Sie sind auf Seite 1von 137

Introduction

Section 1: North Africa

Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean


Section 3: The Northeast

Section 4: The Arabian Peninsula Section 5: Central Asia


Summary

Geography is used to interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future. The region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia has served as the crossroads for Asia, Africa, and Europe. As a result, it has been home to many ethnic groups and cultures.

Section 1: North Africa


How have the Sahara and access to water affected the people of North Africa?

Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean


How do ancient civilizations and cultures continue to influence the eastern Mediterranean today?

Section 3: The Northeast


What religious traditions have shaped the history of the Northeast?

Section 4: The Arabian Peninsula


What has affected the modern development of the Arabian Peninsula?

Section 5: Central Asia


How have geography and climate created challenges for Central Asia?

North Africa
How have the Sahara and access to water affected the people of North Africa?

North Africa
nomad bedouin infrastructure hieroglyphics geometric boundary

nationalism

domesticate

principal medical

North Africa
A. Egypt B. Morocco C. Algeria D. Tunisia E. Casablanca F. Algiers G. Tunis H. Tripoli J. Cairo K. Suez Canal

I. Libya

North Africa
Do you think that most of the North African culture has adopted modern ways or has held onto tradition? A. Modern ways B. Tradition C. Both
A. A B. B C. 0%C 0%
A B

0%
C

Population Patterns
Indigenous ethnic groups, migrations, and the dramatic climate have shaped population patterns in North Africa.
The primary influence on the subregion is a mix of indigenous and Arab cultures.

Population Patterns (cont.)


The people: Berbersindigenous to North Africa Arab

North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia: Population Density

Population Patterns (cont.)


The Nile Delta region is one of the worlds most densely populated areas. Major urban population centers:
Casablanca

Algiers Tunis Tripoli


Cairo

Which of the following cultures have influenced this subregion? A. French B. Spanish C. Muslims D. Romans
0%

0%

E. All of the above

A. B. C. D. E.

0%

A B C D E

0%

0%

History and Government


The Sahara, the Nile River Valley, and multiple invasions influenced different cultures throughout North Africas history.
Early Peoples and Civilizations
6,000 B.C. Farming communities along the Nile River and Mediterranean Sea
A.D.

6,000The Egyptian civilization developed in the Nile River Valley.

History and Government


Invasions and migrations: Until 750sIslamic invasions

(cont.)

Late 1400sJewish exiles from Christian Spain


1500sOttoman Empire Early 1600sMuslim exiles from Christian Spain Early 1800sFrance invades

WWIIU.S. and Britain

North Africa: Invasions and Migrations

History and Government


Egypt Algeria
Libya Tunisia Morocco

(cont.)

Countries that have gained independence:

Which of the following has made Egypt a key regional power? A. The Nile River B. The Suez Canal C. Irrigation systems D. Oil
0%
A

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D
C

0%
D

Culture
The Muslim religion and the Arabic language define much of the culture of North Africa.
ReligionIslam

LanguageArabic

Culture (cont.)
Educationmost people attend school, but literacy rates range widely. Health carethis has improved, but doctor shortages mean limited care. The artspyramids; weaving, embroidery, and metalworking influenced by Islam

How many times a day are Muslims called to worship? A. 1 B. 3 C. 5 D. 7


0%
A

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D
C

0%
D

The Eastern Mediterranean


How do ancient civilizations and cultures continue to influence the eastern Mediterranean today?

The Eastern Mediterranean


monotheism prophet mosque

identity security

ongoing

The Eastern Mediterranean


A. Israel B. Lebanon C. Palestine D. Syria E. Jordan F. Tel Aviv-Jaffa G. Beirut H. Jerusalem I. Makkah (Mecca)

The Eastern Mediterranean


Which of the following religions was not born in this region?

A. Islam B. Christianity
C. Judaism D. Buddhism
A

A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D
B C

0%
D

Population Patterns
Migrations, claims to ancestral homes, and boundary disputes have influenced population in the eastern Mediterranean.
The people:

Over 7 million people in this region are Israelis living in Israel.

