interactio n Prey predator Symbiosis e.g. predator ( ( deer ) Commensalis m Mutualism Parasitism tiger ) & prey


e.g. Commensal ( remora fish ( + ) ) & host ( shark ( - ) ) e.g. hermit crab ( + ) & sea anemone ( + ) e.g. parasite ( tapeworm ( + ) ) & host ( human (-)) Snake and owl fighting for

rats Biological control To control amount of certain organism by using predator ( snake in palm filed to control number of rats ) Advantages 1. low cost 2. no pollution 3. no harm to other organisms ( non target organisms ) Disadvanta 1. slow ges 2. cannot eliminate all the pests 3. unpredictable 4. require expert supervision and proper control Food web More than one food chain Producer primary consumer secondary consumer tertiary consumer Grass grasshopper frog snake Decomposers e.g. bacteria and fungi Energy flow decreases from main resource sunlight in food chain

Pyramid number From base to the peak of pyramid

1. Energy loss 2. Number of organisms decreases 3. Organisms stronger, larger

Photosynthesi s Requiremen Water t Carbon dioxide Chlorophyll Sunlight Equatio Water + carbon dioxide * glucose + oxygen ( * sunlight and chlorophyll n ) Oxygen cycle Oxygen is used in

Oxygen is produced in

Respiration Decomposition Combustion Rusting Photosynthesis

Carbon cycle Carbon is used in Photosynthesis Carbon is produced in Respiration Decompositi on Combustion

Physical characteristics Boiling point Freezing point Density Thermal conduction Electrical conduction Test for the presence

Chapter 5 WATER AND SOLUTION Pure water Impurities ( e.g. salt ) 100 0 C 00C 1 g /cm 3 ( 40C ) Poor Poor Cobalt chloride paper Anhydrous copper sulphate Blue to pink White to blue More than Less than

Compositio n Electrolysis ( breakdown water into hydrogen and oxygen ) Electrode Gas produced Ratio Test method s Anode ( + Oxygen 1 Glowing splinter ) Cathode Hydrogen 2 Burning splinter (-) *Acid is added because water is weak electric conductor Evaporati on Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. Humidity Temperature Surface area Air movement

Observation Relight Extinguished and pop sound

Conditio n High High Large Fast

Rate of evaporation Low High High High

Evaporation vs boiling Evaporation Any temperature Slow At the surface Not visible

Boiling Boiling point Fast Throughout the liquid Air bubbles e.g. salt e.g. water e.g. sugar solution 1.Dilute solution 2.Concentrated solution 3.Saturated solution

Solution and solubility Solute A substance that can dissolve in a liquid. Solvent A liquid that dissolves a substance. Solution A product of mixture when a solute dissolves in a solvent Types

Little of solute A lot of solute Maximum solute

Solutions and suspensions Solutions Contain dissolved substances Tiny and homogeneous

Suspensions Contain insoluble substances Large and heterogeneous


No sediment formed No residue left on filter paper e.g. acids, salt solution

Sediment settle at the bottom / float on surface Residue left on filter paper e.g. blood, muddy water

Factors that increase the rate of dissolving 1. Small solute 2. High temperature of solvent 3. Fast stirring 4. Large volume of solvent Universal Water Minerals, carbon dioxide, vitamin B and C etc solvent Organic Ether Fats, oil, nail varnish solvent Petrol Tar, paint, candle, grease Acetone Paint, ink, lipstick Alcohol Iodine, chlorophyll, varnish, shellac Kerosene Paint, oil, fats Turpentine Tar, paint, grease Chloroform Plastic Benzene Rubber, grease Water purification Filtration Boiling Chlorination Distillation Water supply system Storage reservoir Screening Aeration Coagulation Mixing tank Sedimentation Filtration Chlorination Fluoridation Acids and alkalis Taste Feel pH value Moist litmus Corrosive nature Example ( in lab ) example ( daily ) Test : Metals

Get rid of Cannot get rid of Suspended substances Dissolved substances, microorganisms Microorganisms Suspended substances, dissolved substances Microorganisms Suspended substances, dissolved substances Suspended substances, dissolved substances, microorganisms Function Expose to sunlight, get rid of odour, large particles settle at the bottom Remove large objects Oxygen dissolves in water, get rid of unpleasant smell and taste Alum ( small suspended particles stick together ), slaked lime ( reduce acidity of water ) Mix well the chemicals ( alum and lime ) Suspended particles settle at the bottom Remove remaining suspended particles Chlorine is added to kill microorganisms Prevent tooth decay, promote healthy strong bone

