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P.SRUTI(08R11A0595) Department of Computer Science and Engineering.

Hyper-Threading (HT) Technology is ground breaking technology from Intel that allows processors to work more efficiently. This new technology enables the processor to execute two series, or threads, of instructions at the same time, thereby improving performance and system responsiveness while delivering performance headroom for the future.

improved reaction and response time because tasks can be run on separate threads increased number of transaction that can be executed compatibility with existing IA-32 software Code written for dual-processor (DP) and multiprocessor (MP) systems is compatible with Intel Hyper-Threading Technologyenabled platforms. A Hyper-Threading Technology-enabled system will automatically process multiple threads of multi-threaded code.check your margins to see if your print area fits within the space allowed.

1. Introduction
The amazing growth of the Internet and telecommunications is powered by ever-faster systems demanding increasingly higher levels of processor performance. To keep up with this demand we cannot rely entirely on traditional approaches to processor design. Microarchitecture techniques used to achieve past processor performance improvement superpipelining, branch prediction, super-scalar execution, out-of-order execution, cacheshave made microprocessors increasingly more complex, have more transistors, and consume more power. In fact, transistor counts and power are increasing at rates greater than processor performance. Processor architects are therefore booking for ways to improve performance at a greater rate than transistor counts and power dissipation. Intels Hyper-Threading Technology is one solution. Intel Hyper-Threading Technology improves the utilization of onboard resources so that a second thread can be processed in the same processor. HyperThreading Technology provides two logical processors in a single processor package. Hyper-Threading Technology offers: improved overall system performance increased number of users a platform can support

2. Hyper-Threading Technology architecture

Hyper-Threading Technology makes a single physical processor appear as multiple logical processors [11, 12]. To do this, there is one copy of the architecture state for each logical processor, and the logical processors share a single set of physical execution resources. From a software or architecture perspective, this means operating systems and user programs can schedule processes or threads to logical processors as they would on conventional physical processors in a multiprocessor system. From a microarchitecture perspective, this means that instructions from logical processors will persist and execute simultaneously on shared execution resources.

(APIC) registers, and some machine state registers. From a software perspective, once the architecture state is duplicated, the processor appears to be two processors. The number of transistors to store the architecture state is an extremely small fraction of the total. Logical processors share nearly all other resources on the physical processor, such as caches, execution units, branch predictors, 3. Benefits of Hyper-Threading Technology High processor utilization rates: One processor with two architectural states enable the processor to more efficiently utilize execution resources. Because the two threads share one set of execution resources, the second thread can use resources that would be otherwise idle if only one thread was executing. The result is an increased utilization of the execution resources within each physical processor package. Higher performance for properly optimized software: Greater throughput is achieved when software is multithreaded in a way that allows different threads to tap different processor resources in parallel. For example, Integer operations are scheduled on one logical processor while floating point computations occur on the other. Full backward compatibility: Virtually all multiprocessor-aware operating systems and multithreaded applications benefit from HyperThreading technology. Software that lacks multiprocessor capability is unaffected by HyperThreading technology.

As an example, Figure 2 shows a multiprocessor system with two physical processors that are not Hyper- Threading Technology-capable. Figure 3 shows a multiprocessor system with two physical processors that are Hyper-Threading Technologycapable. With two copies of the architectural state on each physical processor, the system appears to have four logical processors.

4. Implementing Hyper-Threading
Although hyper-threading might seem like a pretty large departure from the kind of conventional, processswitching multithreading done on a single-threaded CPU, it actually doesn't add too much complexity to the hardware. Intel reports that adding hyper-threading to their Xeon processor added only %5 to its die area. Intel's Xeon is capable of executing at most two threads in parallel on two logical processors. In order to present two logical processors to both the OS and the user, the Xeon must be able to maintain information for two distinct and independent thread contexts. This is done by dividing up the processor's microarchitectural resources into three types: replicated, partitioned, and shared.

The first implementation of Hyper-Threading Technology is being made available on the Intel. Xeon processor family for dual and multiprocessor servers, with two logical processors per physical processor. By more efficiently using existing processor resources, the Intel Xeon processor family can significantly improve performance at virtually the same system cost. This implementation of Hyper-Threading Technology added less than 5% to the relative chip size and maximum power requirements, but can provide performance benefits much greater than that. Each logical processor maintains a complete set of the architecture state. The architecture state consists of registers including the general-purpose registers, the control registers, the advanced programmable interrupt controller

5. Conclusion
Intels Hyper-Threading Technology brings the concept of simultaneous multi-threading to the Intel

Architecture. This is a significant new technology direction for Intels future processors. It will become increasingly important going forward as it adds a new technique for obtaining additional performance for lower transistor and power costs. The first implementation of Hyper-Threading Technology was done on the Intel. Xeon processor MP. Measured performance on the Intel Xeon processor MP with Hyper-Threading Technology shows performance gains of up to 30% on common server application benchmarks for this technology. The potential for Hyper-Threading Technology is tremendous; our current implementation has only just begun to tap into this potential. Hyper-Threading Technology is expected to be viable from mobile processors to servers; its introduction into market segments other than servers is only gated by the availability and prevalence of threaded applications and workloads in those markets.

6. References A.A arwal, B.H.Lim, D.Kranz and J.Kubiatowicz, APRIL: Aprocessor Architecture for Multiprocessing, in Proceedings of the 17thAnnual International Symposium on Computer Architectures ,pages 104-114,May 1990. M.Fillo, S.Keckler, W.Dally, N.Carter, A.Chan , Y.Gurevich, and W.Lee,The MMachine Multicomputer, in 28th Annual International Symposium on Microarchitecture, Nov.1995.