Population Patterns (cont.)


80% of the Israelis are Jewish. Tensions between Arabs and Jews resulted in six wars.

Ethnic Groups in the Eastern Mediterranean

Population Patterns (cont.)


Density and distribution: The majority of people live along coastal plains and in the Euphrates River valley.
This area has some of the highest population densities in Southwest Asia. This subregion is predominantly urbanmore than 80% of the people in Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon live in cities. Just over 50% in Syria and Palestine live in cities.

Since Israel was founded as a Jewish state in 1948, has that area experienced more people emigrating or immigrating?

A. Emigrating B. Immigrating
A. A B. B
0%
A

0%
B

History and Government


The eastern Mediterranean is home to three of the worlds major religions that have shaped politics and culture there for centuries.
Early civilizations: Ebla, Syria

Damascus, Syria

History and Government

(cont.)

Three major religions have deeply rooted histories in this subregion: Judaism
Christianity Islam

The Old City of Jerusalem

History and Government


Independence:

(cont.)

By the late 1800s, Western European powers controlled large areas in this subregion.
These countries gained independence around the time of WWII.

History and Government


Conflict:

(cont.)

Arab-Israeli conflictsin the 1948 and 1967 conflicts, victorious Israeli forces occupied Arab lands. The status of Palestinian refugees is an ongoing dispute.

Israel and the Palestinian Territories

All three religions share many beliefs, including a belief in which of the following? A. The Bible

B. Monotheism C. Holy days D. Jesus


A

0%

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D
C

0%
D

Culture
The eastern Mediterraneans religions and languages have influenced its art and everyday life for centuries.
ReligionIslam
LanguageArabic

Culture (cont.)
Educationmost young people attend school, but literacy rates vary widely. Health carethis has improved in recent decades. The artsexpression through arts and architecture; artists and writers found inspiration in religion.

Which language is spoken in Israel? A. Arabic B. English C. Hebrew D. French


0%
A

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D

0%
D

The Northeast
What religious traditions have shaped the history of the Northeast?

The Northeast
culture hearth cuneiform qanats embargo ziggurat

natural boundary

participate assumed

The Northeast
A. Turkey B. Iran C. Iraq D. Tehran E. Mesopotamia F. Fertile Crescent G. Persian Empire

The Northeast
How familiar are you with Islam? A. Very familiar B. Moderately familiar C. Not familiar
A. A B. B 0%C. 0% C
A B

0%
C

Population Patterns
Ethnic diversity and the Muslim religion have profoundly shaped the population of the Northeast subregion.
The people: Turks
Iranians Arabs Kurds
Ethnic Groups in the Northeast

Population Patterns (cont.)


Density and distribution: The most populous countries are Turkey and Iran.
More than half of these people live in cities.

Population Patterns (cont.)


Important cities: Istanbul Tehran
Baghdad

The Iranians speak which language? A. Turkish B. Farsi C. Arabic D. Kurdish


0%
A

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D

0%
D

History and Government


Ancient empires and thriving civilizations influenced the early history of the Northeast, which today is being shaped by the oil industry and relations with the outside world.

History and Government


Civilizations and empires:

(cont.)

Mesopotamiathe Sumerian civilization lived in this area.


The Phoenician civilization began along the eastern Mediterranean. The Persian Empire extended across the region.

The Ottoman Empire was centered in presentday Turkey.

History and Government


The modern era:

(cont.)

Iraq has experienced periods of turmoil since it gained independence in 1932.


Turkey was established as a country in 1923.

Iranians have experienced political and social upheavals over the years.

History and Government


The era of oil:

(cont.)

Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela formed the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in order to regulate oil prices.