Properties Acids ( H+ ) Sour Watery Less than 7 Blue to red Corrosive Hydrochloric acid Vinegar

Alkalis ( OH - ) Bitter Soapy More than 7 Red to blue Corrosive Sodium hydroxide Toothpaste Alkalis
No effect

Acids Produce hydrogen

Burning splinter : flame extinguished and pop sound 11

Test : Carbonates Test: Ammonium salt

Produce carbon dioxide No effect

No Lime water : cloudy effect Produce ammonia Concentrated acid : white fume

Neutralisati on Acid + alkali salt ( neutral ) + water e.g. hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride + water e.g. sulphuric acid + magnesium hydroxide magnesium sulphate + water e.g. nitric acid + calcium hydroxide calcium nitrate + water Titration Burette Acid ( cannot put alkali ) Conical flask Alkali Universal Put into flask, purple ( alkali ), green ( neutral ), yellow ( slight acidic ), red ( acidic ) indicator * when the colour of indicator changes to green, titration stops. Neutralisation completed. *evaporation is for getting salt by evaporate water. Salt will be left. Indicator Litmus Phenolphthal ein Methyl orange Increases when Applicatio n Acidic Red Colourless Pink Neutral Purple Pale pink Orange Alkaline Blue Pink Yellow

Chapter 6 AIR PRESSURE Temperature increases Volume decreases Siphon Rubber sucker Syringe Sprayer pump Plunger Gas under high pressure e.g. gas tanks Chapter 7 DYNAMICS advantages- allow us to hold things, walking, running etc disadvantages waste fuel ( car), produces heat Work = force( N ) x distance( m ) Frictional forcePower = work done ( J ) / time ( s ) ANIMA L LAND Chapter 8 SUPPORT & MOVEMENT 1.Endoskelet Compact bone e.g. humans, elephant on Hollow bone e.g. birds, deer 2.Exoskeleton Chitin e.g. insects ( moulting ) Calcium e.g. snails ( no moulting ) carbonate 3.Hydrostatic e.g. earthworm, leech skeleton Water buoyancy e.g. whales 1.Woody Tree e.g. durian tree



Shrub e.g. hibiscus shrub 2.Non woody ( herbaceous ) e.g. balsam plant 3.Aquatic (turgidity) Buoyancy Float on water e.g. Lotus


1.Wood y

1.Buttress roots

Live in water e.g. Hydrilla e.g. durian tree e.g. mangrove tree 1.Thorns e.g. Bougainvillea 2.Prickles e.g. Rose 3.Tendrils e.g. Cucumber 4.Prop roots e.g. Maize plant 5.Clasping e.g. Money plant roots

2.Stilt roots 2.Non woody ( herbaceous )

Centre of gravity

Chapter 9 STABILITY Point of equilibrium Focus of almost all weight Regularly shape object Middle Irregular shape object Use plumb line

Inside (CG) Outside (CG) Pls: heavier ( weight ) , lower

Factors Position of centre of gravity Base area 3 classes

More stable Lower Larger

Less stable Higher Smaller

Chapter 10 SIMPLE MACHINE First class Fulcrum is between Load and lever Effort Second class Load is in between Fulcrum and Effort lever Third class Effort is in between Fulcrum and Load lever


1. Figure 11 shows the areas of taste in a human tongue. ( PMR 2003 )

Which areas are most sensitive to salt, sugar and vinegar? Salt Sugar Vinegar


A B C D 2.

1 1 2 2

4 3 3 4

2 4 1 3

Figure 12 shows the light path and impulse in the eye. ( PMR 2003 )

Which of the following parts of the eye are represented by W, X, Y and Z? W X Y Z A Cornea Pupil Vitreous humour Optic nerve B Pupil Vitreous humour Cornea Optic nerve C Cornea Vitreous humour Optic nerve Pupil D Pupil Optic nerve Vitreous humour Cornea 3. Figure 14 shows light ray travelling through a glass block. ( PMR 2003 )

Figure 31 Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from observation of the roots and shoots of the seedlings after two days? I The roots show positive geotropism II The roots show positive hydrotropism III The shoots show positive phototropism A B C D I, II and III I and II only II and III only I only 7. ) The diagram shows a cross section of the human eye. ( PMR 2004

8. Which angles are represented by P, Q, R and S? P Q R A Angle of Angle of Angle of incidence refraction refraction B Angle of Angle of Angle of incidence refraction incidence C Angle of Angle of Angle of refraction incidence incidence D Angle of Angle of Angle of refraction incidence refraction 4. S Angle of incidence Angle of refraction Angle of refraction Angle of incidence

