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Topic 3 Sulfur is needed by both plants and animals as part of amino acids.

Calcium is used as a co-factor in enzymes and also as components of bones in animals. Phosphorus is needed by living organisms because it is part of the phosphate group in DNA. Iron is found in the hemoglobin of animals and it is also in cytochromes of all organisms. Sodium is involved in the membrane function of organisms and in animals; it is also used in the passing of nerve impulses. 2. In animals, glucose provides energy for cell respiration. Lactose is part of the solutes in milk. Glycogen stores glucose in liver and muscles. In plants, fructose is what makes the fruits sweet so that it attracts insects. Sucrose is a storage compound while cellulose is the main component of plant cell walls. 3. A DNA double helix consists of two strands. Each strand consists of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of phosphate group, deoxyribose, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. It is these bases that determine the formation of the double helix. Two helices are bonded together by complementary base pairing, that is, only complementary pairs of bases can bond with each other. The complementary pairs are adenine and thymine, which are held together by two hydrogen bonds, and guanine and cytosine, which are held together by three hydrogen bonds. 4. A polypeptide is made up of amino acids. For each specific polypeptide, the amino acids need to be aligned in a certain order. A gene stores the information required to make a specific polypeptide in a coded form. The code, which is the sequence of amino acids, is in the form the sequence of nitrogenous bases of the gene. In order to produce a polypeptide, the process of transcription and then translation is needed. 5. Lactase is the enzyme that can break down lactose, a sugar found in milk, into glucose and galactose. Lactase is obtained from a type of yeast that lives naturally in milk. Biotechnology companies culture this yeast, extract it from
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the yeast, and then purify it to sell to food manufacturing companies. This is because some people are lactose intolerant and do not have the ability to properly digest milk. Therefore, lactase is added to milk, thus producing lactosefree milk. 6. During anaerobic cell respiration, pyruvate can be converted in the cytoplasm into lactate in animals, or ethanol and carbon dioxide in yeast, with no further yield of ATP. 7. ATP and hydrogen (derived from the photolysis of water) are used to fix carbon dioxide to make organic molecules. Topic 8
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In oxidation, electrons are lost and oxygen is gained while in reduction, electrons are gained and oxygen is lost. Furthermore, oxidation results in many C O bonds and in a compound with lower potential energy. On the other hand, reduction results in many C H bonds and in a compound in higher potential energy. Glycolysis, which is part of cellular respiration, involves the splitting of a hexose (such as glucose) and takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. The first part of it is phosphorylation. During phosphorylation, two molecules of ATP provide two phosphate groups which are added to glucose to form hexose biphosphate. Then in lysis, hexose biphosphate is split into two triose phosphates. Afterwards, the triose phosphates undergo oxidation when two hydrogen atoms are removed from each molecule. The released energy causes another phosphate group to each molecule NAD+, an electron carrier, accepts the removed hydrogen atoms. As a results NAD + becomes NADH + H +. Finally, pyruvate molecules are formed when two phosphate groups are then removed from the molecules. The phosphate groups are given to ADP, thus forming ATP. Since two ATP molecules produce four ATP molecules, there is a net yield of two ATP molecules.

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Aerobic cell respiration is split into three stages, the link reaction, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. After glucose is converted into pyruvate during glycolysis, it is absorbed by the mitochondrion. There, it is converted into acetyle CoA by undergoing oxidative decarboxylation. However, glucose is not the only molecule that could be converted into acetyle CoA as fatty acids and carbohydrates are also used. Afterwards, acetyle CoA enters the Krebs cycle where it undergoes four oxidations. In three of these oxidations, hydrogen is accepted by NAD+. NAD+ thus becomes NAD+H+. In the last state of aerobic respiration, NADH donates electrons to the electron transport chain to release energy and make ATP. The electrons pass along the chain as they give up energy each time they pass from one carrier to the next. At three points along the chain, enough energy is given up to synthesize ATP. At the end of the electron transport chain, the electrons are given to oxygen. As the oxygen accepts hydrogen, water is formed. In one cycle of aerobic respiration, 38 ATP is produced with a net gain of 36 ATP.

4. The outer mitochondrial membrane separates the contents of the mitochondrion from the rest of the cell, therefore creating an ideal environment for aerobic respiration. The matrix inside the mitochondrion contains enzymes for the Krebs cycle and the link reaction. The space between the inner and outer membranes is highly suitable for aerobic respiration because the small space makes high proton concentrations to be easily formed for chemeosmosis. In the mitochondrion, there are also cristae. These tubular projections increase the surface area available for oxidative phosphorylation. Finally, the inner mitochondrial membrane contains the electron transport chain and ATP synthase which carry out oxidative phosphorylation.

5. The light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis begins with the absorption of light. This causes an electron in the chlorophyll molecule to be raised to a higher energy level and the chlorophyll becomes photoactivated. Excited electrons in the photosystem are passed from molecule to molecule until they reach a special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction center of the photosystem. The excited electron is then passed along a chain of carriers in the thylakoid membrane. At one stage, enough energy is released to make a molecule of ATP through chemeosmosis. After releasing the energy needed to make ATP< the electron that was given away by photosystem II is accepted by photosystem I. With its electron replaced photosystem I can be activated again. At the end, photolysis occurs in which oxygen is produced as a by-product.
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The light-independent reactions take place within the stroma of the chloroplast in the Calvin cycle. There, carbon dioxide combine with ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) in a carboxylation reaction. The produce of the reaction is split into two molecule of glycerate 3-phosphate. Glycerate 3-phosphate are acted on by ATP and NADPH to form two more compounds called triose phosphate. The linking together of two triose phosphates produces glucose phosphate, which can be later converted into carbohydrates. Out of the six triose phosphates, five are converted into RuBP, which uses ATP from light-dependent reactions.

7. The large membrane surface area of thylakoids allows greater absorption of light by photosystems. The small space within the thylakoids allows faster accumulation of protons to create a concentration gradient. The stroma region of chloroplasts contains enzymes needed for the Calvin cycle. The double membrane of the outside of the chloroplast

structure isolates the working parts and enzymes of the chloroplasts from the surrounding cytosol.
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The action spectrum of photosynthesis shows that violet, blue, and red light are used efficiently by green plants. However, green light is used least efficiently. This can be explained by the absorption spectrum of these pigments which shows the percentage of wavelengths that are absorbed by chlorophyll. This reveals that the greatest absorption is in the violet to blue range. There is also a high level of absorption in the red range. Finally, the least absorption is in the yellow to green range as most of the light is reflected.

9. Some of the factors that affect photosynthesis are light intensity, temperature, and concentration of carbon dioxide. These factors are limiting because they control the minimum rate of photosynthesis. As light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases as well. However, the rate of photosynthesis reaches a plateau at high levels of light. As the concentration of carbon dioxide increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases as well. This is only to a maximum, in which the rate levels off. Finally, as temperature increases, photosynthesis rate increases as well. However, there is an optimum temperature and after this value is exceeded, the rate of photosynthesis begins to decrease.