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Learning Outcomes: State the composition of metals in alloys State the properties of alloys State the use of alloys in our daily life Carry out PCK activities to teach relevant curriculum area on alloys Investigate and compare the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel

Alloys 1. 2. 3. Pure metals are malleable and ductile. The high malleability and ductility of metals can be explained by the arrangement of their atoms. Metals are composed of identical atoms. The atoms in a metal are packed together as close as possible and arranged in an orderly manner.

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Metal atoms are arranged orderly from one layer to another. When a force is applied, the layers of atoms start to slide or slip over each other.

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The ability of the layers of atoms slip easily over each other makes metals malleable and ductile. Thus, a metal can be hammered into different shapes or pulled into a wire. Pure metals are weak and soft due to their ductility and malleability. To improve the properties of a pure metal, it is made into an alloy. An alloy is a material that contains a mixture of elements and has metallic properties. Most alloys are mixtures of metals. Some alloys may contain mixtures of metal

and non-metal such as carbon. 12. When metals are converted to alloys, they become harder, stronger, more resistant to corrosion and have better appearance.

Composition, properties and uses of alloys

Alloy Steel Stainless steel Pewter Composition Iron 99% Carbon 1% Iron 80.6%, carbon 0.4%, chromium 18%, Nickel 1% Tin 91%, antimony 7%, copper 2% Copper 90%, tin 10% Aluminium 95% Copper 5% Properties High strength Great resistance to corrosion High strength Resistance to corrosion Bright shiny surface High strength Resistance to corrosion High strength Resistance to corrosion Low density Uses Car bodies, bridges, ships Knives, sinks, cutlery Ornaments, souvenirs

Bronze Duralumin

Medals, art objects Aircraft, racing mountain bicycle

Why make alloys? 1. To improve the appearance of the pure metal Metals have lustrous surface. However, the exposed metal surface quickly loses its shine due to the formation of an oxide layer. Alloying helps to prevent formation of the oxide layer and enables the metal to keep its surface shiny. Example: Pewter 2. To increase the strength and hardness of the pure metal For example, carbon atoms which are smaller than iron atoms are added into iron atoms during the making of steel. As a result, the uniformity of the arrangement of iron atoms is disrupted and it is more difficult for the layers of the iron atoms to slide over one another.

This makes steel harder and stronger than pure iron. The presence of the extra bonds provided by the carbon atoms also causes the metal lattice to become harder, stronger, and less ductile. 3. To increase the resistance to corrosion Most metals such as iron and copper corrode readily in the air. Alloying can prevent metals from corrosion. Example: Carbon, chromium and nickel are added to iron to make stainless steel. Why doesn't stainless steel rust?

Chemistry in Our Life 1. 2. Pure gold is termed as 24 carats and it is too soft to be used in making jewelry. Alloys of gold, with copper or silver, have suitable hardness to be used in jewelry. 18-carat gold contains 75 percent ( 24-carats gold 99.9% 18-carats gold 75% 22-carats gold 91.6% 18 x 100) of gold. 24


Alloys 1. Alloys can be classified as (a) solution alloys (b) heterohebeous alloys (c) intermetallic compounds Solution alloys are homogeneous mixtures in which the components are dispersed uniformly. (a) There are two types of solution alloy: substitutional alloys interstitial alloys


Substitutional alloys atoms must have similar atomic radii, elements must have similar bonding characteristics.

Interstitial alloys Solute atoms smaller than solvent atoms (in order to fit into the interstitial site), e.g. a nonmetal.


Interstitial alloys: The presence of the extra bonds provided by the interstitial component causes the metal lattice to become harder, stronger, and less ductile. Example: Steel is much harder and stronger than pure iron.
Mild steel Medium steel High-carbon steel Stainless steel (Alloy steel) < 0.2% carbon 0.2 0.6% C 0.6 1.5% C 0.4% C, 18% Cr, 1% Ni Cables, nails, chains Girders, rails Cutlery, tools, springs Knives, sinks, cutlery


In a heterogeneous alloy the components are not dispersed uniformly. For example: In the form of steel known as pearlite, two distinct phases almost pure Fe and the compound Fe3C (cementite) are present in alternating layers.


Intermetallic compounds are homogeneous alloys that have definite properties and compositions. For example, copper and aluminium form a compound, CuAl2, known as duraluminum. The intermetallic compound Ni3Al is a major component of jet aircraft engines because of its strength and low density. Razor blades are often coated with Cr3Pt, which adds hardness, allowing the blade to stay sharp longer. The compound Co5Sm is used in the permanent magnets in lightweight headsets and high-fidelity speakers because of its high magnetic strength per unit weight.