What is the function of X? A. controls the size of iris B. focuses light rays C. detects light stimulus D. allows light to enter the eye The diagram shows a change in size of the pupil. ( PMR 2004 )

Which of the following actions will cause this change? A. reading a book in a dark room B. entering a dark room from a bright room C. taking off sun glasses in a bright place D. looking at a distant object after looking at a near object 9. The diagram shows the formation of a shadow. ( PMR 2004 )

The inner wall of a hall is made of soft material so that( PMR 2003 ) A echoes are produced B the pitch of the sound increases C sound is reflected D absorption of sound occurs 5. P and Q in Figure 15 show two types of eye defect. ( PMR 2003 )

Which type of lens can be used to correct the defects in P and Q? A B C D 6. P Convex lens Convex lens Concave lens Concave lens Q Concave lens Convex lens Convex lens Concave lens

Which of the following shadows is formed on the screen?

Figure 31 shows an arrangement of an experiment to study tropism. ( PMR 2003 ) 10. The diagram show bottles filled with different volumes of water. ( PMR 2004 ) When bottles A, B, C and D are blown with the same strength, which bottle produces the highest pitch?


11 The diagram shows the path of an impulse after a stimulus is received by the skin. ( PMR 2005 )

Diagram 6 Which of the following causes the defective vision? A The eye ball is too short B The eye lens is too thick C The size of the pupil is too small D The surface of the cornea is irregular 16 Which of the following sensory organs can detect touch, pain and pressure? ( PMR 2007 ) A Eyes B Nose C Ears D Skin 17 Diagram 6 shows a section through part of the human head containing a sensory organ. ( PMR 2008 )

Which of the following represents X, Y and Z? X Y Z A. Brain Effector Receptor B. Receptor Effector Brain C. Brain Receptor Effector D. Receptor Brain Effector 12 The sense of taste of a person suffering from flu is less sensitive because( PMR 2005 ) A the taste bud cells are damaged. B the nasal hairs are unable to detect the smell of food. C chemicals cannot be detected by the smell receptors. D the sense of taste is more sensitive than the sense of smell. 13 Which of the following figures shows the correct propagation of light rays from. glass to air? ( PMR 2005 )

Which of the parts labelled A, B, C or D is a sensory cell? 18 Which part of a plant shows positive phototropism? ( PMR 2008 ) A. Root B. Shoot C. Stem D. Fruit

1. Table 2 shows the results of food tests done on a food sample. ( PMR 2003 )

Which of the following food contain the same class of foods as in the tested food sample? A Egg and meat B Bread and jam C Milk and margarine D Rice porridge and anchovies


Figure 17 shows the human digestive system. ( PMR 2003 )

14 The following information shows a type of response of a plant due to a stimulus. ( PMR 2006 ) Shoot grows away from the stimulus. Enables the plant to obtain water and minerals Root grows towards gravitational attraction Which of the following is the response? A Geotropism B Phototropism C Thigmotropism D Hydrotropism 15 Diagram 6 shows a cross-section of an eye with a defective vision. ( PMR 2006 )

Figure 17 Which of the following classes of food are digested in the organs M, N and P?


8. A B C D 3. Organ M Protein Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Fat Organ N Carbohydrate Protein Fat Protein Organ P Fat Fat Protein Carbohydrate

The diagram shows a food pyramid guide. ( PMR 2005 )

A food sample is .taken from organ Q shown in Figure 32. ( PMR 2003 ) After analysis, the pH value of the sample is 3. Which of the following food groups provides the highest risk of getting a heart attack if taken excessively? AK BL CM DN 9. Diagram 7 shows organs in a human digestive system. ( PMR 2006 )

Figure 32 Which of the following statements explain this condition? I Q secretes hydrochloric acid II Enzymes in Q change fat to fatty acids and glycerol III Enzymes in Q change starch to maltose 4. Which of the following pairs of food classes and examples is not correct? ( PMR 2004 ) Food class Example A Protein Chicken meat B Carbohydrate Noodles C Roughage Papaya D Fat Potato The picture shows samples of food. ( PMR 2004 )

Which of the following are the functions of J, K, L and M?


10. Table 2 shows the calorific value of some food. ( PMR 2006 )

Which group of food samples contains a high content of protein? A. tomato, carrot, milk B. meat, fish, egg C. rice, banana, carrot D. cabbage, egg, tomato 6. The diagram shows a boy who is suffering from kwashiorkor disease. ( PMR 2005 ) Which of the following is the cause of the disease?

