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Test commands - used to check whether a command is supported or not by the MODEM. AT<command name>=? ATD=?

SYNTAX: For example:


Read command - used to get mobile phone or MODEM settings for an operation. AT<command name>? AT+CBC?

SYNTAX: For example:


Set commands - used to modify mobile phone or MODEM settings for an operation. SYNTAX: AT<command name>=value1, value2, , value N

Some values in set commands can be optional. For example: AT+CSCA=+9876543210, 120


Execution commands - used to carry out an operation. SYNTAX: AT<command name>=parameter1, parameter2, , parameterN

The read commands are not available to get value of last parameter assigned in execution commands because parameters of execution commands are not stored. For example: AT+CMSS=1,+ 9876543210, 120

AT commands are used to control MODEMs. AT is the abbreviation for Attention. These commands come from Hayes commands that were used by the Hayes smart modems. The Hayes commands started with AT to indicate the attention from the MODEM. The dial up and wireless MODEMs (devices that involve machine to machine communication) need AT commands to interact with a computer. These include the Hayes command set as a subset, along with other extended AT commands.

AT commands with a GSM/GPRS MODEM or mobile phone can be used to access following information and services: 1. Information and configuration pertaining to mobile device or MODEM and SIM card. 2. SMS services. 3. MMS services. 4. Fax services. 5. Data and Voice link over mobile network.

The Hayes subset commands are called the basic commands and the commands specific to a GSM network are called extended AT commands.

Explanation of commonly used AT commands:

1) AT - This command is used to check communication between the module and the computer. For example, AT OK The command returns a result code OK if the computer (serial port) and module are connected properly. If any of module or SIM is not working, it would return a result code ERROR.


+CMGF - This command is used to set the SMS mode. Either text or PDU mode can be selected by assigning 1 or 0 in the command. SYNTAX: AT+CMGF=<mode> 0: for PDU mode 1: for text mode

The text mode of SMS is easier to operate but it allows limited features of SMS. The PDU


data unit) allows more access to SMS services but the operator requires bit level knowledge of TPDUs. The headers and body of SMS are accessed in hex format in PDU mode so it allows availing more features. For example, AT+CMGF=1 OK


+CMGW - This command is used to store message in the SIM. SYNTAX: AT+CMGW= Phone number> Message to be stored Ctrl+z

As one types AT+CMGW and phone number, > sign appears on next line where one can type the message. Multiple line messages can be typed in this case. This is why the message is terminated by providing a Ctrl+z combination. As Ctrl+z is pressed, the following information response is displayed on the screen.

+CMGW: Number on which message has been stored


+CMGS - This command is used to send a SMS message to a phone number. SYNTAX: AT+CMGS= serial number of message to be send.

As the command AT+CMGS and serial number of message are entered, SMS is sent to the particular SIM. For example, AT+CMGS=1 OK


ATD - This command is used to dial or call a number. SYNTAX: ATD<Phone number>(Enter) For example, ATD123456789


ATA - This command is used to answer a call. An incoming call is indicated by a message RING which is repeated for every ring of the call. When the call ends NO CARRIER is displayed on the screen. SYNTAX: ATA(Enter)

As ATA followed by enter key is pressed, incoming call is answered. For example, RING RING ATA


ATH - This command is used to disconnect remote user link with the GSM module. SYNTAX: ATH (Enter)

List of AT commands:
The AT commands for both, GSM module and the mobile phone, are listed below. Some of these commands may not be supported by all the GSM modules available. Also there might be some commands which wont be supported by some mobile handsets. Testing : Command AT

Description Checking communication between the module and computer.


