You are on page 1of 19



Submitted by
G.Akhila III/IV (09A81A1276) B.Sujini III/IV (09A81A1269)

Department of Information echonology InformationTechonology


INDEX Introduction. Internet: What is the Internet? What are the types of internet Connections? Understanding the World Wide Web.

How do I connect to the Internet?

Mobile Computing: Applications of Mobile Communications. Mobile and Wireless Devices.

WAP (wireless application protocol). WAP Applications.

Wireless LAN (a)Advantages of WLANs. (b)Disadvantages of WLANs.

Growth of Computer Networking:
Computer networking have been growing explosively. Two decades ago, few people had access to network. Now, computer communication has become an essential part of our infrastructure. Networking is used in every aspect of business, including advertisements, production, shipping, planning, billing and accounting. In short, computer networks are everywhere

general feature, most computers will certainly be portable. How will users access networks with the help of computers or other communication devices? An everincreasing number without any wires, i.e., wireless. How will people spend much of their time at work, during vacation? Many people will be mobile already one of the key characteristics of todays society There are two different kinds of mobility: user mobility and device portability. User mobility refers to a user who has access to the same or similar telecommunication services at different places, i.e., the user can be mobile, and the services will follow him or her. Examples for mechanisms supporting user mobility are simple call-forwarding solutions known from the telephone or

Mobile Computing
What will computers look like in ten years, in the next country? No wholly accurate prediction can be made, but as a

computer desktops supporting roaming With device portability the communication device moves (with or without a user). Many

mechanisms in the network and inside the device have to make sure that communication is still possible while it is moving

What is the Internet?
The Internet is latest in communications tools. Today, the Internet is a part of daily life. Even if you don't use it regularly, you hear about it daily. Estimates tell us that in US alone, 40 million computers connect to the Internet, and the number is growing. In India also, the Internet connections are growing exponentially. The Internet has many features common with our telephone network. When we make a phone call a channel consisting of copper wires, fiber optic lines, and perhaps a satellite opens. Voice signals on both sides are converted into an analogue electrical signal, which the phone system manipulates and transmit. A telephone conversation establishes a direct channel between both the parties. The Internet is a world wide "network of networks". It is a loose collection of thousands of smaller networks in different countries around the

globe enabling millions of people from diverse cultures to share information and resources. Internet pathways exchange digitized computer data that travel through complex networks. Even the parts of a single E-mail message travel through computers and lines owned by dozens of companies and government entities What Are the Types of Internet Connections? There are many ways to connect to the Internet. The four most practical for small businesses are analog, ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and cable. Analog connectivity, such as 56K modems, and ISDN connectivity both require dial-up access. This means that every time you need to access the Internet, analog or ISDN

modems must dial a number to secure a connection. DSL and cable modem solutions, on the other hand, are permanent connections that are always on. They provide immediate access to the Internet without having to dial any numbers DSL and cable are known as broadband connections and are much faster than analog or ISDN links. They also tend to be more costly than analog and ISDN connections. All have their strengths, however, and you need to evaluate your needs to determine which is best for your organization

application has made it possible for any computer user to find information on anything the mind can imagine. Before you begin to explore the Web, it is helpful to know some basics about the Web.
The Web and the Internet

Understandi ng the World Wide Web

We read and hear daily about the Internet or the "Net". And associated with the Internet, everyone talks about "surfing the Web" and "cruising through cyberspace", which refer to "exploring the World Wide Web." The term World Wide Web, or WWW, or Web is a computer application that is bringing masses to the Internet. This

The Web and the Internet are two separate entities that work together. The Internet is a global system of connected computers. The Web is a collection of electronic documents stored on computers worldwide, which means on the Internet. The Internet was born in 1960s as an experiment by the U.S. Department of Defense. The Department developed a network of computers in which the individual computers of the network did not depend wholly of the main or central computer and could communicate with each other without the

help of the central computer.

