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Study Guide Protein Synthesis

Mussels
The marine mussel manufactures the ultimate underwater adhesive, a protein called _____________. B. DNA is like a_______ of instructions in each cell. 1. The instructions are written in the alphabet of ___,___,___,and_____. But merely knowing the letters does not tell us how the genes work. 2. DNA consists of ________strands of nucleotides twisted together in a double helix. a. All DNA is composed of nucleotide subunits utilizing the same four bases but the base sequence ___________from species to species. b. In ____________, the two strands unwind to serve as templates for assembly of new complementary strands. 3. Each __________ is a linear stretch of DNA nucleotides that codes for the assembly of amino acids into a polypeptide chain. 4. The path from genes to proteins has two steps: a. In ___________, molecules of RNA are produced on the DNA templates in the nucleus. b. In ____________, RNA molecules shipped from the nucleus to the cytoplasm are used as templates for polypeptide assembly. 5. The overall plan is expressed thus: _____________ ___________ DNA> RNA> proteins 1How Is RNA Transcribed from DNA? A. The Three Classes of RNA 1. ____________ RNA (mRNA) carries the blueprint for protein assembly to the ribosome. 2. ____________ RNA (rRNA) combines with proteins to form ribosomes upon which polypeptides are assembled. 3. _____________ RNA (tRNA) brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome and pairs up with an mRNA code for that amino acid. B. The Nature of Transcription 1. RNA differs from DNA in_______ ways: a. RNA uses__________ sugar, not deoxyribose. b. RNA bases are A, G, C, and ____________ (U). 2. Transcription differs from replication in three ways: a. Only _________ region of_______ DNA strand is used as a template. b. RNA _____________ is used instead of DNA polymerase. c. RNA is ___________ stranded; DNA is double. 3. ____________________ begins when RNA polymerase binds to a promoter region (a base sequence at the start of a gene) and then moves along to the end of a gene; an RNA transcript is the result. C. Finishing Touches on mRNA Transcripts 1. Newly formed mRNA is an ____________ molecule, not yet ready for use. 2. mRNA transcripts are modified before leaving the nucleus. a. The 5' end is __________ with a special nucleotide that may serve as a start signal for translation. b. A __________________ of about 100200 molecules of adenylic acid is added to the 3' end. c. ____________ portions (introns) are snipped out, and actual_________ regions (exons) are spliced together to produce the mature transcript.

Deciphering the mRNA Transcripts A. What is the Genetic Code? 1. Both DNA and its RNA transcript are linear sequences of nucleotides carrying the ____________ code. 2. Every three bases (a triplet) specifies an ____________ to be included into a growing polypeptide chain; the complete set of triplets of is called the ____________. a. Each base triplet in RNA is called a ___________. b. The genetic code consists of sixty-one triplets that specify amino acids and ________ that serve to stop protein synthesis. c. ________ (specifies methionine) is the start codon. d. With few exceptions, the genetic code is ___________ for all forms of life. B. Structure and Function of tRNA and rRNA 1. Each kind of ___________has an anticodon that is complementary to an mRNA codon; each tRNA also carries one specific amino acid. 2. After the mRNA arrives in the cytoplasm, an ____________ on a tRNA bonds to the codon on the mRNA, and thus a correct amino acid is brought into place. 3. The first two bases of the ______________ must pair up with the codon by the usual rules of base pairing (A with U and G with C), but there is some latitude in the pairing of the third base (called the "wobble effect"). 4. A ribosome has two subunits (each composed of _________ and___________) that perform together only during translation How Is mRNA Translated? A. Stages of Translation 1. In _______________ a complex forms in this sequence: initiator tRNA + small ribosomal subunit + mRNA + large ribosomal subunit. 2. In _______________, a start codon on mRNA defines the reading frame; a series of tRNAs deliver amino acids in sequence by codon-anticodon matching; a peptide bond joins each amino acid to the next in sequence. 3. In ____________, a stop codon is reached and the polypeptide chain is released into the cytoplasm or enters the cytomembrane system for further processing. B. What Happens to the New Polypeptides? 1. The three steps just outlined can be repeated many times on the same mRNA because several ____________ may be moving along the mRNA at the same time (polysome). 2. Some polypeptides join the cytoplasm's pool of free proteins; others enter the ____________ of the cytomembrane system. Do Mutations Affect Protein Synthesis? A. A gene ___________ is a change in one to several bases in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, which can result in a change in the protein synthesized. B. Common Gene Mutations and Their Sources 1. _____________ can result from base-pair substitutions, insertions ("frameshift mutation") deletions. 2. They can also result when DNA regions (called ________________) move form one location to another in the same DNA molecule of a different one. C. Causes of Gene Mutations 1. Mutations are rare, chance events but each gene has a characteristic mutation rate. 2. Mutations can be caused by __________ such as ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation (gamma and X-rays) and chemicals such as alkylating agents, which act as ____________ D. The Proof is in the Protein 1. If a mutation arises in a _____________ cell, it will affect only the owner of that cell and will not be passed on to offspring. 2. If however, the mutation arises in a ____________, it may be passed on and thus enter the evolutionary arena. 3. Either kind of ____________ may prove to be harmful, beneficial, or neutral in its effects.