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- Dct 6000 09 Qpsk Manual
- AviatODU600DataSheet
- Arris D5 Operational Guide
- wireless communication
- Digital Transmission by Hermite N-Dimensional Antipodal Scheme
- Techniques for Mitigating the Effect of Carrier Frequency Offset in OFDM
- DVB Digital Video Broadcasting
- EXFO Reference-Poster 100G
- [10]Coherent optical 25.8-gb/s ofdm transmission over 4,160-km ssmf
- i x 2415611565
- Unaohm EP300
- Computation Wireless Communications_summer-School
- egnite4e
- Berangi 1998 Compressed
- Anritsu LTE E-Node B Field Testing
- WiFi Standards Poster 37W
- AN OVERVIEW OF PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR OFDM SIGNALS
- Li-Fi_tutorial.pdf
- @N
- Comparative_Study_of_Digital_Modulation (1).pdf

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Final report

2E1367 - Project Course in Signal Processing and Digital Communication

Black Team

Jia Liu, Erik Bergenudd, Vinod Patmanathan, Romain Masson

Project 2005

OFDM project

Black Team

OFDM project

Abstract

This report discusses the design and implementation of an OFDM modem for a simplex communication between two PCs over a frequency selective channel. First a brief introduction is provided by explaining the backrground and the specication of the project. Then the report deals with the system model. Each block of the OFDM system is described (IFFT/FFT, cyclic prex, modulation/demodulation, channel estimation, bit loading). In the following section, the system architecture is analysed. The transmission protocol, as well as the system parameters are explained in details. Then, the DSP implementation is discussed. Finally, the results are provided in the last chapter.

Aknowledgment

We would like to thank our project assistant, Xi Zhang, for his help during the course.

Contents

Abstract Aknowledgment 1 Introduction 1.1 Background . . . 1.2 Specication . . . 1.3 Equipment . . . 1.4 Project overview 1 2 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 22 23 25

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2 System Model 2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 OFDM System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Evolution of OFDM . . . . . . 2.2.2 Introduction to OFDM . . . . . 2.2.3 FFT and IFFT . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Cyclic Prex . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Modulation and demodulation 2.2.6 Channel and Noise Estimation 2.2.7 Adaptive Bit Loading . . . . . 3 System Architecture 3.1 Frame structure . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Transmission Protocol . . . 3.1.2 Training sequence . . . . . 3.1.3 Length Frame . . . . . . . . 3.1.4 Pilots Frame . . . . . . . . 3.2 Convolution Encoder and Decoder 3.3 Mirror Operation . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Upsampling and pulse shaping . . 3.5 Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Frequency oset . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 0

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4 DSP implementation 4.1 Overview of the Board . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Ping Pong Buering with Linked EDMA 4.4 Implementation issues . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 DSP transmitter implementation . . . . 4.6 DSP Receiver Implementation . . . . . . 4.7 Changes compared to simulation . . . .

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26 26 27 27 28 29 30 31

5 Graphical User Interface 32 5.1 Communication between the Host and the DSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.2 Transmitter GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.3 Receiver GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6 Simulation results 35 6.1 Channel estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.2 Bit loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.3 Bit error probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 7 Real system results 7.1 Lets follow a frame at the receiver . . 7.1.1 Received signal . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2 Match lter, downsampling and 7.1.3 Channel compensation . . . . . 7.2 Final results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 38 38 38 39 40

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8 Future work 41 8.1 Increase the bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.2 Peak to average ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.3 Improving the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Conclusion 42

Page 4

List of Figures

1.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Point to point communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFDM system . . . . . . . . . . . Bits ow through an interleaver . . Basis functions in OFDM system . OFDM system . . . . . . . . . . . Channel impulse response . . . . . Adding a cyclic prex to a frame . Bits allocation in modulation . . . 4-QAM (left) and 16-QAM (right) Block type channel estimation . . . Adaptive bit loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 33 33 36

Preambule of transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure of the training sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A 1/2 - rate Convolution encoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trellis used in the Viterbi decoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mirror operation, producing a real valued output from IFFT . . . . . . . . . . . . Impulse response of the root-raised-cosine lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The frames "slide" in the received buer because of the sampling clock dierence The synchronization method uses correlation between the training sequence and the ouput from the match lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 The maximum of the correlation indicates the where the training frame starts . . 3.11 Channel estimation compensates the rotation of the constellation due to frequency oset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5.1 5.2 6.1 Ping Pong Buering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buer handling at the receiver . . . . . . . . . . . State machine at the transmitter . . . . . . . . . . State machine at the receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . The bit allocation is constant over the transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Interface at the transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interface at the receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel model in the Matlab simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 0

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Channel estimation in two dierent cases (noise free and noisy channel) . . . . . Bit allocation in two dierent cases (SNR=30dB, SNR =6dB) . . . . . . . . . . . BER vs SNR for the coded simulated system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Received signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal after FFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constellation before channel compensation Constellation after channel compensation Received picture and results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40

Page 6

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Background

In a basic communication system, the data are modulated onto a single carrier frequency. The available bandwith is then totally occupied by each symbol. This kind of system can lead to inter-symbol-interference (ISI) in case of frequency selective channel.The basic idea of OFDM is to divide the available spectrum into several orthogonal subchannels so that each narrowband subchannel experiences almost at fading. With OFDM, it is possible to have overlapping subchannels in the frequency domain, thus increasing the transmission rate. OFDM systems have gained an increased interest during the last years. It is used in the European digital broadcast radio system, as well as in wired environment such as asymmetric digital subscriberlines (ADSL). This technique is used in digital subscriber lines (xDSL) to provides high bitrate over a twisted-pair of wires. The project focuses on the latter application.