Description Answer command Dial command Hang up call Monitor speaker loudness Monitor speaker mode Go on-line Set pulse dial as default Set tone dial as default Select type of address Cellular result codes


Description Identification Select an S-register Recall stored profile Restore factory settings View active configuration Store parameters in given profile Select Set as power up option Facility lock command Connected line identification presentation Request complete capabilities list Request manufacturer identification Request model identification Request revision identification Request product serial number identification (IMEI)

Description Battery charge Request manufacturer identification Request model identification Request revision identification Request product serial number identification Report mobile equipment error Phone activity status Find phone book entries Read phone book entry Select phone book memory storage Write phone book entry Select TE character set Signal quality

Description Command Echo Result code suppression Define response format Response range selection Define DCD usage Define DTR usage Select flow control Define communications mode option Define DSR option DTE-DCE character framing DTE-DCE Local flow control Fixed DTE rate

Description Calling line identification presentation


Service reporting control Data compression reporting DTE-DCE local rate reporting

Description Communications standard option Select bearer service type Extended error report Radio link protocol Data compression

Description Re-execute command line Command help Start SMS interpreter Enter SMS block mode protocol Activate V.25bis mode Test command Enter SMS block mode protocol

Description Select message service Preferred message storage Message format Service centre address Set text mode parameters Show text mode parameters Select cell broadcast message types Save settings Restore settings New message indications to TE List messages Read message Send message Send message from storage Write message to memory Delete message

Description List Messages Read message Send message Write message to memory

The MAX232 IC is used to convert the TTL/CMOS logic levels to RS232 logic levels during serial communication of microcontrollers with PC. The controller operates at TTL logic level (0-5V) whereas the serial communication in PC works on RS232 standards (-25 V to + 25V). This makes it difficult to establish a direct link between them to communicate with each other.

The intermediate link is provided through MAX232. It is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply RS232 voltage levels from a single 5V supply. Each receiver converts RS232 inputs to 5V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers (R1& R2) can accept 30V inputs. The drivers (T1 & T2), also called transmitters, convert the TTL/CMOS input level into RS232 level.

The transmitters take input from controllers serial transmission pin and send the output to RS232s receiver. The receivers, on the other hand, take input from transmission pin of RS232 serial port and give serial output to microcontrollers receiver pin.MAX232 needs four external capacitors whose value ranges from 1F to 22F. Microcontroller Tx Rx
Pin Diagram:

MAX232 T1/2 In R1/2 Out T1/2 Out R1/2 In

RS232 Rx Tx

Pin Description:

Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


Name Capacitor 1 + Capacitor 3 + Capacitor 1 Capacitor 2 + Capacitor 2 Capacitor 4 T2 Out R2 In R2 Out T2 In T1 In R1 Out R1 In

Capacitor connection pins

Output pin; outputs the serially transmitted data at RS232 logic level; connected to receiver pin of PC serial port Input pin; receives serially transmitted data at RS 232 logic level; connected to transmitter pin of PC serial port Output pin; outputs the serially transmitted data at TTL logic level; connected to receiver pin of controller. Input pins; receive the serial data at TTL logic level; connected to serial transmitter pin of controller. Output pin; outputs the serially transmitted data at TTL logic level; connected to receiver pin of controller. Input pin; receives serially transmitted data at RS 232 logic level; connected to transmitter pin of PC serial port

14 15 16

Output pin; outputs the serially transmitted data at RS232 logic level; connected to receiver pin of PC serial port Ground (0V) Supply voltage; 5V (4.5V 5.5V)

T1 Out Ground Vcc

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over seven segmentsand other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily programmable; have no limitation of displaying special & even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on. A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data. The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.

Pin Diagram:

Pin Description:

Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Function Ground (0V) Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V 5.3V) Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor Selects command register when low; and data register when high Low to write to the register; High to read from the register Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given

Name Ground Vcc VEE Register Select Read/write Enable DB0 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7 Led+ Led-

8-bit data pins

Backlight VCC (5V) Backlight Ground (0V)

Recently, the health care sensors are playing a vital role in hospitals. The patient monitoring systems is one of the major improvements because of its advanced technology. A wireless patient monitoring system to measure heartbeat and body temperature of the patient by using embedded technology is developed.

So we are here, just connecting the temperature sensor and heartbeat sensor so that simultaneously we can monitor the patients condition and hence ruling out the use of the thermometer and other devices to check the condition of the patient.

