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G.H.

RAISONI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


STUDY CIRCLE GROUP TWO SEMINAR ON TURNING MOMENT DIAGRAM AND FLYWHEEL

GUIDED BY

Prof.P.S.KADU
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION
TURNING MOMENT DIAGRAM:DIAGRAM:-

Turning moment diagram is the graphical representation of turning moment or crank effort for various positions of crank,it is plotted on cartesian co-ordinates co-

Fig of an engine having flywheel

TURNING MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR SINGLE CYLINDER DOUBLE ACTING STEAM ENGIN

Tmax
Tmean
A B

MEAN TORQUE
C

e a P 90 360

270

TURNING MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR A FOUR SROKE CYLINDER INTERNAL CUMBUSTION ENGINE
In four stoke IC engine ,there is one working stroke after the crank has turned through two revolutions i.e 720% Whenever pressure inside cylinder is less than atmospheric pressure ,then negative loop is formed Therefore during suction ,compression and exhaust negative loop is formed and during power stroke positive loop is formed


MULTICYLINDER ENGINE


The resultant turning moment diagram is sum of the turning moment diagram for three cylinders. First cylinder is high pressure, second is intermediate and third is low pressure cylinder. The cranks are usually placed at an angle of 120

Fig of multi cylinder engine

Example of multicylinder engine

Fluctuation of Energy


Definition
It may be determined by the turning moment diagram for one complete cycle of operation

The difference between the maximum and the minimum energies is known as maximum fluctuation of energy

Determination of max. Fluctuation of energy


T ur ni n g m o m e nt a1 a3 a4

G A B C a2 D E F

Mean torque line

a5

a6

Crank Angle

E = (E+a1) (E+a1-a2+a3-a4) = a2-a3+a4

Coefficient of Fluctuation of Energy




Definition
It may be defined as the ratio of the maximum fluctuation of energy to the work done per cycle.

CE = Maximum fluctuation of energy work done per cycle




The work done per cycle may be obtained by using two relations

Work done per cycle = Tmean *

Tmean = P*60 = P 2 N


Work done per cycle = P*60 n

Flywheel in Punching Press


What is Flywheel ?

Stores energy

Absorbs excess energy during power stroke Controls speed variations Used in punching machines, shearing machines,rivetting machines, crushers etc. Reduces fluctuation of speed when load on crankshaft is constant and i/p torque varies during cycle.

FLYWHEEL (Conclusion):(Conclusion):Flywheel used in machines serves as a reservior,which stores energy during the period when the supply of energy is more than the requirement , and releases it during the period when the requirement of energy is more than the supply Flywheel controls the speed variations caused by the fluctuation of the engine turning moment during each cycle of operation

Flywheel attached with an engine

COEEFICIENT OF FLUCTUATION OF ENERGY:ENERGY:

 

The difference between the maximum and minimum speeds during a cycle is called the maximum fluctuation of speed .the ratio of maximum fluctuation of speed to mean speed is called the coefficient of fluctuation of speed. N1 and N2 is maximum and minimum speeds in r.p.m during the cycles N is mean speed in r.p.m=(N1+N2)/2 Coefficient of fluctuation of speed , Cs=(N1-N2)/N=2(N1Cs=(N1-N2)/N=2(N1-N2)/(N1+N2) The reciprocal of coeeficient of fluctuation of speed is known as coefficient of stediness m=1/Cs=N/(N1m=1/Cs=N/(N1-N2)

Energy stored in a flywheel


M=mass of flywheel in kg, K=Radius of gyration of flywheel in metres, i=mass moment of inertia of flywheel about its axis of rotation in kgkg-m^2 N1and N2 = maximum and minimum angular speeds during the cycles in r.p.m, W=mean angular speed during the cycle in rad/sec=(w1+w2)/2 Delta E=MR^2W^2Cs = mv^2Cs

Dimension of the Flywheel Rim


D = Mean dia. Of rim in meter, R = Mean radius of rim in meter, A = Cross sectional area of rim = density of rim material N = Speed of the flywheel in r.p.m = Angular velocity of the flywheel = Linear velocity at mean radius = Tensile stress or hoop stress A = m

Flywheel in Punching Press


Crank shaft

Crank

Motor Flywheel Plate Punch

Die

  

Crank is driven by motor which supplies constant torque. Load acts only during rotation of crank from = 1 to = 2, Unless a flywheel is used speed of crankshaft will increase during rotation of crank frm 2 to 2. While drop in speed of crankshaft is very large during rotn of crank frm 1 to 2. Thus flywheel absorbs energy available at one stage & makes up deficient energy at other stage to keep fluctuations of speed within limits.