1.2

Specication

The goal of this project is to design and implement a point-to-point digital communication between two PCs over a channel with similar characteristic as a telephone line. A feedback channel is used to estimate the channel and to adapt the bit rate of each subcarrier. We provide the possibility to transmit source les (pictures) and to display those on the screen at the receiver. An graphical interface is implemented in order to be able to control the system.

1.3

Equipment

To complete our task the following equipment is available: Two laptops (Dell and IBM) Two DSP-cards (Texas Instruments DSK6713) Adjustable lter (ZePo95) Telephone line emulation hardware Noise generator

Chapter 1

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Matlab, Code Composer Studio 1.12, Microsoft Visual C++, Frontpage, Illustrator 10.

1.4

Project overview

Our point-to-point communication system presents two sets of PCs, each equipped by a DSP card. Even if in practice, a full-duplex system is used, we consider a simplex communication : one of the PCs is the transmitter whereas the other is the receiver. The two PCs communicate through a telephone line (modeled by emulation hardware in the project). Pictures shall be transmitted and displayed on the receivers screen. The receiver estimates the channel on each carrier and feeds back information to the transmitter through the feedback link. In practice the feedback link has the same characteristicsas the direct link. In this project, we will use a simple cable as feedback link (as it is not the interesting part of the research).

simple cable

Transmitter PC

DSP

DSP

Receiver PC

Page 8

Chapter 2

System Model

2.1 Overview

IFFT with complex mirror

TX

Convolution encoder

Interleaver

Modulation

CP

pulse shaping

A/D

RX

Decoder

Deinterleaver

Demodulation

Channel compensation

CP

match filter

2.1.1

Transmitter

Convolutional encoder. In order to decrease the error rate of the system, a simple convolution encoder of rate 1/2 is used as channel coding. Interleaver. The interleaver rearranges input data such that consecutive data are split among dierent blocks. This is done to avoid bursts of errors. An interleaver is presented as a matrix. The stream of bits lls the matrix row by row. Then, the bits leave the matrix column by column. The depth of interleaver can be adjusted. Modulation. A modulator transforms a set of bits into a complex number corresponding to a signal constellation. The modulation order depends on the subcarrier. A subcarrier

Chapter 2

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input bits

...

...

output bits

Figure 2.2: Bits ow through an interleaver with high SNR will be assigned more bits than a subchannel with low SNR. Modulations implemented here are QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM. Symmetrical IFFT. Data are transformed into time-domain using IFFT. The total number of subcarriers translates into the number of points of the IFFT/FFT. A mirror operation is performed before IFFT in order to get real symbols as output. Cyclic Prex (CP). To preserve the orthogonality property over the duration of the useful part of signal, a cyclic prex is then added. The cyclic prex is a copy of the last elements of the frame. D/A. Convert digital symbols to analog signals. This operation is done using the AIC codec inside the DSP.

2.1.2

Channel

The channel must have the same characteristics as the pair of twisted wires found in the telephone network. In order to achieve this, we use a telephone line emulation hardware. Also, we have the possibility to use the adjustable lter ZePo and the noise generator. This can be very useful to test the system performance.

2.1.3

Receiver

A/D. Convert analog signals to digital symbols for processing. Synchronization. Due to the clock dierence between transmitter and receiver, a synchronization algorithm is needed to nd the rst sample in the OFDM frame. Remove cyclic prex. This block simply removes the cyclic prex added in the transmitter. Symmetrical FFT. Data are transformed back to frequency-domain using FFT. Then the complex conjugate mirror added in the transmitter is removed. Channel estimation. The estimation is achieved by pilot frames. Channel compensation. The channel estimation is used to compensate for channel distortion. Bit loading. The receiver computes the bit allocation and send it to the transmitter.

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Chapter 2

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Demodulation. Symbols are transformed back to bits. The inverse of the estimated channel response is used to compensate the channel gain. Deinterleaver (Interleaving inverse operation). The stream of bits lls the matrix column by column. Then, the bits leave the matrix row by row. Convolution decoder. The decoder performs the Viterbi decoding algorithm to generate transmitted bits from the coded bits.

2.2

OFDM System

This section introduces OFDM and key system aspects are considered.

2.2.1

Evolution of OFDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) has been used for a long time to carry more than one signal over a telephone line. FDM divides the channel bandwidth into subchannels and transmits multiple relatively low rate signals by carrying each signal on a separate carrier frequency. To ensure that the signal of one subchannel did not overlap with the signal from an adjacent one, some guard-band was left between the dierent subchannels. Obviously, this guard-band led to ineciencies. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) In order to solve the bandwidth eciency problem, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing was proposed, where the dierent carriers are orthogonal to each other. With OFDM, it is possible to have overlapping subchannels in the frequency domain, thus increasing the transmission rate. The basis functions are represented in Figure 2.3. This carrier spacing provides optimal Chapter 3 - Theory 10 spectral eciency.

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Today, OFDM Prefix 3.3 Cyclic has grown to be the most popular communication system in high-speed communications.