Which civilization created a writing system, code of law, and year-round farming? A. Phoenician

B. Sumerian C. Persian Empire D. Ottoman Empire


A

0%

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D
C

0%
D

Culture
Religion and language shape everyday life in the Northeast subregion.
Languagemostly Arabic; Turkish in Turkey and Persian in Persia Religionmostly Shia Muslims in Iraq and Iran; Sunni Muslims in Turkey

Early Civilizations and Empires

Culture (cont.)
Educationrequired through grade 6 in Iraq and grade 9 in Turkey; literacy rates are fairly high. Health carethis varies, but is struggling in most areas. The artsearly civilizations created sculptures, fine metalwork, and large buildings; literature is based on strong oral traditions, epics, and poetry.

Before the Islamic Revolution, how many Iranians could read and write? A. Less than 30%

B. Less than 40% C. Less than 50% D. Less than 60%


A

0%

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D

0%
D

The Arabian Peninsula


What has affected the modern development of the Arabian Peninsula?

The Arabian Peninsula


sheikhdom shariah emir Ibadhism

hajj

labor dominant

priority

The Arabian Peninsula


A. Kuwait B. Saudi Arabia C. Bahrain D. Oman E. Yemen F. United Arab Emirates G. Qatar

The Arabian Peninsula


Which natural element has had a profound impact on this region?
A. Rivers B. Mountains C. Desert areas D. Rainforests
A

0%

A. B. C. D.
B

0%

A B C D

0%

0%
D

Population Patterns
A shared religion, a common language, and rapid modernization have formed todays Arabian Peninsula.
Most people in this region are Arabs.

Population Patterns (cont.)


Density and distribution: Bedouin still roam the large Arabian Desert, but many have migrated to cities.
Population densities can be high in cities.

The discovery of oil in the early 1900s led to increased wealth, modernization, and immigration in many Arab countries.

The Arabian Peninsula: Citizens and Foreign Nationals

What percentage of the people in the United Arab Emirates are citizens? A. 510%

B. 1520% C. 2030% D. 3045%


A

0%

A. B. 0% C. D.

A B 0% C D

0%
D

History and Government


Conquering empires and unified governments have imposed cultures on the peoples of the Arabian Peninsula that remain influential to this day.
Early cultures and conquests: One of the oldest centers of civilization in the area existed in Yemen between the 1100s B.C. and the A.D. 500s.
The Spread of Islam

History and Government

(cont.)

The region struggled against invasion by the Ottoman Empire and others. The Unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established in 1932.

History and Government


Independence:

(cont.)

Countries throughout the region gained independence slowly.


Standards of living vary widely across the region and even within countries.

Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Oman have which type of government? A. Democracy B. Communist C. Monarchy D. Oligarchy
0%
A

A. B. 0% C. D.

A B 0% C D

0%
D

Culture
Religious beliefs and a common language influence everyday life on the Arabian Peninsula.
ReligionSunni and Shia Muslim LanguageArabic

Culture (cont.)
Educationmost young people attend school and literacy rates are high in certain areas. Health carethis varies widely.
The artsarchitecture provides some of the best examples of art.

CelebrationsId al Adha, Ramadan

Which country has given secondary and post-secondary education a priority? A. Kuwait B. Qatar C. Bahrain D. Oman
0%
A

A. B. 0% C. D.

A B 0% C D

0%
D

Central Asia
How have geography and climate created challenges for Central Asia?

Central Asia
enclave exclave mujahideen

maintain imposed

Central Asia
A. Afghanistan B. Turkmenistan C. Tajikistan D. Uzbekistan E. Armenia F. Georgia G. Kazakhstan

Central Asia
Afghanistan consists mainly of what type of geography?
A. Desert B. Mountainous C. Marshland
A

A. A B. B 0% 0% C. C
B

0%
C

Population Patterns
Invasions, domination by numerous empires, and the rugged landscape have created challenges for Central Asia.
The people: Pashtun
Armenians

Population Patterns (cont.)


Georgians TurkicUzbeks and Kazakhs

Ethnic Groups in Central Asia

Population Patterns (cont.)


Density and distribution: The population is spread unevenly across its mountainous terrain.
Afghanistan is the most populous country in the subregion.