A student had his breakfast by taking the food shown below.

Based on Table 2, calculate the calorific value taken by the student for his breakfast. A 2 177 kJ B 2 865 kJ C 2 899 kJ D 3 621 kJ 11. The calorific value of rice is 15 kJ /g.Calculate the calorific value in 100 g of rice. ( PMR 2007 ) A 15 kJ B 30 kJ C 1 500 kJ D 3 000 Kj


A Drinking too much water. B Lack of protein in diet. C Lack of calcium in the diet. D Too much carbohydrate in the diet. The diagram shows the human digestive system. ( PMR 2005 )

12. Which food pyramid is the best guide to plan a balanced diet? ( PMR 2008 )

The digestion of potato happens in the parts which are labelled as A P, Q and T C Q, S and T B P, R and T D Q, R and S


One cotyledon in each of their seeds Which plants have these characteristics? A. Paddy and grass B. Paddy and balsam plant C. Grass and hibiscus plant D. Hibiscus plant and balsam plant

The green pea plant can be categorized as a dicotyledon because it has( PMR 2003 ) I a tap root II net veined leaves III flowers A B C D I, II and III I and II only II and III only I only 2. The diagram shows two animals of different classes. ( PMR 2004 ) 1.


1. Figure 6 shows an energy flow. ( PMR 2003 )

What are the similarities between the two animals? A. have scales and cold blooded B. have dry scales and furry C. lay eggs and cold blooded D. have ear pinna and warm blooded 3. Which of the following plants is a dicotyledon? ( PMR 2005 )

Figure 6 Which of the following organisms are represented by W, X, Y and Z? W X Y Z A Fungi Caterpillar Snake Eagle B Paddy Rat Eagle Caterpillar C Fern Goat Eagle Snake D grass Caterpillar Snake Frog 2. Owls are found in oil palm plantations. This increases palm oil production. What is the role of the owls? ( PMR 2003 ) A To help pollination B To increase organic fertilizer C To control oil palm diseases D To control pests biologically


The information below shows a food chain. ( PMR 2003 )


Diagram 11 is a chart which shows the classification of vertebrates. ( PMR 2006 )

An increase in the population of sharks will result in I a decrease in the population of seals II an increase in the population of fish III an increase in the population of plankton A B C I, II and III I and II only II and III only

D I only


Figure 34 shows a food chain in a paddy field. ( PMR 2003 )

Which of the following is true about P? A Has constant body temperatureB Has a smooth and moist skin C Has a segmented body D Has a scaly skin 5. Which of the following animals are cold-blooded? ( PMR 2007 ) A Pigeon, Elephant, Frog B Gold fish, Snake, Frog C Elephant, Pigeon, Frog D Pigeon, Gold fish, Snake The following information shows the characteristics of a plant. ( PMR 2008 ) Fibrous root system Parallel veined leaves

Which of the following pyramids is/are suitable for this habitat?



Which of the following pyramid of numbers correctly represents the populations of these organisms?

A I, II and III 5.

B I and II only

C II and III only

D I only

Which of the following actions is/are suitable for the conservation of the orang utan? ( PMR 2003 ) I Build more reproduction centres II Establish forest reserves III Establish more recreational and tourist centres in the forest A B C D I, II and III I and II only II and III only I only 6. Which of the following activities will not harm the ecosystem? ( PMR 2004 ) A. building constructions B. tin mining C. conservation of the forest D. usage of insecticide


The diagram shows fish in jars A, B, C, and D. In which jar would the fish live longest? ( PMR 2004 )


The table shows the populations of organisms in a habitat. ( PMR 2004 ) Organism Number S 1000 T 5000 U 2 V 400 Which of the following shows the pyramid of numbers for populations of organisms in the habitat?


The diagram shows organisms in a forest habitat. ( PMR 2004 ) Which of the following food webs is found in the habitat?


The diagram shows the apparatus used to investigate a factor necessary in photosynthesis. ( PMR 2005 )


The graph shows the number of organisms P,Q, R and S in a habitat. ( PMR 2005 )

After the experiment, the leaves did not show the presence of starch because A fresh air was absent. B carbon dioxide was absent. C the sunlight was not enough. D water and mineral salts were in excess.


Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Diagram 5 12. Diagram 5 shows a food chain. ( PMR 2006 ) Which of the following represents the food chain? A FernSnakeEagle B Paddy Rat Owl C Grass Grasshopper Goat D Algae Fish Snail 13. Diagram 9 shows a habitat occupied by three types of organisms, X, Y and Z. ( PMR 2006 )

Which of the following number pyramids correctly represents the habitat?