This project describes the design of a simple, low-cost microcontroller based heart rate & body temperature measuring device with LCD output. Heart rate of the subject is measured from the index finger using IRD (Infra Red Device sensors and the rate is then averaged and displayed on a text based LCD).

The device alarms when the heart beat & the body temperature exceed the provided threshold value. This threshold value is defined by the programmer at the time of programming

the microcontroller 89C8051. The threshold value given for the project is as 20 to 120 pulses per minute for heart beat indication & 18C to 38C for temperature.

This information i.e. the Heart Rate & the Body Temperature is then transmitted wirelessly to the doctor which in not in the vicinity of the patient through GSM technique. The sensors measure the information and transmit it through GSM Modem on the same frequency as on which cell phones work.


The terms DTE and DCE are very common in the data communications market. DTE is short for Data Terminal Equipment and DCE stands for Data Communications Equipment. As the full DTE name indicates this is a piece of device that ends a communication line, whereas the DCE provides a path for communication.

For example, the PC is a Data Terminal (DTE). The two modems (yours and that one of your provider) are DCEs, they make the communication between you and your provider possible.

In telecommunications, RS-232 is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. In RS-232, data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits, the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is, signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits, the interface can operate in a full duplex manner, supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream, or character encoding.

Female 9 pin plug

Functions Data

Signals TxD RxD RTS

PIN 3 2 7

DTE Output Input Output

DCE Input Output Input

CTS Handshake DSR DCD STR Common Other Com RI

8 6 1 4 5 9 RS-232 Signals

Input Input Input Output -Output

Output Output Output Input -Input

RS-232 Signals 1. Transmitted Data (TxD)

Data sent from DTE to DCE.

2. Received Data (RxD)

Data sent from DCE to DTE.

3. Request To Send (RTS)

Asserted (set to 0) by DTE to prepare DCE to receive data. This may require action on the part of the DCE, e.g. transmitting a carrier or reversing the direction of a half-duplex line.

4. Clear To Send (CTS)

Asserted by DCE to acknowledge RTS and allow DTE to transmit.

5. Data Terminal Ready (DTR)

Asserted by DTE to indicate that it is ready to be connected. If the DCE is a modem, it should go "off hook" when it receives this signal. If this signal is de-asserted, the modem should respond by immediately hanging up.

6. Data Set Ready (DSR)

Asserted by DCE to indicate an active connection. If DCE is not a modem (e.g. a null-modem cable or other equipment), this signal should be permanently asserted (set to 0), possibly by a jumper to another signal.

7. Carrier Detect (CD)

Asserted by DCE when a connection has been established with remote equipment.

8. Ring Indicator (RI)

Asserted by DCE when it detects a ring signal from the telephone line.

RTS/CTS Handshaking
The standard RS-232 use of the RTS and CTS lines is asymmetrical. The DTE asserts RTS to indicate a desire to transmit and the DCE asserts CTS in response to grant permission. This allows for half-duplex modems that disable their transmitters when not required and must transmit a synchronization preamble to the receiver when they are re-enabled. There is no way for the DTE to indicate that it is unable to accept data from the DCE. A non-standard symmetrical alternative is widely used: CTS indicates permission from the DCE for the DTE to transmit, and RTS indicates permission from the DTE for the DCE to transmit. The "request to transmit" is implicit and continuous. The standard defines RTS/CTS as the signaling protocol for flow control for data transmitted from DTE to DCE. The standard has no

provision for flow control in the other direction. In practice, most hardware seems to have repurposed the RTS signal for this function. A minimal 3-wire RS-232 connection consisting only of transmits data, receives data and

Ground, and is commonly used when the full facilities of RS-232 are not required. When only flow control is required, the RTS and CTS lines are added in a 5-wire version. In our case it was imperative that we connected the RTS line of the microcontroller (DTE) to ground to enable receipt of bit streams from the modem.