How many ethnic groups and nationalities live in the Caucasus area? A. More than 30

B. More than 50 C. More than 80 D. More than 100


A

0%

A. B. 0% C. D.

A B 0% C D
C

0%
D

History and Government


The location of Central Asia has left the regions people vulnerable to centuries of invasion and to new challenges in the modern era.
Ancient cities/cultures:
Georgia The kingdom of Urartu Samarqand

History and Government


Conquests: Genghis Khan Alexander the Great
Persians Arabs Ottoman Turks

(cont.)

The Russian Empire

The Silk Road

History and Government


Enclaves: Armenia Azerbaijan

(cont.)

History and Government


Independence:

(cont.)

Numerous countries declared independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
Countries, such as Tajikistan and Afghanistan, still struggle for freedom.

Which factor contributed to Central Asia being controlled by various empires? A. A lack of government

B. The fertile farmland C. The Silk Road D. The abundance of rivers


A

0%

A. B. 0% C. D.

A B 0% C D
C

0%
D

Culture
The people of Central Asia share many cultural characteristics and experiences.
Languagethe majority speak a form of the Turkic languages. ReligionIslam, mostly Sunni

Culture (cont.)
Educationit is universal across this region and mandatory through secondary schools in a few countries. Health carethese are lacking. The artsthey have a rich literary history.

Which of the following Central Asian countries is lagging in literacy? A. Kyrgyzstan B. Armenia C. Georgia D. Afghanistan
0%
A

A. B. 0% C. D.

A B 0% C D

0%
D

Ethnicity and Culture North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia has been a cultural crossroads for much of human history.

The region has two important cultural hearths in Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley.
The region has a large amount of ethnic diversity. Many customs, languages, and beliefs are represented here. This diversity of peoples has led to conflict in parts of the region.

Location and Trade


The regions fertile rivers and central location made the land a valuable resource. Empires in the region grew rich from trade. As Europe grew more skilled at sea travel, the empires powers grew weaker.

Oil has helped make the region wealthy again. It has also led to conflict as countries fight over the rights to oil reserves in the region.

The Importance of Religion Religion is very important to the people of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia. Three of the worlds major religionsJudaism, Christianity, and Islamhave deep roots here.

It is also home to the holiest sights of these religions. Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) in Saudi Arabia. Jerusalem is the Jewish capital and religious center. Christians also hold Jerusalem close, because many of Jesus acts took place there.

nomad
a member of a wandering pastoral people

bedouin
member of the nomadic desert peoples of North Africa and Southwest Asia

infrastructure
the basic urban necessities like streets and utilities

domesticate
to adapt plants and animals from the wild to make them useful to people

hieroglyphic
belonging to an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures and symbols represent words or sounds

geometric boundary
a fixed limit or extent that follows straight lines

nationalism
belief in the right of each people to be an independent nation

monotheism
belief in one God

prophet
person believed to be a messenger from God

mosque
in Islam, a house of public worship

culture hearth
a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward

cuneiform
Sumerian writing system using wedge-shaped symbols pressed into clay tablets

qanat
underground canal used in water systems of ancient Persians

natural boundary
a fixed limit or extent defined along physical geographic features such as mountains and rivers

embargo
a ban on trade

ziggurat
large step-like temple of mud brick built in ancient Mesopotamia

sheikhdom
territory ruled by an Islamic religious leader

shariah
Islamic law derived from the Koran and the teachings of Muhammad

emir
a prince or ruler in Islamic countries

hajj
in Islam, the yearly pilgrimage to Makkah

Ibadhism
a conservative form of Islam distinct from Sunni and Shia sects

enclave
a region or community (as within a country or city) made up of people of a different race or cultural background

exclave
distinct group of people who are isolated from the main or larger part of a country

mujahideen
Islamic guerrilla fighters

To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product:


Click the Forward button to go to the next slide.

Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.


Click the Return button to return to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen.

Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Links to Maps in Motion, static maps and charts, and transparencies appear near the bottom of slides as they are relevant.
Links to the Reference Atlas and Geography Online are located on the navigation bar of most screens.

This slide is intentionally blank.