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Republic Central Colleges Angeles City GRADUATE SCHOOL

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

A report submitted to Dr. Gloria B. Abrazado

In partial fulfillment at the requirement in Educ. 210

by Regina M. Malbas March 2012

Descriptive Research -The study focuses at present condition. The purpose is to find new truth. The truth may have different forms such increased quantity of knowledge., a new generalization or a new law an increased insight into factors which are operating, the discovery of a new causal relationship, a more accurate formulation of the problem to be solved and many others. Descriptive studies are valuable in providing facts on which scientific judgments may be used based. They provide essential knowledge about the nature of objects and persons. Descriptive studies also play a large part in the development of instruments for the measurement of many things, instruments that are employed in all types of quantitative research as data gathering instruments, for instance tests, questionnaires, interviews, observation schedules, checklists, score cards and rating scales. Types of Descriptive Research 1. Descriptive Survey appropriate whether the object of any class vary among themselves and one is interested in knowing the extent to which different conditions obtain among these objects (Good and Scates,1972) Useful in proving the values of facts and focusing attention on the most important things to be reported. Necessary to determine the psychological and social aspects of research by way of application or implementation of evidence to recognize between facts and influence. The data from a descriptive survey when used as basis for inferences that may aid in solving practical problems is of value to the researcher rather than he principles and laws applied I conducting experiment in the laboratory. Example: A researcher wants tom to determine the problems met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professor in relation to administration and supervision, instructional materials, teacher factor and student factor. The researcher uses questionnaire as his measuring instrument in gathering and collecting data. Each item in in the questionnaire may be rated according to four levels to be chosen by the subjects or respondents namely: 4 of very much concern; 3 of much concern; 2 less of concern and 1 of no concern at all. The weighted arithmetic mean is the statistical tool to be used to determine the problems met by the Science and Mathematics instructors and professors. * From the data gathered, the researcher tabulates, analyzes and interprets the data. Then, he proves that the facts that gathered are of value to the researcher in particular and to the Science and Mathematics mentors in general. He should then focus his attention to the most pressing problems met by Science and Mathematics mentors

2. Descriptive-normative Survey-Good and Scates (1972) Stressed that term normative is sometimes used because surveys are frequently made to ascertain the normal or typical condition or to compare local tests results with a state or national norm Example: An investigator wishes to conduct a study on the Mathematics achievement of first year college students at the state colleges and universities in Region 6(Western Visayas). An achievement test is the instrument used to gather the data. The results of the test are then compared with the regional norm. If the achievement of the first year college students in Mathematics at the SUC is one standard deviation (+ISD) above the mean (X) this means that their achievement is very satisfactory; and one standard deviation below the mean (-ISD), unsatisfactory or they need improvement. *In other words, in the descriptive-normative survey, the results/ findings of the study should be compared with the norm. 3. Descriptive-status This approach to problem solving seeks to answer questions to real facts relating to existing conditions. This is a technique of quantitative description which determines the prevailing conditions in a group cases chosen for study. Several descriptive-status stress current conditions with the assumption that things will change. They cover many traits or characteristics of the group. Example: A researcher wishes to conduct a study on the socio-economic status of mentors at the state colleges and universities in Region 6(Western Visayas). He uses a questionnaire as the instrument in gathering data. He requests the subjects of the study (SUC mentors of Region 6) to respond on the questionnaire. Based on the responses of the subjects ((SUC mentors of Region 6) the researcher can determine the socio-economic status of SUC mentors. 4. Descriptive-analysis This method determines or describes the nature of an object by separating it into parts. Its purpose is to discover the nature of things. In Chemistry, descriptive analysis means the determination of the kind, quantity and proportions of constituents forming a compound or substances. It aims to discover the nature of things. Example: A researcher wishes to conduct a study on the job and analysis of State Universities and Colleges (SUC) and Department of Education (DepEd) personnel of Region 6 (Western Visayas). He devices a questionnaire to analyze the job of the respondents if similar positions, functions and responsibilities have equal pay.

5. Descriptive-classification This method is employed in natural sciences subjects such as Botany, Zoology, Biology and the like. Specimens collected are classified from Phylum to species. Example: A researcher wishes to conduct a taxonomic study of useful marine macro benthic algae in the municipal waters of Northern Iloilo. He collects and then he identifies and classifies the algae according to classes and species. 6. Descriptive-evaluative this design is to appraise carefully the worthiness of the current study Example: A researcher wishes to conduct a study on the evaluation of an implementation of the work-oriented curriculum at the fishery schools in the province of Iloilo. He devises a questionnaire which evaluates the implementation of the work-oriented curriculum and requests the supervisory officials, fishery teachers and students as subjects of the study to respond on it. 7. Descriptive-comparative It is a comparative survey where the researcher considers at least two entities (not manipulated) and establishes a formal procedure for obtaining criterion data on the basis of which he can compare and conclude which of the two is better (De Jesus et al..,1984) Example: A researcher wishes to conduct a study on the effectiveness of teaching modern and traditional Mathematics. He uses tests as measuring instrument. All things are equal, except on the methods of teaching used. Based on the findings, her can compare and conclude which one is better than the other. 8. Correlational Survey This is designed to determined the relationship of two variables (X and Y) whether the relationship is perfect, very high, high, marked or moderate, slight or negotiable. Perfect positive correlation with a value of 1.0 is seldom happened. This denotes that all of the individual performances in X and Y have the same positions. If he tops in Test X he is likely to lead in Test Y; and if he is low in test X he is also likely low in Test Y. On the other hand, perfect negative correlation having a value of -1.0 is also rarely happened. The score of the individual in test X is an exact opposite position in Text Y and one who is lowest in Test X is highest in Test Y. Examples of Correlational Survey Correlate between English and Mathematics Achievement of First Year BEED and BSE Students in SUC in Region 6 (Western Visayas).

Correlates High and Low Achievers of Senior Nursing Students. The Weight-Height relationship Among Pre-School Children in the City and Province of Iloilo. 9. Longitudinal Survey This involves time allotted for investigation of the same subjects at two or more points in time. Example: An investigator wants to set up a pattern of weight increase to pre-teenage children ages 1 to 9. He takes a group of one-year old boys and girls and records their weights over a regular time intervals, i.e. quarterly. The investigator follows up this work to them till they reach 9 years old. Based on the data gathered, the researcher sets up the weight pattern from the same group of children investigated over a long period of time. 10. The Cross -Sectional Method This concerns studying participants of various age levels of other characteristics at the same point in time. Example Determining mathematical concepts from the first year to the fourth year, getting participants from four years at the same time and drawing conclusions from the findings. A study on the development of babies from birth to five years afflicted with a certain type of diseases at the same time.