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 FTUI IDEAL GAS MIXTURES AND PSYCHROMETRICS KI-KE DTM

A pure substance

• A substance having a constant and uniform chemical composition do not react with one another substances.

Example : air is a homogeneous mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and traces of other

substances like argon, helium, carbon

dioxide, etc.

• The mixtures to be considered are those composed of perfect gases, and perfect gases and vapours

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DALTON’S LAW AND GIBBS-DALTON LAW

Dalton’s law

▪ The pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the constituents.

▪ The partial pressure of each constituent is that pressure which the gas would exert if it occupied alone that volume occupied by the mixtures at the same temperature

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Mixture of two gases :

 Mass m = m A + m B m = Σ m i m i = Mass of a constituent Dalton Law p = p A + p B p = Σ p i

p i = The partial pressure of a constituent

Gibbs-Dalton law

• The internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy of a gaseous mixture are respectively equal to the sums of the internal energies, enthalpies, and entropies, of the constituents.

• Each constituent has that internal energy, enthalpy and entropy, which it could have if it occupied alone that volume occupied by the mixture at the temperature of the mixture.

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 m u = m A u A + m A u B + or m u = Σ m i u i m h = m A h A + m B h B + or m h = Σ m i h i m s = m A s A + m B s B + or m s = Σ m i s i

Properties of air

Mean molecular weight of air Gas constant

= 28.96 R = 0.287 kJ/kg K

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For approximate calculations

VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS OF A GAS MIXTURE

A volume V of a gaseous mixture at a temperature T, consisting of three constituents A , B and C

Assume :

▪ Each of constituent is compressed to a pressure p equal to the total pressure of the mixture,

▪ Temperature remain constant.

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Using the equation : pV = mRT →

In general :

p = Σ p i ,
therefore, Σ V i = V

This is the statement of another empirical law, the law of partial volumes, sometimes called Amagat’s law or Leduc’s law.

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 In moles → n = m / M n = Number of moles m = Mass of gas M = Molecular weight
n = n A + n B + n C = Σ n i

THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND GAS CONSTANT

The Molecular Weight Gas mixture occupies a total volume of V at a tempe rature T. From the definition of partial pressure and equation pV = nR o T :

(R o is the universal gas constant)

 Σ p i V = Σ n i R o T → Σ p i = R o T Σ n i V p = Σ p i

→ pV = R o T Σ n i

n = Σ n i

→ pV = nR o T

p i V = n i R o T

The mixture therefore acts as a perfect gas,
and this is the characteristic equation for
mixture.
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Molecular weight

 M = m/n m = Mass of the mixture, and n = Number of moles of mixture

Gas constant

R =R o /M

 and pV = mRT p i V = m i R i T Then Σ piV = Σ m i R i T → V Σ p i = T Σ m i R i p = Σ p i → pV = T Σ m i R i or pV = mRT = T Σ m i R i or mR = Σ m i R i R = Σ (m i /m) Ri

m i /m = mass fraction of a constituent

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From p i V = n i R 0 T and V i =(p i /p)V and the mixture (pV = nR o T) →

This means that the molar analysis is identical with the volumetric analysis, and
both are equal to the ratio of the partial pressure to the total pressure.

Molecular weight can be also be determined by :

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Using the relation R = R o /M and subsituting :

SPECIFIC HEATS OF A GAS MIXTURE From Gibbs-Dalton law, the internal energy of a mixture of gases is given by:

Similarly :

Similarly :

m u = Σ m i u i u = c v T

m c v T

m c v = Σ m i c vi

= Σ m i c vi T

m h = Σ m i h i h = c p T

m c p T

m c p = Σ m i c pi

= Σ m i c pi T

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The following equations can be applied to a mixture of gases :

In moles

C p = Mc p and C v = Mc v C p C v = R 0

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In free expansion process → U 1 = U 2

U 1 = n A C vA T A + n B C vB T B U 2 = (n A C vA + n B C vB )T

U 1 = Σ n i C vi T i and

U 2 = T Σ n i C vi

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m 1 h 1 + m 2 h 2 + Q = m 3 h 3 + W Adiabatic flow : Q = 0 and W =0

m 1 h 1 + m 2 h 2 = m 3 h 3

h= c p T

m 1 c p1 T 1 + m 2 c p2 T 2 = m 1 c p1 T 3 + m 2 c p2 T 3

Σ m i c pi T i =T 3 Σ m i c pi

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Psychrometrics

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1. Dry air :

indicate the water free contents of air having any degree of moisture.