In order to maintain orthogonality through the transmission over the channel a cyclic prefix is added. This is done by taking the M last symbols of the frame and put a copy of them in the beginning of the frame. This will also make the 11 Page output from the IDFT periodic. The signal will now appear as shown below.

x(k + N ) s (k ) =

N -1 j 2p n

-M k <0

(3.2)

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2.2.2

Introduction to OFDM

bits modulation X(n) IFFT x(k) CP s(k)

Figure 2.4: OFDM system The OFDM system studied in this paper has the block structure as shown in Figure 2.4. The system maps the input bits into complex-valued symbols X(n) in the modulation block, which determines the constellation scheme of each subcarrier. The number of bits assigned to each subcarrier is based on the signal to noise ratio of each subcarrier on the frequency range. The adaptive bit loading algorithm will be detailed below. The IFFT block modulates X(n) onto N orthogonal subcarriers. A cyclic prex is then added to the multiplexed output of IFFT. The obtained signal is then converted to a time continuous analog signal before it is transmitted through the channel. At the receiver side, an inverse operation is carried out and the information data is detected.

2.2.3

The key components of an OFDM system are the inverse FFT at the transmitter and FFT at the receiver. These operations performing linear mappings between N complex data symbols and N complex OFDM symbols, result in robustness against fading multipath channel. The reason is to transform the high data rate stream into N low data rate streams, each experiencing a at fading during the transmission. Suppose the data set to be transmitted is X(1), X(2), ..., X(N ) where N is the total number of sub-carriers. The discrete-time representation of the signal after IFFT is: N 1 n 1 x(n) = n = 0..N 1 (2.1) X(k).ej2k N , N k=0 At the receiver side, the data is recovered by performing FFT on the received signal, 1 Y (k) = N

N 1

x(n).ej2k N ,

n=0

k = 0..N 1

(2.2)

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An N-point FFT only requires N log(N ) multiplications, which is much more computationally ecient than an equivalent system with equalizer in time domain.

2.2.4

Cyclic Prex

In an OFDM system, the channel has a nite impulse response. We note tmax the maximum delay of all reected paths of the OFDM transmitted signal, see Figure 2.5.

channel impulse response

t 0 tmax

Figure 2.5: Channel impulse response Cyclic prex is a crucial feature of OFDM to combat the eect of multipath. Inter symbol interference (ISI) and inter channel interference (ICI) are avoided by introducing a guard interval at the front, which, specically, is chosen to be a replica of the back of OFDM time domain waveform. Figure 2.6 illustrates the idea.

CP

FRAME

t 0 tc > tmax

Figure 2.6: Adding a cyclic prex to a frame From above expressions the subcarrier waveforms are now given by s(k) = x(k + N ) x(n) = 1 N

n N 1 j2k N k=0 X(k).e

M k < 0 0k <N 1

(2.3)

The idea behind this is to convert the linear convolution (between signal and channel response) to a circular convolution. In this way, the FFT of circulary convolved signals is equivalent to a multiplication in the frequency domain. However, in order to preserve the orthogonality property, tmax should not exceed the duration of the time guard interval. As shown below, once the above condition is satised, there is no ISI since the previous symbol will only have eect

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Chapter 2

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X(n) IFFT

x(k) CP

s(k) Channel

r(k) CP

y(k) FFT

Y(n)

over samples within [0, tmax ]. And it is clear that orthogonality is maintained so that there is no ICI. r(k) = s(k) h(k) + e(k) Y (n) = DF T (y(k)) = DF T (IDF T (X(n)) h(k) + e(k)) = X(n).DF T (h(k)) + DF T (e(k)) = X(n).H(n) + E(n) ,0 k N 1 (2.4) (2.5) (2.6) (2.7)

where denotes circular convolution and E(n) = DF T (e(k)). Another advantage with the cyclic prex is that it serves as a guard between consecutive OFDM frames. This is similar to adding guard bits, which means that the problem with inter frame interference also will disappear.

2.2.5

Given the adaptive bit loading algorithm, the modulator has a number of bits and an energy value as input for each sub-carriers. The output for one sub-carrier is a constellation symbol with a desired energy, corresponding to the number of bits on the input. The modulator is taken to get either 2bits, 4bits, 6bits or 8bits available, which means that, respectively, only QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM are available for modulation on each sub-carrier.

Input buffer (bits)

1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0

BPSK

QPSK

BPSK

16-QAM

QPSK

QPSK

BPSK

s1

s2

s3

s4

s5

s6

s7

Figure 2.7: Bits allocation in modulation Demodulation is performed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) approach, given knowledge of the at fading channel gain for each subcarrier. Furthermore, in order to reduce bit errors, gray-coded constellations are also employed for each modulation order available. This gray coding ensures that if a symbol error occurs, i.e. the decoder selects an adjacent symbol to what the transmitter intended to be decoded, there is only a single bit error resulting. Page 14

Chapter 2

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4 - QAM

16- QAM

Figure 2.8: 4-QAM (left) and 16-QAM (right) Large performance improvement can be obtained in this adaptive modulation application where the modulator basis functions are designed as a function of measured channel characteristics. On good subchannel (high SNR), modulation methods, such as 64 QAM, are used to increase the bit rate. And a lower modulation, such as QPSK, is performed on bad subchannel to keep the error rate in a low level.

