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March, 20, 2012

Chapter 13- Stress, Coping and Health


Biopsychosocial model holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. It simply asserts that these factors operate in a psychosocial context that is influential. Health psych concerned with the causes, treatment and prevention of illness. Stress is a disruption in psychological and physiological functioning that occurs when an event is perceived as a threat to our goals and when we cant cope with the stressor. Major Types of Stress 1. 2. Frustration - occurs when the pursuit of one goal is blocked. Conflict - occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioural impulses compete for expression approach -- approach conflict is a choice that must be made between two attractive goals avoidance -- avoidance conflict is a choice that must be made between two unattractive goals. approach -- avoidance conflict is a choice that must be made about whether 3. 4. to pursue a single goal that had both attractive and unattractive aspects Pressure - pressure to perform or conform Life Changes any changes in living circumstances that require re-adjustment.
Is there a relationship between stress and subsequent illness?

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe) helps identify people who are at risk for stress-related problems contains a list of life events that require change or readjustment Each event has a Life Change Unit (LCU) beside it. Example: Marriage - 50 (LCU) Criticisms: it doesnt take into account how youre able to cope with the situation, or the support you may have ie: family, friends, etc.

March, 20, 2012

SRSS does not measure change exclusively. Daily Hassles Frequent and minor hassles are better predictors of immediate day-to-day emotional and physical health than major life events. But, major life events produce changes in health, 1 or 2 days after the events. Neurotism personality might be affected by daily hassles than other personalities. Psychosomatic Specificity Hypothesis Is there a relationship between ways of reacting to stress and the development of specific illnesses? if u feel deprived of things, youre likely to get intestinal disease Psychosomatic diseases physical disorders with a real physiological basis and are caused(?) [triggered] by physiological factors such as stress Type A personality a syndrome which involves self-imposed stress and intense reactions to stress. Main elements are extreme competitiveness and time urgency and impatiences and anger/hostility are ambitious, hard-driving perfectionists who are exceedingly timeconscious. They routinely try to do several things at once. They fidget frantically over the briefest delays. Often they are highly competitive, achievement-oriented workaholics who drive themselves with many deadlines. Hostility: moodiness being suspicious, distrusting and resentful, critical and easy to anger and they have very strong physiological reactions 1. Drastic fluctuation in physiological reactivity wear down the vascular system. 2. They bring on more stress for themselves. 3. They tend to have little social support. 4. Poor health habits Immune System is regulated in part by hormones that are involved in stress reactions Stress impairs immune system

March, 20, 2012

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (Selye) is a model of the bodys stress response, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance and exhaustion. syndrome: a bunch of symptoms that might not be in relation to each other but tend to happen together 1. 2. 3. Alarm Stage - brief period of extremely high arousal (flight or flight response) Resistance Stage - physiological changes stabilize as coping efforts gets under way. Exhaustion Stage - if the stress continues over a substantial period of time, the organism may enter the 3rd stage. The bodys resources for fighting stress are limited. If the stress cant be overcome, the bodys resources may be depleted, and physiological arousal will decrease