Specifying Baud Rate, Parity & Stop bits

Serial communication using RS-232 requires that you specify four parameters: the baud rate of the transmission, the number of data bits encoding a character, the sense of the optional parity bit, and the number of stop bits. Each transmitted character is packaged in a character frame that consists of a single start bit followed by the data bits, the optional parity bit, and the stop bit or bits. A typical character frame encoding the letter "m" is shown here.

Character Frame Encoding m

We specified the parameters as baud rate 2400 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit (2400-8-N-1). This was set in pre-operational phase while setting up the modem through the hyper terminal, as per the serial transmission standards in 8051 microcontroller.


See the article Microcontroller interfacing with LCD

MAX 232 See details of MAX 232


See ADC0804



The LM124 series consists of four independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage.

Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For example, the LM124 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring the additional 15V power supplies.

Pin Configuration:


In the linear mode, the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground, even though operated from only a single power supply voltage. The unity gain crossover frequency and the input bias current are temperature-compensated.

Internally frequency-compensated for unity gain. Large DC voltage gain: 100 dB. Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature-compensated) Wide power supply range Single supply: 3 VDC to 30 VDC or dual supplies: 1.5 VDC to 15 VDC. Very low supply current drain: essentially independent of supply voltage (1 mW/op amp at +5 VDC). Low input biasing current: 45 nADC (temperature-compensated) Low input offset voltage: 2 mVDC and offset current: 5 nADC. Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage. Large output voltage: 0VDC to VCC1.5 VDC swing.


The project is used to transfer the information from the transmitter side to the receiver side wirelessly. The project is an advance application of GSM based DISPLAY TOOLKIT. In our project we are basically focussing on the situation where the where the patient(s) and the doctor are at the distant location and it is quite necessary to give the details about the patient(s) heartbeat and the tempearture to the doctor. In this type of situation where the information becomes the indespensable part of the life this project emerges out as best to acknowledge the doctor witth he correct and the fast information. Besides this if made certain changes in the project, it can also be used as way of acknowledging the students of the institutes with the fastest mode of information regarding certain Notices. Again it is the application of GSM BASED DISPLAY TOOLKIT.

Looking into current trend of information transfer in the campus, it is seen that important notice take time to be displayed in the notice boards. This latency is not expected in most of the cases and must be avoided.

Also the electronics displays which are currently used are programmable displays which need to be reprogrammed each time a new notice comes. The process of reprogramming includes burning the microcontroller again and again. This makes it inefficient for immediate information transfer, and thus the display board looses its importance.

This Project which demonstrates an automated patient monitoring system has its own merits and demerits which are discussed below:

The wireless alert system using WAP notifies physicians of critical results on their Display (Cellular Phones can also be used as a display).

1. With online recording of medical parameters, the workload of the case providers and the nursing
staff is reduced.

2. The clinical information database contains all data regarding the patients in electronic form. 3. The patient call switches help emergency situations to be handled quickly.
Future enhancements can be easily implemented with the PLC controller.

De-Merits: 1. The heart beat sensor is highly temperature dependent and the dynamic characteristics change with
different levels of ambient light and temperature level.

2. The dual operational amplifier needs a high CMRR and additional narrowband filters are necessary
to attenuate effects of the noise interference.

3. Network Congestion and Noise interference involved, delays the transmission and reception of the
signal, hence delayed observations are obtained.

The entire medical data acquisition could be made wireless and wearable. Such a package would contain the circuiting for inputs from ECG sensors, EEG sensors, pressure measurement and pulse rate transducers. This wearable module can transmit the data continuously over a fiber optic link or through an internet digital radio. The received data can be stored in separate memory and be processed by a microcontroller. This enhancement will enable monitoring of patients to be more flexible and strain-free.

In addition to above the following enhancement can also be made: A graphical LCD can be used to display a graph of the change of heart rate over time. Sound can be added to the device so that a sound is output each time a pulse is received. The maximum and minimum heart rates over a period of time can be displayed. Serial output can be attached to the device so that the heart rates can be sent to a PC for further online or offline analysis.