2.2.6

The frequency response of channel has to be estimated to invert the eect of non-selective fading on each subcarrier. Further, given full knowledge of channel and noise variance, the transmitter and receiver can determine the channel gain at each tone of OFDM symbols, so that the adaptive bit loading algorithm can proceed to calculate the optimal bit and energy allocation. This algorithm will be expounded in next section. Since the channel transfer function is not changing very rapidly, a block type channel estimation has been developed, in which the pilot tones are inserted into all of the subcarriers of OFDM symbols as shown in gure 2.9. Noise variance is estimated by the empty-pilot, i.e. the symbols are all zero-valued. If the channel is constant during the block, there will be little channel estimation error since the pilots are sent at all carriers. The pilots are inserted to all subcarriers with a specic period, and extracted after DFT block. The estimated channel H(n) is then obtained in channel estimation block. The received signal can be presented as Y (n) = X(n)H(n) + E(n) n = 1, 2, ..., N (2.8)

where E(n) is zero mean noise independent both in time and in frequency due to the linear properties of FFT. The method we used to implement the channel estimation is based on the forgetting factor technique : (L, n) H(n) = (L, n) where (n, L) = Xp (n, L)Yp (n, L) + (1 )(n, L 1) (n, L) = Xp (n, L)Xp (n, L) + (1 )(n, L 1) Page 15 (2.10) (2.11) n = 1..127 (2.9)

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frequency

127 subchannels

time

block of 20 data frames pilot on every subchannel

Figure 2.9: Block type channel estimation and where Xp (n, l) is the transmitted pilot, Yp (n, l) is the received pilot, is the forgetting factor, L is the index of the current pilot frame and n is the subchannel index. In other words, X(n, l) is the transmitted symbol of the lth pilot on the nth subchannel. The use of the forgetting factor will be explained in the Section 3.6. The channel response at the subcarrier estimated from the pilots is then used to nd the estimated transmitted signal X(n). Y (n) X(n) = H(n) (2.12)

The power spectrum of the white Gaussian noise added in the channel is estimated using the empty-pilot. Ee (n) = Yo (n) H(n).Xo (n) (2.13) Here Xo (n) = 0, so the variance of N samples of noise is then calculated as

2 N =

1 N

N 1

Yo (n)2

n=0

(2.14)

2.2.7

The adaptive bit loading algorithm is an ecient technique to achieve power and rate optimization based on knowledge of the subchannel gains. A subchannel with higher SNR is then assigned more bits and energy than a subchannel with lower SNR. There are two types of loading algorithms: those that try to maximize data rate and those that try to maximize performance at a given xed data rate. The adaptive technique employed in this system is Rate-Adaptive (RA) loading criterion: a rate-adaptive loading procedure maximizes (or approximately maximizes) the number of bits per symbol subject to a xed energy Page 16

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Channel gain

bit loading 6 4 2

En n=1

log2 1 +

En .gn

(2.15)

subject to: N Ex = N.En (2.16) where bn and En are the bit allocation and the energy for the nth subchannel. Ex is the average energy per subchannel. is the gap (parameter of the algorithm). To initialize the bit allocation, the procedure is summarized as follows: Compute the subchannel signal to noise ratios gn . Sort the subchannel SNRs to be from largest to smallest. Compute the number of usable subchannels as Nuse = N number of zerogain subchannels (2.17) Obtain the constant K and the energy in the worst subchannel based on the formula K = Enmin 1 Nuse

Nuse

N.Ex + .

n=1

1 gn

(2.18) (2.19)

= K

gNuse

Solve while Enmin is negative with Nuse Nuse 1 and corresponding gn term eliminated. Determine the bits and energy on usable subchannels using the formula Ei = K b(i) = gi i = 0, 1, ...N use i = 0, 1, ...N use (2.20) (2.21)

1 gi . log2 (K. ) 2

Return values of bits and energy allocation to original index of unsorted subchannels and assign 0 bit to zero-gain and eliminated subchannels. Restrict b(i) to take value 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 (this corresponds to available modulation orders).

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Since only ve dierent signal constellations are available in our system, we require the subchannel to have only 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8bits. Thus other number of bits are not supported. In order to take care of this, a restriction technique has to be used: Quantize the number of bits per symbol to nearest integer. Set bi = 8 if it is more than 8, and bi = 0 if it is less than 1. Round the value of bi down to bi 1 if it is odd. The advantage of OFDM is that each subchannel is relatively narrowband and has at fading. However, it is probable that a given subchannel has a low gain, resulting in a large BER. Conventional system without bit loading has to settle a low modulation to keep a relatively low error probability, but also low bit rate. Thus, it is desirable to take advantage of subchannels having relatively high performance. This is the motivation of bit loading and adaptive modulation. The bits and energy allocation is a function of channel property and noise PSD. Therefore, a new adaptation must be implemented each time the channel varies.

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Chapter 3

System Architecture

3.1 Frame structure

There are dierent frames involved in this system. Beside the regular message frame, there are pilot frame, empty pilot frame, length frame and training sequence, which are described in this section. "Frame" here denotes an OFDM frame, as described previously, consisting 256 OFDM symbols and a cyclic prex. The following frame structure was used in the system model on Matlab but had to be changed when implementing the DSPs to achieve a reliable system. The real system protocol is described in the next chapter.

3.1.1

Transmission Protocol

Figure 3.1 shows the format of OFDM preamble for transmission. The training sequence at the beginning is used to synchronize and to estimate the channel. Since the length of message is required for decoding the message, a frame recording the length is inserted into the pilot block and transmitted with most robust combination of BPSK modulation. Then a "zeros" frame is transmitted in order to estimate the noise in the channel. Finally, the transmitter has to wait until it gets the rst feedback from receiver. This is why it sends an empty frame before sending the actual data.

Empty frame (wait for feedback)

Training sequence

Figure 3.1: Preambule of transmission When the transmitter has acquired the rst feedback and started to transmit again, the system operates in stationary mode, specied as Figure 3.2. The message frames are grouped, 20 at a time, into one block, and headed with a pilot frame. Each pilot frame is processed at the receiver, estimating the channel response and noise power, and then fed back to the transmitter. In order to make the system more ecient, instead of letting the modem wait for the feedback,

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and thereby lose synchronization, the modem transmits the message block based on the feedback from last pilot frame. The protocol is showed in the Figure 3.2.