16. Diagram 7 shows processes P, Q, R and S that occur in the carbon cycle. ( PMR 2007 ) 14. Diagram 6 shows a pyramid number in a habitat. ( PMR 2007 )

Which of the following shows the effect on the habitat if all the snakes in the habitat are killed?

Which of the following are involved in the production and absorption of carbon dioxide? Produce carbon dioxide Absorb carbon dioxide A P, Q R, S B R, S Q, P C P, Q, S R D Q, R, S P

17. Diagram 7 shows two processes, Q and R, in a

plant. ( PMR 2008)

15. The following is a list of organisms (PMR 2007) -Rat -Paddy -Caterpillar -Cobra -Sparrow -Eagle Choose a correct food web for these organisms.




Figure 5 shows the arrangement of an experiment on the electrolysis of water. ( PMR 2003 )

Which of the following are represented by P, Q, R and S?


Carbon dioxide D Oxygen Respiration Photosynthesis Carbon dioxide 18. Diagram 8 shows one of a human activity. ( PMR 2008 ) Figure 16 Liquid X can be identified by using A hydrogen carbonate indicator B anhydrous copper sulphate C litmus paper D lime water 3. At which stage is alum added in a water treatment plant? ( PMR 2003 ) A Filtration B Sedimentation C Coagulation D Chlorination 4. Why should this activity be stopped? A. Causes air pollution B. Increases the humidity of the air C. Destroys the habitat of flora and fauna D. Reduces the percentage of carbon dioxide 19. Which activity can prevent the hole in the ozone layer from getting bigger? ( PMR 2008 ) A. Replant more trees B. Avoid the burning of fossil fuel C. Stop using pesticides and fertilizer in farming D. Avoid buying products that contain chlorofluorocarbon 20. Which of the following is true about the advantages and the disadvantages of a biological control method? ( PMR 2008 ) Predator prey Advantages Disadvantages A Frogs-larvae Harmful to the Snakes will come environment to the area B Snakes-rats Cheap and Snakes are economical dangerous to the workers. C Owls rats Both animals Owls cannot catch come out at night the rats at night D Fish-larvae A cheap method to Number of larvae control larvae increases P, Q, R. and S are stages found in the water treatment system. ( PMR 2003 ) P- Filtration Q - Coagulation R - Chlorination S - water collection at a dam Which of the following sequences is correct? A. QPRS B. QRSP C. SRPQ D. SQPR 5. Figure 30 shows an arrangement of apparatus where the iron nails do not rust. ( PMR 2003 )

P Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Oxygen

Q Respiration Photosynthesis Photosynthesis

R Photosynthesis Respiration Respiration

S Oxygen Oxygen

Figure 5 Which of the following does not occur when the switch is on? A. oxygen is collected at electrode X. B. hydrogen is collected at electrode Y. C. both oxygen and hydrogen are collected at both electrodes X and Y D. oxygen is collected at the positive electrode and hydrogen is collected at the negative electrode 2. Figure 16 shows a liquid being collected in an evaporating dish. ( PMR 2003 )

Which of the following substances could be represented by X? I Silica gel II Anhydrous calcium chloride III Anhydrous copper sulphate A I, II and III B I and II only C II and III only D I only



Diagrams A, B, C and D show the mass of 20 g of sugar in various shapes. Which shapes of sugar will dissolve the fastest? ( PMR 2004 )


The diagram shows the pH of substances P, Q, R and S. ( PMR 2005 ) 11. Diagram 8 shows two methods, P and Q, of water purification. ( PMR 2007 ) Which of the following represents substances P, Q, R, and S? P Q R S Toothpaste Washing Distilled Vinegar soda water Lemon juice Vinegar Distilled Toothpaste water Washing soda Distilled Vinegar Lemon juice water Vinegar Distilled Toothpaste Washing soda water Diagram 3 shows a piece of towel hanging on a rail. ( PMR 2006 )

A B C D 8.