Relation for maximum fluctuation of energy




Let E1 be the energy required for punching a hole punched,the thickness of the material and the physical properties of the material. Let d1=Diameter of the hole punched, t1=Thickness of the plate, u=Ultimate shear stress for the plate material. Maximum shear force, Fs=Area sheared x Ultimate shear stress = d1 t1 u

Workdone or energy required for punching a hole, E1=1/2.Fs.t The energy supplied by the motor to the crankshaft during actual punching operation, E2=E1( 2- 1)/2 Therefore Balance energy required for punching=E1{1-( 2punching=E1{11)/2} 1)/2

Thus maximum fluctuation of energy, E=E1-E2=E{1-( 2- 1)/2} =E{11)/2  The values of 1 and 2 may be determined only if the crank radius (r) , length of connecting rod (l) and the relative of job with respect to the crankshaft axis are known.  In absence of relevant data ,we assume ( 2- 1)/2=t/2s=t/4r t=Thickness of the material s=Stroke of punch=2r


Problem


The equation of the turning moment curve of a three crank engine is (5000+1500 sin 3 )N-m, where is the crank angle )Nin radians. The moment of inertia of the flywheel is 1000 kgkgm and the mean speed is 300 rpm. Calculate: 1.Power of the engine, 2. the maximum fluctuation of speed of flywheel in percentage when the resisting torque is constant .

Given: T=(5000+1500sin3 )N-m, )NI= 1000 kg-m, kgN=300 rpm, =31.42 rad/sec 1. Power of the engine Workdone per revolution ={(5000+1500sin3 )d ,0,2} ={[5000 -1500cos3 /3],0,2} =10000 N-m N-

Therefore mean resisting torque, Tmean= (workdone / rev)/2 = 10000/2 = 5000 N-m NP=Tmean. =5000x31.42 =157.1 kW

2.Maximum fluctuation of the speed of flywheel Let Cs=Max or total fluctuation of speed (i) When resisting torque is constant: The turning moment dia. is shown . Since the resisting torque is constant , therefore the torque exerted on shaft is equal the mean resisting torque on the flywheel. T=Tmean 5000+1500sin3 =5000 3 =0 or 180 = 0 or 60

Maximum fluctuation of energy, E={(T-Tmean) d ,0,60} E={(T={(1500sin3 ) d ,0,60} =1000 N-m NAlso , E=I. .Cs 1000=1000(31.42) Cs Cs=0.001 or 0.1% ---------ANS ---------ANS

Problem


A riveting machine is driven by a constant torque 3 kW motor. The moving parts including the flywheel are equivalent to 150 kg at 0.6 m radius. One riveting operation takes 1 sec and absorbs 10000 N-m of energy.The speed of the flywheel is N300rpm before riveting. Find the speed immediately after riveting. How many rivets can be closed per minute.

Given: P=3 kW; m=150kg; k=0.6m; N1=300 rpm; 1=31.42 rad/sec Let 2= Angular speed of flywheel after riveting E2= 3 kW=3000W=3000 N-m/s NE1=10000 N-m NE=E1-E2=10000-3000=7000 N-m =10000N-

We know that max fluctuation of energy( E), 7000=1/2 . m.k[( 1)-( 2)] m.k[( rad/sec Corresponding speed in rpm; N2=26.98x60/2 =257.6 rpm
2=26.98

Since the energy absorbed by each riveting operation which takes 1 sec is 10000 Nm,therefore numbers of rivets that can be closed per minute = (E2/E1)x60 =(3000/10000)x60 =18 rivets --------------Ans --------------Ans

Given: N=800 rpm; =83.77 rad/s; Fluctuation of speed=2% Coeff.of fluctuation of speed =( 1- 2)/ =0.02 1mm=700 Nm vertically and 3 degree=3x/180 rad 1mm=700x/60 1mm=700x/60 =36.65 Nm

Problem


Turning moment dia for a six cylinder engine has been drawn to a scale 1mm=700Nm vertically and 1mm=3degree horizontally.The intercepted area under the dia starting from A w.r.t. mean resisting load line is -52,+120,-95,+145,-85,+71,52,+120,-95,+145,-85,+71,106 mm.Engine speed is 800 rpm. Find moment of inerti of mm.Engine flywheel to present fluctuations of speed greater than 2% from mean speed

Let Total energy at A=E then, total energy at B=E-52 min energy B=Etotal energy at C=E-52+120 C=Etotal energy at D=E-52+120-95 D=E-52+120total energy at E=E-52+120-95+145 E=E-52+120total energy at F=E-52+120-95+145-85 F=E-52+120-95+145total energy at G=E-52+120-95+145-85+71 G=E-52+120-95+145total energy at H=E-52+120-95+145-85+71H=E-52+120-95+145-85+71106 =E=E-2

Maximum Fluctuation of Energy, E=Max energy-Min energy energy=( E+118)-(E-52) E+118)-(E=170 mm E = 170 x 36.65 E = 6230.5 Nm ------------Ans ------------Ans Also, E=I Cs I=6230.5/(83.77x0.02) I=6230.5/(83.77x0.02)


I=44.4 kg m --------------------Ans --------------------Ans