Pilot i send block i of 20 frames using update i-1 Pilot i+1 send block i+1 of 20 frames using update i

TX

update i-1

update i

update i+1 process on pilot i+1 receive block i+1 using update i

process on pilot i

RX

3.1.2

Training sequence

The training sequence is divided into two distinct parts. First, the transmitter sends a sine wave followed by zero padding (without any upsampling or pulse shaping) and then it sends a pseudorandom sequence (the same as pilot frame). At the receiver side, a correlation between the sine wave (known at the receiver) and the content of the received buer is proceeded continuously. When the receiver detects the sine wave, it has an estimation of the beginning of the pseudorandom sequence. Then the synchronization is done to get precisely the sampling time. the synchronization method is explained in the next section.

Training sequence

{1,-1}

Pulse shaping

Pilot frame

3.1.3

Length Frame

The receiver has to know where the message ends, thus a length frame is transmitted to denote the length. The length frame is mapped onto a BPSK constellation, and then follows the same steps of symmetrical IFFT, cyclic prex extension as message frame. In order to facilitate a

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reliable detection, only the rst 15 bits of length frame are used to represent the length, zero bits appended to form a frame.

3.1.4

Pilots Frame

Pilot frame is used for synchronization and channel estimation, while empty pilot frame is sent to estimate the noise power. As described in Figure 3.3 (see Pilot frame), the pilot frame is chosen as a random sequence, followed by symmetrical IFFT and cyclic prex extension to be an OFDM frame. The empty pilot frame is set to be a zero valued frame. Since the channel is relatively stable, we assume the time oset and distortion caused by channel is invariable during a block period. Thereby we send the two type pilot frames each block during the data transmission, and apply the estimation on a whole block.

3.2

A simple convolution encoder, supporting code rate 1/2 is as shown below. For every 1 input bit, the convolution encoder outputs 2 bits, thus having a 100 % redundancy.

output 1 + input D D output 2 + +

Figure 3.4: A 1/2 - rate Convolution encoder The Viterbi decoding algorithm is used for decoding the coded bits so to generate the transmitted bits. The convolution decoder performs Maximum Likelihood decoding algorithm by making use of the input trellis, which reduces the computational load in the decoding process. The trellis according to the coding scheme is sketched bellow.

in-1 in-2 00 output =00 11 11 10 00 10 01 01 11 10 11 10 00 in = 1 in = 0

01

01

3.3

Mirror Operation

According to the standards in ADSL and since the DSP D/A converter can only handle real valued data, we performe a mirror operation before IFFT. In a sense, we construct a conjugate symmetric signal in the frequency domain in order to get a real signal in the time domain. Page 21

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complex mirror

Since we use 127 subcarriers, the output of the modulation block contains 127 complex symbols. Then we compute their conjugate and map the IFFT input as illustrated in the gure bellow.

null X1 X2

IFFT

Real values

Figure 3.6: Mirror operation, producing a real valued output from IFFT We can notice that the 0 (dc) and the 128 input, are set to zero. Indeed, we do not transmit at the zero frequency. A drawback of this manipulation is the requirement of more IFFT computations. However, it does not introduce any deterioration in the system performance

3.4

Before the digital to analog converter, the symbols are upsampled and pulse shaped. This is performed to permit the synchronization at the reciver side. The upsampling operation consists in adding zeros between the symbols. In our system the upsampling rate is 4. This means that we add 3 zeros between each symbols. Then the signal is lter by the pulse shape. In our system, the impulse response of this lter is a root raised cosine of length 40. The response in provided in the Figure 3.7. We rst tried with a rectangular shape but it was less ecient. Indeed, the properties of the root raised cosine in the frequency domain are better for our system. The frequency response of the root-raised-cosine lter is narrow band and each symbol must be transmitted through a norraw bandwith.

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0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

3.5

Synchronization

Synchronization is a big hurdle in OFDM. Synchronization usually consists of two parts: 1. Frame detection Frame detection is used to determine roughly the beginning of the pilot sequence. It is done by using the sine wave. 2. Time oset estimation correction Because the sampling clock dierence between the transmitter and receiver, each signal sample is o from its correct sampling time by a small amount which is linearly increasing with the index of the sample. The phenomenon is illustrated in the Figure 3.5.

middle

Frame

end

Frame

Figure 3.8: The frames "slide" in the received buer because of the sampling clock dierence Then, the sampling time must be estimated and compensated before removing cyclic prex at the receiver since otherwise the orthogonality between subcarriers are lost. In wireless systems, the synchronization has to be done for every frame. This is why a synchronization with cyclic prex is performed. But this method is not very reliable. In our case (telephone line), the system is quite stable. In this way, we can synchronize every 20 frames. Page 23

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As we use a pilot frame to estimate the channel, the synchronization is done using the same pilot.

Training sequence

0.5 0 !0.5 !1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Figure 3.9: The synchronization method uses correlation between the training sequence and the ouput from the match lter The synchronization algorithm used herein is based on the complex-valued pilot frames. During the pilot frames, it is known to the receiver what the transmitter is transmitting. Hence, one possible way of recovering the symbol timing is to cross-correlate the complex-valued samples after the matched lter with a locally generated time-shifted replica of the pilot sequence. By trying dierent time-shifts in steps of T / Q, where Q is the number of samples per symbol, the symbol timing can be found with a resolution of T / Q. Put into mathematical terms, if mf (n) is the output of the match lter, pilot(n) the pilot sequence of length L, and [tstart; tend] represents the search window, the timing can be found as :

L1

t i=0

pilot(i).mf (Q.i + t)

t = tstart ..tend

45 40 35

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Sampling time

Figure 3.10: The maximum of the correlation indicates the where the training frame starts Page 24

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The correlation properties of the training sequence are important as they aect the estimation accuracy. Ideally, the autocorrelation function for the pilot frame should equal a delta pulse, i.e., zero correlation everywhere except at lag zero. Therefore, the pilots frame should be carefully designed. However, it is simply chosen as a random sequence since usually it works fairly well when the length is large enough.