What is the reason for using methods P and Q? P Q A. To separate insoluble solids To kill microorganisms B. To remove impurities To remove colour C. To remove sediment To remove impurities D. To remove colour To kill microorganisms 12. Diagram 9 shows a beaker of water left on a table in the laboratory for three days. ( PMR 2007 )

Which of the following factors will cause the towel to dry faster? I Movement of air II Higher temperature of the surroundings III Higher humidity of the air A I and II only B I and III only C II dan II only D I, II and III 9. Diagram 10 shows a few ice cubes in a glass of orange juice. ( PMR 2006 )

Which of the following is true about the water droplets? A Have sour taste B Turn blue litmus paper to red C pH 7 when tested with pH paper D Decolorise acidic potassium permanganate solution 10. Diagram 12 shows the pH value of three substances, P, Q and R. ( PMR 2006 )

After three days, the water level in the beaker decreases. Why does this happen? A Water molecules lose heat and turn into solid B Water molecules absorb heat and turn into gas C Water molecules lose energy and turn into gas D Water molecules vibrate in a fixed position and turn into gas 13. What change takes place to water at its freezing point? ( PMR 2008 ) A. Liquid to gas B. Gas to solid C. Solid to liquid D. Liquid to solid 14. Diagram 9 shows two methods of water purification, P and Q. ( PMR 2008 )

Which of the following is true about P, Q and R?

Which of the following shows the differences between P and Q? P Q A Removes suspended Produces distilled water particles B Kills microorganism Does not kill microorganism in water C Produces water suitable for Does not produce water drinking suitable for drinking D Removes dissolved Does not remove dissolved minerals minerals



1. Figure 7 shows a boy using a straw to drink. ( PMR 2003 )


The diagram shows a hook stuck onto a wall to hang a load. ( PMR 2005 )

Figure 7 Which of the following observations and explanations are true about the air pressure at X, Y and Z? Observation Explanation Pressure at X, Y, and Z compared to the atmospheric pressure X Y Z A Water can be Different Same Different sucked up B Water can be Same Same Same sucked up C Water cannot be Same different Same sucked up D Water cannot be Different Different Same sucked up 2. Figure 8 shows a student blowing a small piece of paper into a bottle. The piece of paper is blown out instead. ( PMR 2003 )

What modification could be made to ensure the rubber sucker sticks more strongly on the wall to support more load? A Use a bigger hook. B Use a smaller hook. C Enlarge the rubber sucker diameter. D Reduce the rubber sucker diameter 6. Diagram 19 shows an experiment on air pressure. ( PMR 2006 )

Figure 8 This is because A. the volume of the air in the bottle remains the same B. the air pressure in the bottle is higher than that outside the bottle. C. the density of the air in the bottle is higher than that outside the bottle D. the mass of the air in the bottle is more than the mass of the air brown out by the student 3. Figure 9 shows the change in the size of a balloon when hot water is poured into a beaker. ( PMR 2003 )

When the piston is pulled out, the balloon inflates. Inflation of the balloon is due to A the air pressure at Y higher than the air pressure at X B the air pressure at X higher than the air pressure at Z C the air pressure at Z higher than the air pressure at Y D the air pressure at Z higher than the air pressure at X 7. Diagram 10 shows a syringe used to transfer water. ( PMR 2007 )

Why does the water enter the syringe when the piston is pulled up? A The air pressure outside and inside the syringe is the same B The water pressure inside the beaker and inside the syringe is the same C The air pressure outside the syringe is less than the air pressure inside the syringe D The air pressure outside the syringe is higher than the air pressure inside the syringe 8. Figure 9 What conclusion can be drawn from your observation? A. the size of the balloon increases because the air pressure in the balloon increases B. the size of the balloon increases because the wall of the balloon becomes more elastic C. the balloon floats because the kinetic energy of the air in the balloon decreases. D. the balloon floats because the atmospheric pressure increases A container is made of thin metal sheet. Some water is boiled in the container which is then sealed. Cold water is then poured onto the container. What happens? ( PMR 2003 ) I Steam changes to water II The container becomes dented III The pressure in the container becomes lower A B C D I, II and III I and II only II and III only I only 4. Diagram 11 shows a glass containing water placed upside down on a plastic cover. ( PMR 2007 ) The water remains in the glass.

From which direction, A, B, C or D, does the air pressure acts so that the water does not spill?