The Web browser

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

The Web began its rise in 1991 when Tim Berners-Lee, a consultant at the Swiss research laboratory CERN, used it to share research data with other physicists. Berners-Lee and CERN developers wrote a program that ran on many types of computer systems, enabling scientists everywhere to access research documents via the Internet. This program became known as a Web browser. In fact, the popularity of Web rose only after the creation of Mosaicthe first well-known graphical Web browser. It was developed by the University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and was distributed freely over the Internet

The World Wide Web connects people to more than 100 million Web pages from all over the globe containing all kinds of information. The thread pulling it all together is Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the standard code used for creating and formatting Web pages. HTML is a textbased markup language that all the Web browsers are able to understand and intercept. HTML is a way of representing text and linking that text to other kinds of information such as graphics, animation, sound and multimedia and allowing different kinds of data to be displayed together
URL Universal Resource Locator

Most importantly, HTML tags also designate which words and graphics in a

document are hypertext links and which page is to be loaded when those links are clicked. Each hypertext link (also called a hyperlink or simply a link) points to a certain Universal Resource Locator (URL, also called a Web address), which is like an address of a document on the Internet. URLs are standardized shorthand method of locating documents on the Internet. With the correct URL, your Web browser can find and display any Web page anywhere in the world. An example of URL on Web is http://www.economicti First http part tells that the information is in hypertext format and you need to use a Web browser to access this information. Next part www.economictimes.c om is the host machine that is running the Web server.

How Do I Connect to the Internet?

For any individual or a small business organization to join the Internet, he needs the services of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). You have to begin by visiting an office of an ISP of your choice in your city or contacting them on telephone. Even the computer dealer/seller in your area will be willing to help you. When you get an Internet account, you will be asked to provide your login and password. You will be given e-mail address and password. You will also get phone number to be dialed to connect to the ISP and helpdesk phone numbers. An e-mail address from VSNL's Bombay office can be as: rajan@giasbm02.vsnl. But before you get your own Internet

account, it is better to go through this article. Because, before you sign up you will need to know, the type of modem you require and where to get the necessary software and other things. Many educational institutions and organizations are already linked to the Internet. It may be that the computer on your desk in your office has all you need to gain access. Otherwise, you will probably have to get individual access for yourself.

APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION S Although wireless networks and mobile communications can be used for many applications. Some of them are given as follows.

1.Vehicles: Tomorrows cars will comprise many wireless communication systems and mobility aware applications. Music, news, road conditions, weather reports, and other broadcast information are received via digital audio broadcasting (DAB) with 1.5 Mbits/s. For personal communication, a global system for mobile communications (GSM) phone might be available offering voice and data connectivity with 384 kbits/s 2. Emergencies: Just imagine the possiblibities of an ambulance with a high quality wireless connection to a hospital. After an accident, vital information about injured persons can be sent to the hospital immediately. There, all necessary steps for

this particular type of accident can be prepared or further specialists can be consulted for an early diagnosis. Furthermore, wireless networks are the only means of communication in the case of natural disasters such as hurricanes or earthquakes. 3.Business Todays typical traveling salesman needs instant access to the companys database: to ensure that the files on his or her labtop reflect the actual state, to enable the company to keep track of all activities of their traveling employees, to keep databases consistent etc., with wireless access, the laptop can be turned into a true mobile office MOBILE AND WIRELESS DEVICES

Currently, laptops are considered to be the upper end of the mobile device range. Following list gives some examples of mobile and wireless devices graded by increasing performance (CPU , Memory , Display , Input devices etc.,) Sensor: A very simple wireless device is represented by a sensor transmitting state information. An example for such a sensor could be a switch sensing the office door. If the door is closed, the switch transmits this state to the mobile phone inside the office and the mobile phone will not accept incoming calls. Thus, without user interaction the semantics of a closed door is applied to phone calls. Pager: A very simple receiver, a pager can only display short text messages, has a tiny

display, and cannot send any messages. Pagers can even be integrated into watches. Mobile Phones: The traditional mobile phone only had a simple black and white text display and could send / receive voice or short messages. Today, however, mobile phones migrate more and more toward PDAs. Mobile phones with full color graphic display, on the internet browser are available. Personal digital assistant: PDAs typically accompany a user and officer very simple versions of office software (calendar, notepad, mail). The typical input device is a pen, with built in character recognition translating hand writing into characters. Web browsers and many other software packages are already available for these devices.