3.6

Frequency oset

Due to a slight dierence between the clock frequencies, the system experiences a frequency oset. This phenomenon makes the angles of points in the constellation to change linearly over time. If the variation is to fast, the demodulation becomes unreliable. Then, for large les, we have to compensate the frequency oset. This is done using a forgetting factor closed to 1. When estimating the channel every 20 frames, we weight higher the current estimation than the previous. In this way, the angle due to frequency oset is estimated every 20 frames and compensated all over the transmission.

compensation

Figure 3.11: Channel estimation compensates the rotation of the constellation due to frequency oset.

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Chapter 4

DSP implementation

This section follows up from the previous and explains how the algorithms simulated in Matlab were implemented on the DSP board. A brief overview of the DSP board used is presented rst. In the following sections we explain the implementation of the transmitter and receiver.

4.1

In this course we worked with the TI C6713 DSK (DSP Starter Kit). This board was equipped with a 225 MHz TMS320C6713 Floating Point DSP and has 265Kbytes of internal memory. On board peripherals include two multi-channel buered serial ports (McBSPs) and an enhanced DMA controller (EDMA). It also has 16 Mbytes of on board SDRAM. With its signicant amount of internal memory we managed to load our whole program within it, without using any of the SDRAM. The SDRAM was used exclusively for the data to be transmitted. For signal transmission and audio processing, the DSP board is equipped with an on-board codec called the AIC23. Codec stands for coder/decoder, the job of the AIC23 is to code analog input samples into a digital format for the DSP to process, and then decode data coming out of the DSP to generate the processed analog output. Digital data is sent to and from the codec on McBSP1. We use both channels of the codec for the transmitting and the feedback part. The signal is sampled as 16-bit elements at a rate of 96 kHz. To speed up the task of copying data between the CPU and audio codec, the EDMA (Enhanced Direct Memory Access) is used to copy one frame between the codec and memory and interrupt the DSP. The DSK has 4 light emitting diodes (LEDs) and 4 DIP switches that allow users to interact with programs through simple LED displays and user input on the switches. The 6713 DSK includes a special device called a JTAG emulator on-board that can directly access the register and memory state of the 6713 chip through a standardized JTAG interface port. When a user wants to monitor the progress of his program, Code Composer (the development environment) sends commands to the emulator through its USB host interface to check on any data the user is interested in. We also use this interface together with the GUI to download the le from the host computer to the DSP board for transmission. The DSP implementation followed closely the model implemented in Matlab. We had to make sure however that the system complied with real time constraints. Also, we had to verify that memory constraints were met. The programming was implemented in C and care had to be taken to dene precise memory allocation. Fortunately, Code composer Studio compiler does 26

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a lot of code optimization, and in our case we did not have to work too hard on optimizing the code manually. We took steps to avoid calling functions within loops as well vector operations.

4.2

Data Transfer

Audio signals are transferred back and forth from the codec via McBSP2, a bi-directional serial port. The EDMA is congured to take every 16-bit signed audio sample arriving on McBSP1 and store it in a buer in memory to be processed by the DSP. At the same time the EDMA is used to transfer data from memory to the McBSP1 to be sampled and transmitted. The codec is congured and controlled via the McBSP0, a second serial port. The commands are used to congure parameters on the codec (sample rate, gain, audio path).

4.3

Using a single buer for receiving and transmitting data can be tricky and timing dependant because new data constantly overwrites present data being transmitted. Ping Pong buering is a technique where two buers are used for data transfer instead of only one. The EDMA is congured in our case to ll the Ping buer rst, and then the Pong Buer. While the Pong buer is being lled, the Ping buer can be processed with the knowledge that the current transfer wont overwrite it. In our system we use Ping and Pong Buers for both transmitting and receiving.

ping sending

processing data when proceeded

pong copy

codec

when proccessing proceeded data

pong sending

codec

Figure 4.1: Ping Pong Buering The EDMA controller is congured slightly dierently for each buer. After lling up a buer, the EDMA controller generates an interrupt. Typically the interrupt handler must then reload the conguration for the next buer before the next audio sample arrives. A feature that speeds up this process is called EDMA linked transfers that is used here, that makes this process less time critical. The congurations are created in advanced and the EDMA controller simply links to the next conguration after the present one is nished. An interrupt is still generated, Page 27

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but only to signal to the processor that it can process the data. Hence, the only time constraint is that audio data must be processed before the next buer is lled.