Air always contains some moisture, “air” usually means moist air

2. Saturated air: for a given temperature, a given quantity of air can be saturated with a fixed quantity of moisture.

3. Dry-bulb temperature (DBT)

It is the temperature of air as registered by an ordinary thermometer (tdb).

4. Wet-bulb temperature (WBT). It is the temperature registered by a thermometer when the bulb is covered by a wetted wick and is exposed to a current of rapidly moving air (twb).

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5. Adiabatic saturation temperature. It is the temperature at which the water or ice can saturate air by evaporating adiabatically into it.

6. Wet bulb depression. It is the difference between dry-bulb and wet bulb temperatures (tdb – twb).

7. Dew point temperature (DPT). It is the temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure in order to cause condensation of any of its water vapor.

8. Dew point depression. It is the difference between the dry bulb and dew point temperatures (tdb – tdp).

9. Specific humidity (Humidity ratio). It is the ratio of the mass of water vapor per

unit mass of dry grams of water

function of dew point

air in the mixture of vapor and air, it is generally expressed as per kg of dry air. For a given barometric pressure it is a

temperature alone.

10. Relative humidity (RH), (φ). It is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the saturated partial pressure at the dry bulb temperature, expressed as percentage.

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11. Sensible heat. It is the heat that changes the temperature of a substance when added to or abstracted from it.

12. Latent heat. It is the heat that does not affect the temperature but changes the state of substance when added to or abstracted from it.

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MOIST AIR (Table 2.) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF WATER AT SATURATION (Table 3.)

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PSYCHROMETRIC RELATIONS

Humidity ratio W (Moisture Content) :

W = M w /M da

M w = mass of water vapor M da = mass of dry air

W = mole fraction ration x w /x da multiply by the ration of molecular masses (18.015/28.966 = 0.621945 = 0.622)

W = 0.622 x w / x da

Specific humidity γ :

γ

= M w /(M w + M da )

Absolute humidity (water vapor density) : ratio of the mass of water vapor to total volume of the sample):

d v = M w /V

Density ρ of a moist air mixture is the ratio of total mass to total volume:

ρ = (M da + M w )/V = (1/v)(1 + W)

v is the moist air specific volume, m 3 /kg da

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Humidity Parameters Involving Saturation

Saturation humidity ratio W s (t, p) is the humidity ratio of moist air saturated with respect to water (or ice) at the same temperature t and pressure p.

Degree of saturation µ is the ratio of air humidity ratio W to humidity ratio W s of saturated moist air at the same temperature and pressure:

Relative humidity φ is the ratio of the mole fraction of water vapor x w in a given moist air sample to the mole fraction x ws in an air sample saturated at the same temperature and pressure:

Combining equations :

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PERFECT GAS RELATIONSHIPS FOR DRY AND MOIST AIR

Dry air:

Water vapor:

p da V = n da RT

p w V = n w RT

p da = partial pressure of dry air

p w = partial pressure of water vapor

V = total mixture volume

n da = number of moles of dry air n w = number of moles of water vapor

 R = universal gas constant, 8314.472 J/(kmol·K) T = absolute temperature, K

Ideal gas equation :

or

pV = nRT

( p da + p w )V = (n da + n w )RT

p = p da + p w is the total mixture pressure and n = n da + n w is the total number of moles in the mixture.

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Mole fractions of dry air and water vapor are, respectively :

x da = p da /( p da + p w ) = p da /p

x v = p w /(p da + p w ) = p w /p

humidity ratio W :

W s in the degree of saturation μ is defined :

p ws = the saturation pressure of water vapor in the absence of air at the given temperature t.