Palmtop/pocket computer: The next step toward full computer are pocket computers offering tiny keyboards, color displays, and simple versions of programs found on desktop computers (Text processing, Spread Sheets etc.,). Notebook/Laptop: Finally, laptops offer more or less the same performance as standard desktop computers; use the same software, the only technical difference being size, Weight, and ability to run on a battery. Wireless Application Protocol WAP Where does WAP Fit in the Wireless Computing Application? Three are three essential product components that you need to extend your host applications and

data to WAP-enabled devices. These three components are: 13193. WAP Microbrowser residing in the client handheld device 13194. WAP Gateway typically on wireless ISPs network infrastructure 13195. WAP Server - residing either on ISPs infrastructure or on enduser organizations infrastructure Lots of WAP browsers and emulators are available free of cost which can be used to test your WAP pages. Many of these browsers and emulators are specific to mobile devices. For example the R380s WAP emulator is intended to be used for testing WML applications developed for the WAP Browser in the Ericsson Smartphone R380s. You can find a list of

downloadable WML Browsers/ Emulators at

WAP emulators can be used to see how your site will look like on specific phones. As these images show, the same thing can look different on different mobile phones. So, the problems that web developer faces with the desktop browsers (Netscape/Iexplorer) is present here also. So, make sure you test your code on different mobile phones (or simulators) WAP Products Microbrowser, WAP Gateway, WAP servers WAP Gateway The idea behind WAP specifications is to connect the mobile networks to the Internet.To connect these two meganetworks, the WAP Specification assumes

there will be a WAP Gateway. At its simplest level, this is a stack converter, which will convert the WAP request into a Web request and the Web response into a WAP response. WAP Gateway is a piece of software that sits between the mobile device and the external network like the Internet. The gateway does the job of converting Internet content i.e. the WML pages into byte code (WMLC) which can be understood by a WAP device. Usually located on a server of a mobile operator it handles incoming requests from your WAP phone, takes care of the conversion required during WTLS/SSL sessions and handles incoming requests from your WAP phone. Although in theory, the gateway could also be made to convert the HTML page content itself onthe-fly as well, there are some problems.

HTML pages can be full of graphics and with inline scripting. Converting these to WML may return something that is not of any relevance to anybody. Some of the WAP Gateway products that are now coming on to the market (such as Nokia's WAP Server) also provide hosting capabilities themselves. In future it could be possible to integrate your WAP Server into the mobile network to gain information about the subscriber's location.If you host your own gateways, then it may be required to maintain some sort of connection with the mobile network. For example, in case of GSM networks you may need to have say a dial up connection with the network's SMS engine or you may need to provide dial in modems for



sent from a web server to a browser.

WAP Applications
At first, the most popular mobile Internet service is likely to be e-mail. SMS (short message service) messages have proved a big success in the Nordic nations and volumes are growing rapidly throughout western Europe One of the most significant advantages of Internet access from mobile rather that your PC is the ability to instantly identify users geographic location. This opens up a huge opportunity for highly customized services. As Ericsson puts it, Some of the interesting applications of WAP (already existing or being worked on) are: *0 Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Nokia are working with a Finnish fashion retailer who plans to send clothing

(Circuit Switched Data, around 9.6 kbps data rate) Source: WAP for web developers, A WAP server is simply a combined web server and WAP gateway. WAP devices do not use SSL. Instead they use WTLS. Most existing web servers should be able to support WAP content as well. Some new MIME types need to be added to your web server to enable it support WAP content. MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension, and in the web context, MIME can be thought of as a piece of header information that comes down with every file

offers direct to mobile telephones using a combination of cursors, touch screen technology and WAP to allow would-be shoppers to hot-link to order-entry pages on the web. *1 In Finland, children already play new versions of competitive games such as "Battleships", via the cellular networks. In the music world, Virgin Mobile in the UK offers to download the latest pop hits to customers in a daily offering. *2 Scala has developed several WAP products for small to medium-sized companies which would allow, for example, a field sales force to access customer order information and stock availability details via a WAP handset. *3 A key growth area for the technology will be business-toworkforce, with companies using WAP applications to reach employees at any time.