4.4

Implementation issues

Synchronization It is possible to determine the start index of frame by calculating the cross correlation of the received and known sinusoid. The receiver calculates the correlation with the received signal, sifting in time, and keeping the maximum value and the corresponding index. If the maximum value is higher then a predened threshold, the sine is considered to be found. If no sine is found, the frame is considered as empty and noise estimation is performed. From the sample right after the sine the rst training sequence starts. Assembling frame On the receiver side, the frame can start at any point in the buer since its not possible to make the cards work completely synchronously. To solve this, the received part of the frame is stored in a temporary buer. When the next buer is lled, the frame can be assembled and processed, a semaphore is set to keep in mind that there is still unprocessed data in the receive buer.

received buffer 1st part of the frame next received buffer 2nd part of the frame

temporary buffer

Memory considerations Mostly, the computational power consumption is very low for this implementation. More limiting is the memory usage on the board. Even if the physical amount of memory is sucient, there have been problems with allocating memory in the functions. Only very small arrays were possible to declare in the functions. No dynamic memory allocation worked either. The solution was to declare large buers globally in the beginning and then reuse them. Especially the modulation and demodulation functions caused problems. The Matlab function for modulation used complete predened tables to encode the signal. But due to the gray coding of the modulation the complexity could be reduced signicantly. Feedback The feedback is a basic communication system. The bit allocation is encoded as 4 bits per sub-carrier and then modulated with QPSK. Each symbol is repeated twice. The transmission is performed through a perfect channel using a coaxial cable. Page 28

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4.5

synchronization frame

10 training frames

if no feedback if feedback get the bit allocation send 1 training frame send 20 data frames

end

Figure 4.3: State machine at the transmitter The host loads the DSP program, and writes the signal to be transmitted (sine wave/ picture) into the SDRAM on the DSP board. The DSP initializes buers codec and EDMA. Training sequence is set up. A pilot tone (sinusoid) is sent for synchronization. It is used to calculate the start the approximate index in the buer of the rst frame. 10 training frames are subsequently sent to obtain an accurate index of the start of the frames in the buer. In addition, it is used in estimating the channel impulse response which is averaged over the 10 training frames. The DSP board waits for feedback containing the bit allocation for each sub-carrier. If no feedback is available the DSP board goes back to state 3. If feedback is available then the bit allocation is received, and used in the rst data frame.

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Based on the bit allocation the right amount of data is extracted from the sequence to be transmitted. Next it is modulated and the IFFT is performed. Then it is pulse shaped and up sampled. It is then sent to the codec to be transmitted. The previous step is repeated for every 10 frames after which a training frame is sent. After all the frames are sent an empty frame is transmitted and the program exits.

4.6

end

Figure 4.4: State machine at the receiver The host loads the DSP program. The DSP initializes buers codec and EDMA.

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An empty frame is used to estimate the noise variance. Then the receiver correlation detection on the sinusoid. The received sinusoid is used to determine a rough index of the start of frame. 10 training frames are used to estimate the channel and a weighted average of past and present estimations is used. In addition to determining the correct index of the start of frame. With the channel estimate the bit allocation is computed and sent to the transmitter, along with a sinusoid for synchronization. The receiver waits for the frame to be received and bit allocation detected. Subsequently, 20 data frames are received. After every 20 data frames, a training frame is received to correct the frequency oset in sampling frequency of the clocks on both DSPs. It is also used to update the channel estimation. After all the frames are received, the program exits.

4.7

In order to achieve a functional system, the original system had to be adapted. In this way, simplications have been done to obtain a reliable modem. Here are the dierences between the model and the real system : The convolution coder and the interleaver have not been integrated. The functions were too slow and did not meet the real-time deadlines. The bit allocation is constant over the transmission. We only compute the bit allocation at the beginning, send back the result to the transmitter and keep the result all over the transmission. However we still estimate the channel every 20 frames.

send block 1 of 20 frames send block 2 of 20 frames

TX

Pilot

wait

Pilot

RX

wait

receive block 1

channel est.

receive block 2

Figure 4.5: The bit allocation is constant over the transmission The length is xed and known on both sides. Each picture that we send has the same length. In this way, we do not have to send the length, and we avoid a probable failure of transmission. Page 31

Chapter 5

The Host graphic user interface (GUI) is developed in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 and calls RTDX function to interact with the DSP. There are two dierent GUIs running independently at the transmitter and receiver end (Transmitter GUI and Receiver GUI). The user can select which image (*.bmp) to send at the Transmitter GUI and start the transmission with a button click. The receiving begins when the user press the receive button at the Receiver GUI. Once the transmission is done the received picture is displayed along with signal to noise ratio (SNR), bit allocation and bit error probability (BER). During the process at both ends, the user is informed about the current progress.

5.1

The Real Time Data Exchange (RTDX) is a standard component of the TI DSP, which permits users to transfer data between a Host and a target DSP without interfering with their applications. Since the DSP target can only handle integers, the picture to be sent is written to a memory buer as an array of integers within the transmitter RTDX Host Library. When the RTDX Host Library receives a request for data from the target application, the data in the host buer is sent to the requested location on the target via the JTAG interface. The host noties the RTDX Target Library when the operation is complete. In a similar way, the receiver Host records the target-send data into a memory buer, and retrieve the picture from the received integers. The Host can then read or write the whole le directly from or to the DSP on the board memory. Specic RTDX syntaxes are inserted into Host and Target application to utilize the RTDX Host Library and RTDX Target Library.

5.2

Transmitter GUI

Once the user starts the Transmitter GUI program transmitter.exe, the CCS is launched and the DSP program "dsk_app.out" is loaded. When the picture is chosen, it is displayed in the display area and written to a memory buer as an array of integers. The user clicks the send button to start the DSP program and the data transfer from Host to DSP. As shown in Figure 5.1, while the whole array of the integers is transferred to the target DSP, the text-area window becomes visible and display "The DSP is processing!" to let the user know the status.

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5.3

Receiver GUI

Similarly, the corresponding DSP program at the receiver is loaded once the user begins the Receiver GUI program receiver.exe. While the user clicks the receive button, the DSP program is launched to start receiving, then transfers the data from DSP to Host when receiving is complete on DSP. It is important to guarantee that the receiving is run before the transmission so that the

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receiver is able to detect the beginning of the data. The Receiver GUI, see Figure 5.2, displays the received image, the SNR and the bit allocation when the transmission is accomplished. There is also a text-area window that displays "Data processing complete!" to indicate the status. BER is then calculated by comparing the received le with a copy of the original le.