Diagram 10 shows the information on the label of a metal container. ( PMR 2008 )

Which of the following shows the characteristics of the contents of the container? A. Non-flammable liquid B. Corrosive substances C. Radioactive substances D. Gas under high pressure 10. Diagram 12 shows a siphon. ( PMR 2008 )

Which of the following factors will increase the work done? ( PMR 2003 ) I Increase the force II Increase the distance III Increase the time A B C D I, II and III I and II only II and III only I only 4. Object S is carried vertically from the floor onto the table top. Then the object is pulled horizontally as shown in Figure 36. ( PMR 2003 )


When the clip is opened, the water flows out because of A. The nature of water B. The force of gravity C. The water pressure D. The air pressure

Figure 36 Which of the following statements is/are true about the work done? I The work done in lifting S is against the gravitational force. II The work done in pulling S is against the frictional force. III The work done in pulling S increases when the surface of the table is rougher. A B C D I, II and III I and II only II and III only I only 5. A student pulls his luggage through distance of 2.0 m with a force of 40 N. ( PMR 2004 )

1. A wooden block M is pulled using a spring balance in four different situation A, B, C and D. In which situation will the spring balance shows the highest reading? ( PMR 2003 )

What is the work done by the student? A. 20 J B. 38 J C. 42 J 6.

D. 80 J

Which of the following activities uses the greatest force? ( PMR 2005 )


Table 3 shows the extension of a spring when an object is hung on it. ( PMR 2003 )

Table 3 Which of the following graphs represents the data in Table 3?



The diagram shows a pupil pushing a box to make it closer to a wall. He is pushing with a force of 500 N. ( PMR 2005 )


How much work is done by the pupil? A 100 J B 250 J C 500 J D 1 000 J The photograph shows worn out shoe soles. ( PMR 2005 ) 1.

Calculate the power. ( g = 10 N kg -1 ) A. 120 W B. 135 W C. 150 W D. 1200 W


Figure 20 shows an experiment to study the support system in plants. ( PMR 2003 )


Shoe soles become worn out when A gravitational pull attracted the soles. B a magnetic force pulls the soles closer to the road. C a frictional force acts between the soles and the road. D an electrostatic force is produced when walking on the road. The diagram shows polystyrene balls, P, Q, R and S that have been charged through friction and hung in pairs. ( PMR 2005 )

Figure 20 Which of the following plants use the same method of support as the balloon in Figure 20? A Lotus B Moss C Paddy D Mangrove


The diagram shows a cross section of the stem of a plant. ( PMR 2004 )

What conclusion can be made about the charges of balls F, Q, R and S? P Q R S A. Negative Negative Positive Positive B. Negative Positive Negative Negative C. Positive Negative Negative Negative D. Positive Positive Negative Negative 10. A box of mass 10 kg is lifted from the floor onto a table, at a height of 0.5 m. Calculate the amount of work done. [g = 10 N kg-1] ( PMR 2006 ) A 0.5J B 5.0 J C 50.0 J D 100.0 J 11. Table 4 shows the masses of four students. ( PMR 2007 ) The students climb up the stairs to different heights.

The air spaces in the plant enable it A. to breathe B. to float D. to transport food 3.

C. to absorb minerals


Which of the pairs is correct about the animal and its type of skeleton? ( PMR 2005 ) Animal Type of skeleton A. Lizard Exoskeleton B Whale Hydrostatic skeleton C. Caterpillar Endoskeleton D. Prawn Exoskeleton Diagram 12 shows a support system of an insect. ( PMR 2007 )

Arrange the four students in ascending order starting from the one with the least work done. A P, S, Q, R B R, Q, P, S C P, Q, S, R D S, P, R, Q 12. Diagram 11 shows a student with a mass of 40 kg carrying a box with a mass of 5 kg. he walks up the stairs in 10 seconds. ( PMR 2008 )


What supports the insect's body? A Exoskeleton B Endoskeleton C Segmented abdomen D Hydrostatic skeleton Diagram 16 shows the classification of a supporting system in animals. ( PMR 2006 )


8. Which of the following examples can represent an animal in group P?

Diagram 13 Which of the following levers can be classified in the same class as the lever in Diagram 14? Weights are added to each model until it topples. The readings of the weights are recorded in Table 3.

1. The diagram shows a bench. ( PMR 2004 )

Table 3 Based on Table 3, predict the minimum value of X. A 4.0N B 6.5N C 7.0 N D 7.5N Which of the following benches are more stable than the bench shown in the above diagram? 5. Diagram 13 shows four models, W, X, Y and Z. ( PMR 2007 )

A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II and III 2. Which of the following actions will increase the stability of an individual? ( PMR 2005 ) A A jockey straightens up his body while riding a horse. B A boat passenger stand.s up straight while the boat is moving. C An acrobat stretches his arms widely while walking on a rope. D A painter put the ladder that he uses close to the wall while painting. 3. The following shows four objects, A, B, C, and D of the same height. ( PMR 2005 ) Which of the following is the most stable?