Scala is currently working on time-sheet applications and techniques for entering and filing expense claims via the mobile phone. *4 Nokia says applications that will benefit from WAP include customer care and provisioning, message notification and call management, e-mail, mapping and location services, weather and traffic alerts, sports and financial services, address book and directory services and corporate intranet applications. As brought out by [1] and the examples above WAP services are currently limited to simple information services, but as higher speeds become available and some of the technical issues specific to WAP are resolved, several new service types will emerge, including: *5 Infotainment : They could include weather forecasts,

stock quotes, horoscopes and news *6 Messaging : services such as email, voicemail and unified messaging *7 Personal information management : services such as call management and personal directories, which enable the modification of personal information *8 Financial services : mobile banking and mobile ecommerce services *9 Location-based services : services that are dependent on location include mapping and vehicle location information

restricted in their diameter to buildings, a campus, single rooms etc. and are operated by individuals, not by large-scale network providers. The global goal of WLANs is to replace office cabling and, additionally, to introduce a higher flexibility for ad hoc communication in, eg. Group meetings. The following points illustrate some general advantages and disadvantages of WLANs compared to their wired counterparts.

Some advantages of WLANs are:

Flexibility: Within radio coverage, nodes can communicate without further restriction. Radio waves can penetrate walls, senders and receivers can be placed anywhere (also nonvisible, eg. Within devices, in walls etc.). Furthermore , sometimes wiring is

Wiless LAN technology constitute a fast-growing market introducing the flexibility of wireless access into office, home, or production environments. WLANs are typically

difficult if firewalls separate buildings (real firewalls made out of, eg.bricks, not routers set up as a firewall). Penetration of a firewall is only permitted at certain points to prevent fire from spreading too fast. Planning: Only wireless ad hoc networks allow for communication without previous planning, any wired network needs wiring plans. As long as devices follow the same standard, they can communicate. For wired networks, additional cabling with the right plugs and probably interworking units (such as switches) have to be provided. Design: Only wireless networks allow for the design of small, independent devices which can for example be put into a pocket. Cables not only restrict users but also

designers of small PDAs, notepads etc. Furthermore, wireless senders and receivers can be hidden in historic buildings, i.e., current networking technology can be introduced without being visible. Robustness: Wireless networks can survive disasters, eg., earthquakes or users pulling a plug. If the wireless devices survive, people can still communicate. Networks requiring a wired infrastructure will typically break down completely.

Some Disadvantages WLANs:-


Quality of Service: WLANs typically offer lower quality than their wired counterparts. The main reasons for this drawback are the lower bandwidth dur to limitations in radio transmission (eg., only

1-10 Mbits/s), higher error rates due to interference(eg., 10-4 instead of 10-10 for fibre optics), and higher delay/delay variation. Cost: While, e.g., high-speed Ethernet adapters are in the range of some 10 E, wireless LAN adapters, e.g., as PCCard, still cost some 100 E. Proprietary Solutions: Due to slow standardization procedures, many companies have come up with proprietary solutions offering standardized functionality plus many enhanced features (typically a higher bit rate using a patented coding technology). However, these

additional features only work in a homogeneous environment, i.e, when adapters from the same vendor are used for all wireless nodes. Restrictions: All wireless products have to comply with national regulations. Several government and nongovernement institutions worldwide regulate the operation ad restrict frequencies to minimize interference. Consequently, it takes a very long time to establish global solution like, e.g., IMT-2000. WLANs are limited to lowpower senders and certain licence-free frequency bands. Safety and Security:

From the above discussions, it could be inferred that Internet has grown quite rapidly from its origin as a small defense network and today spans the globe connecting hundreds of thousands of computers on many different computer networks Mobile Computing and Communications is useful for wireless Networks. Today, however, mobile phones migrate more and more toward PDAs. Mobile phones with full color

graphic display, on the internet browser are available.

The Internet book second edition By DOUGLAS E.COMER Success with Internet BY ALLEN L.WYATT

Mobile Communication s book by JOHEN SCHELLER. Web Site From MobileComputi ng.Com