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Specific volume v of a moist air mixture :

v = V/M da = V/(28.966n da )

v = 0.287 042(t + 273.15)(1 + 1.607 858W)/p

Or in specific units

v = specific volume, m 3 /kg da t = dry-bulb temperature, °C W = humidity ratio, kg w /kg da p = total pressure, kPa The enthalpy of a mixture of perfect gases :

h = h da + Wh g

h da is the specific enthalpy for dry air in kJ/kg da and h g is the specific enthalpy for saturated water vapor in kJ/kg w at the temperature of the mixture

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As an approximation :

h da ≈ 1.006t

h g ≈ 2501 + 1.86t

The moist air specific enthalpy in kJ/kg da then :

h = 1.006t + W(2501 + 1.86t)
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For any state of moist air, a temperature t* exists at which liquid (or solid) water evaporates into the air to bring it to saturation at exactly this same temperature and total pressure.

• Humidity ratio increases from initial value W to W s *, corresponding to saturation at temperature t*

• Enthalpy increases from initial value h to h s *, corresponding to saturation at temperature t*

• Mass of water added per unit mass of dry air is (W s * − W), which adds energy to the moist air of amount (W s * − W)h w *, where h w * denotes specific enthalpy in kJ/kgw of water added at temperature t*

If the process is strictly adiabatic, conservation of enthalpy at constant total pressure requires :

h + (W s * − W)h w * = h s *

The value of t* that satisfies Equation above for given values of h, W, and p is the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature.

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h w * ≈ 4.186t*
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Approximate relation for saturated liquid water :

(t and t* are in °C)

→ humidity ra o :

PSYCHROMETERS

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Psychrometers. (a) Sling psychrometer. (b) Aspirating psychrometer.

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PSYCHROMETRIC CHARTS

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Example : Moist air exists at 40°C dry-bulb temperature, 20°C thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature, and 101.325 kPa pressure. Determine the humidity ratio, enthalpy, dew-point temperature, relative humidity, and specific volume.

Locate state point on Psychrometric Chart

humidity ratio W = 6.5 g w /kg da

enthalpy h = 56.7 kJ/kg da

dew-point temperature t d = 7°C

relative humidity φ = 14%.

specific volume v = 0.896 m 3 /kg da

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TYPICAL AIR-CONDITIONING PROCESSES

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Moist Air Sensible Heating or Cooling

Schematic of Device for Heating Moist Air

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Moist Air Cooling and Dehumidification

Schematic of Device for Cooling Moist Air

The steady-flow energy and material balance equations :

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Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Airstreams

Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Airstreams

→ Elimina ng

:

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Adiabatic Mixing of Water Injected into Moist Air

Schematic Showing Injection of Water into Moist Air

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Space Heat Absorption and Moist Air Moisture Gains

Schematic of Air Conditioned Space

Or →

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Or →

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1. Moist air, saturated at 2°C, enters a heating coil at a rate of 10 m 3 /s. Air leaves the coil at 40°C. Find the required rate of heat addition. Solution: State 1 is located on the saturation curve at 2°C. Thus, h 1 = 13.0 kJ/kg da , W 1 = 4.38 g w /kg da , and v 1 = 0.785 m 3 /kg da . State 2 is located at the intersection of t = 40°C and W 2 = W 1 = 4.38 g w /kg da . Thus, h 2 = 51.5 kJ/kg da . The mass flow of dry air is:

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2. Moist air at 30°C dry-bulb temperature and 50% rh enters a cooling coil at 5 m 3 /s and is processed to a final saturation condition at 10°C. Find the kW of refrigeration required. Solution: State 1 is located at the intersection of t = 30°C and φ = 50%. Thus, h 1 = 64.3 kJ/kg da , W 1 = 13.3 g w /kg da , and v 1 = 0.877 m 3 /kg da .

State 2 is located on the saturation curve at 10°C. Thus, h 2 = 29.5 kJ/kg da

= 7.66 g w /kg da . From Table 3, h w2 = 42.02 kJ/kg w . The mass flow of dry air is:

and W 2

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3. A stream of 2 m 3 /s of outdoor air at 4°C dry-bulb temperature and 2°C thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is adiabatically mixed with 6.25 m 3 /s of recirculated air at 25°C dry-bulb temperature and 50% rh. Find the dry-bulb temperature and thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature of the resulting mixture.

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According to Equation :

State 3 is located, and the values t 3 = 19.5°C and t 3 * = 14.6°C

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IDEAL GAS MIXTURES AND PSYCHROMETRICS
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Location of mixed air condition on psychrometric chart.

Air coil sensible cooling or heating (no dehumidification, no humidification).

Air coil total cooling.

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