Which of the following shows the correct arrangement of the models in ascending order of stability? A Z, X, Y, W B Z, Y, X, W C Y, W, Z, X D X, Z, W, Y 6. Diagram 13 shows three regular shapes P, Q, and R. ( PMR 2008 )


Diagram 1.3 shows four different models, P, Q, R and S, used in an experiment. ( PMR 2006 )

Which statement describes the equilibrium point of P, Q and R? A. The equilibrium point of a regular shape is at its centre B. The equilibrium point of a regular shape can be anywhere on the shape C. Some regular shapes do not have an equilibrium point D. Some regular shapes have more than one equilibrium point



1. Figure 19 shows a ruler from which loads X and Y are hung at different points on it. Each load consists of a number of weights with equal mass. ( PMR 2003 ) What is the load of X? A 10 N B 20 N C 40 N D 80 N 5. Diagram 4 shows the process of pruning leaves. ( PMR 2006 )

Figure 19 In which situation will the metre rule not be in an equilibrium?


Figure 35 shows three students P, Q and R sitting on a see-saw with F as the fulcrum. The see-saw is in equilibrium. ( PMR 2003 )

Diagram 4 The tools used can be classified as a first class lever because A the load is between the fulcrum and the force B the fulcrum is between the load and the force C the force is between the load and the fulcrum D the load is at the same position as the fulcrum 6. Diagram 14 shows a type of lever. ( PMR 2006 )

Which of the following actions will cause R to go up? I R moves towards F II P moves towards F III Q moves towards F A B C D I, II and I and II II and III I III only only only 3. The diagram shows a lever system. The distance between each of the points on the lever is the same. ( PMR 2004 )

Diagram 14 Which of the following levers can be classified in the same class as the lever in Diagram 14?

7. Diagram 20 shows a vegetable seller carrying two basket, F and G. F has a mass of 40 kg and G has a mass of 60 kg. The distance between G and the seller is 1.0 m. ( PMR 2006 )

At which point A, B, C or D should the fulcrum be, so that the lever is balance? 4. The diagram shows a balanced lever system. ( PMR 2005 )


Which of the following statements is correct about the effort that was used? A P needs less effort than Q to pull out the nail B Q needs less effort than P to pull out the nail C The distance of the nail from the fulcrum does not influence the effort used D If the distance of effort is nearer to the fulcrum, the effort used will decreased What should be the distance between the seller and F in order to balance both the baskets? A 0.5 m B 1.0 m C 1.5 m D 2.5 m 8. Diagram 14 shows the position of a worker's hands lifting sand using a spade. ( PMR 2007 )

10. Which pair of devices does not use the principle of a lever? ( PMR 2008 ) A. Screw and ladder B. Fishing rod and plier C. Nutcracker and paper cutter D. Wheel-barrow and bottle opener 11. Which crowbar uses the least effort to pull out the nail? ( PMR 2008 )

What should the worker do in order to lift the sand using his minimum force? A Move both hands to P B Move the right hand to Q and the left hand to S C Move the left hand to S without changing the position of the right hand D Move the left hand to R without changing the position of the right hand. 9. Diagram 15 shows a nail being pulled out using tools, P and Q. ( PMR 2007 )

List down the function of 1. Cobalt chloride paper : to test for the presence of water vapour 2. Red litmus paper : alkalinity red to blue 3. Blue litmus paper : acidity blue to red 4. Filter paper the presence of oil translucent 5. Calcium chloride ( solid ) : absorb water vapour 6. Silica gel :absorb water vapour ( blue to pink /redish ) 7. Sodium hydroxide : absorb carbon dioxide 8. Lime water : to test for the presence of carbon dioxide :colourless to cloudy 9. Burning splinter : test for the presence of hydrogen gas : extinguish the fire with pop sound 10 glowing splinter : test for the presence of oxygen : relight/reflame again 11. Universal indicator :pH acidic : red, orange, yellow; neutral: green;

alkaline: blue, purple 12. Hydrogen bicarbonate indicator : acidity -red/purple to yellow 13. Iodines solution : presence of starch-brown to dark blue ( no heating ) 14. Benedicts solution : presence of glucose : blue to red precipitate ( heating ) 15. Millons solution : presence of protein; colourless to white precipitate ( before heating) red precipitate ( after heating ) 16. Acidified Potassium dichromate solution : presence of sulphur dioxide orange to green 17. Acidified potassium permanganate solution: presence of suphur dioxide- purple to colourless 18. Iodine solution ( cell ) : to dye plant cells e.g. onion cells 19. methylene blue solution : to dye animal cells e.g. cheek cells