Page 34

Chapter 6

Simulation results

In this chapter, the performance of the system model is treated. We recall the parameters of the Matlab model: number of subchannels : 127 size of the IFFT/FFT : 256 length of the cyclic prex : 32 symbols upsampling factor : 4 , pulse shaping : rectangular 10 pilots sent at the beginning to estimate the channel 1 pilot sent every 20 frames to improve the estimation We rst show the performance of the channel estimation, then the bit loading results are displayed and nally, the bit error probability as a function of the SNR is plotted. Here the SNR corresponds to the symbol energy divided by the noise power. SNR = Eb 2 N

6.1

Channel estimation

In the simulation, the channel is a low pass lter with additive white gaussian noise. It is illustrated in the Figure 6.2. We provide a plot of the channel estimation in a noisy channel (SNR = 6dB) and in a noiseless channel. We can notice that the channel estimation is noise sensitive. In the simulation, the message is not very large and averaging is not proceeding so much. But since the les that we use in the real system are very large, and since the estimation is improved every 20 frames, the channel estimation is ecient and gives good results.

6.2

Bit loading

The bit allocation depends on the SNR computed on each sub-channel. We provide the plot of the bit allocation for two values of the SNR.

35

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channel

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Figure 6.2: Channel estimation in two dierent cases (noise free and noisy channel)

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Channel estimation 2 1 0 8 6

20

40

60 80 Bit allocation

100

120

140

SNR=30dB

4 4 2 0 20 40 60 80 Bit allocation 100 120 140

SNR=6dB

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Figure 6.3: Bit allocation in two dierent cases (SNR=30dB, SNR =6dB)

6.3

In order to plot the SNR vs bit error probability (BER), we did a Monte Carlo simulation. We randomly generated the input to the simulation (a bit stream) and then transmit this signal through the system. At the very end, we compute the BER. We repeat this operation several times for several values of the SNR. Then, we obtain statistics of the system. Our results are provided in the Figure 6.4. For a low SNR, errors occur very often. Indeed, the synchronization is

10

0

10

10

10

10

Figure 6.4: BER vs SNR for the coded simulated system very sensitive to noise and the system is very dependent on the performance of synchronization. This makes the system unreliable for low SNR.

Page 37

Chapter 7

7.1

7.1.1

Received signal

7.1.2

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7.1.3

Channel compensation

One problem when implementing the system was the frequency oset. As explained in Section 3.6, the angles of points in the constellation change linearly over time and we have to compensate for this rotation. We provide the plot of a frame constellation before and after compensation. The channel was at, and the modulation scheme is 64-QAM in each subchannel.

Figure 7.4: Constellation after channel compensation After this demodulation is performed and we nally get the nal data.

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7.2

Final results

We provide a picture of what we obtain at the receiver. The channel was taken noisy and frequency selective. The bit loading algorithm is ecient and the bit error rate is low.

Page 40

Chapter 8

Future work

This chapter contains a list of suggested future work.

8.1

The maximum bit rate for our system is equal to 64kbits/s, which is low for an OFDM system. This is due to some of our choices in the system design. In order to increase this bit rate, we could have change some parameters. We could have reduced the upsampling factor, used an other modulation scheme (higher order) and reduce the size of the cyclic prex.

8.2

One major diculty about OFDM is its large peak-to-average ratio (PAR). This means that the OFDM signal has a large variation between the average signal power and the maximum signal power. The large dynamic range of the OFDM system can lead to some problems when converting from digital to analog. A D/A converter has both linear and non-linear regions where the non-linear regions occur for large output powers (i.e., near saturation). To reduce the amount of distortion, the symbols need to be as much as possible in the linear region. In this way, we have to lower the output power, which leads to uneciency. Methods to reduce the PAR can be implemented in an OFDM system. They use some constraints on the modulation sequences and seem quite complex.

8.3

Some blocks of the system can be improved. Some algorithms like synchronization, bit loading and channel estimation can be improved and optimized to obtain better performence and a faster system. Also, an algorithm to track the frequency oset could have been implemented.

41

Conclusion

The key building blocks of an OFDM Modem conforming to the course requirements has been designed and implemented. The functionality of the modem is veried at the simulation level, and the system performance is measured under real operation condition. We found that the OFDM modem leads to better BER performance than conventional systems. Further, the OFDM system with adaptive algorithm outperforms the OFDM systems having xed modulation, giving higher bit rate. In conclusion, OFDM is a very promising technology, and practical adaptive rate algorithm serves well to improve performance.

42

Bibliography

[1] Advanced Digital Communication, John M. Cio, course reader in EE379C, Stanford University, 2000. [2] High Performance OFDM Modem Robust Against Channel Imperfections, Shen et al., Project report, Royal Institute of Technogy, 2002. [3] Full Duplex OFDM Modem over a Frequency Selective Channel, Gustavsson et al., Project report, Royal Institute of Technology, 2001. [4] DSP baserat OFDM system ver akustisk kanal, Bellander et al., Project report Lulea University of Technology, 1997. [5] An Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing, Edfors et al., Tech. report Lulea University of Technology, 1996. [6] Estimation of Synchronization Parameters, Jan-Jaap van de Beek, Licentiate thesis Lulea University of Technology, 1996. [7] Lecture notes from graduate course in OFDM, Katie Wilson, Royal Institute of Technology, 2003 [8] J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall, 1996.

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