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5 kW Permanent Magnets Synchronous Generator Experimental Bench Test Luis Cano, Luis Arribas, Ana Izquierdo, Flix Avia, Ignacio Cruz Department of Renewable Energies CIEMAT Tel:+34-975-281013 Fax:+34-975-281051 E-mail: luis.cano@ciemat.es

Summary CIEMATs been developing some research activities on Isolated Systems including Wind Energy during the last six years, mainly focused on small wind turbine characterization (power performance) and system characterization. When trying to characterize the wind turbine trough its power curve, the need of the characterization of the components of the turbine arose, in order to explain the capture losses and in order to model the behaviour of the turbine for simulation purposes. So, it was decided to implement a test bench for the study of the generators used in small wind turbine applications (<10kW) at the Isolated Wind Energy Systems Test Site in CIEMATs installations in Soria. The first experimented generator is a permanent magnet generator (PMG), the one used in the BORNAY INCLIN 1500. This generator has been selected because power performance of the wind turbine is been obtained through a field test at the same installations [1]. This way, a deeper study will be carried with this turbine. The tests results and methodology are shown in this paper. Keywords: Permanent Magnet Generators, Small Wind Turbine, Testing, Electrical Equipment, and Test Site. Introduction The lack of standards and guidelines in the small wind turbines manufacturing and also the problems of the manufacturers to invest money in new research in order to increase the efficiency of their machines is shown in the slow development of this kind of technology. Taking into account these aspects, CIEMAT began several years ago a research programme to help these companies, to search out the most competitive products. The idea is to know perfectly all the wind turbine parts, in order to increase the efficiency, durability and safety of this machine. On the other hand, there is not a specific norm to study permanent magnets synchronous generator (PMSG), so the recommendations given in the IEC 60034-4: Rotating Electrical Machines. Part 4: Methods for Determining Synchronous Machine Quantities from Tests [2] have been the principal reference to write this paper, as the PMSG are a special type of synchronous generators. This paper presents the results obtained characterizing the BORNAY 1500 Inclin Neo generator. A small view of the design of the test bench is shown. Testing methodology is also exposed. Results obtained and the commentaries about them are presented, as well as, some conclusions on the test results. The CEDER-CIEMAT Test Bench. The test bench has been designed by CIEMAT, and it is thought to make tests in the range of 10 kW. The bench, which draw is shown in the figure 1, can be divided into the following parts: - Drive motor with a frequency converter to get a complete speed and power control. - Torque and speed transducer. - Several parts to joint the drive motor with the transducer and the tested generator. These parts have to be designed each time depending of the speed, torque, etc - Data acquisition through a compound wattmeter. - Other transducers to measure temperature,

Fig 1. Test bench scheme with the Bornay 1500 PMSG The drive motor manufacturer is SIEMENS, and has a nominal output power of 30 kW at 50 Hz. The nominal speed is 975 rpm and the maximum torque is 293 Nm. This motor is vector controlled by a SIEMENS Midimaster frequency converter. Its possible to control it through a PC with the programme DiveES, and different tests can be programmed to carry them out automatically. The torque and speed transducer is able to measure torques in the range of 500 Nm and rotational speeds in the range of 12.000 rpm (there is another one with a wider speed range, up to 15000, but the torque is lower). Its very easy to mount, because the transducer consists of two parts: the rotor and the stator. The rotor includes the measuring body and an adapter flange. The stator includes connecting plugs for the torque signal, the power supply and the rotation speed signal. Rotation speed is measured with the help of a slotted disc that is mounted in the rotor, and when it rotates the slot cuts an infrared transmitted light and origins a pulse. The data acquisition system is manufactured by YOKOGAWA. It can be configured to measure directly voltage, AC and DC current, power, frequency, and also temperature. It can also store data into an internal memory disk or it can be connected to a PC. It is possible to see the data in real time, and also make graphics to observe some transient aspect in a variable. It has many possibilities of connection in order to measure for example, power per phase, power per line, total power, active and a reactive power. Its a six-on-one compound wattmeter, able to measure directly up to 50 A, and seems to be suitable for tests like the one described in this paper. Besides the electronic devices, there are some mechanical bench design and built, to fix other kind of generator. In fact, there are some gears to increase the torque and reduce the speed if its necessary. In the figure n 2, its shown the assembling in the test bench of the BORNAY 1500 PMSG.

Bornay 1500 Permanent Magnets Synchronous Generator Its known that the use of permanent magnet materials whose remanence is in the order of 1 T and coercitivity close to 1 kA/mm, has opened a wide range of opportunities for the development and commercialization of electrical machines with some important advantages, including high efficiency, high power/weight ratio, brush-less construction, the pole pitch can be smaller and lower end-winding losses, above all in wind power industry. These properties enable machines to be designed with customary values of flux density and reduced space requirements for creating the excitation magnetic field. [3]. This is the way Bornay 1500 PMSG has been developed. Its a 24 V three-phase radial flux generator at rated speed 650 rpm. The advantage of this type of generators is that they are very easy to make with a slotted stator and allow a small diameter since the stator can be longer, which is an advantage in small wind turbines. Another advantage is that the air gap can be more easily made in radial flux PMG, than in an axial-flux one. This means it is possible to reduce the amount of permanent magnet material [4] As it has been told earlier the stator winding is three-phase and it has three slots per pole and phase. The copper wires are assembled in a two-layer winding in each slot, as well as all slots contain two coils belonging in the same phase. As it is shown in Figure 3, these slots are constructed semi-closed with a wedge at the end, to limit the losses in the rotor due to harmonic currents and also, to avoid as much as possible the cogging torque effect. The winding inside the slot has a copper fill factor of 0.82, and the insulation of each coil is 1 mm, that is filled with resign. The value of total fill factor for the slot, including the slot wedge is 0.52.

26

Insulation 1mm

The figure below represents the 2D configuration of the generator. The disposition of permanent magnet (in blue) in the rotor is clearly shown. Its possible to estimate the losses [4] knowing the geometry and the flux density values in the stator and rotor yoke, air gap and each tooth.

Test made. Results and methodology. According to the standard IEC 60034-4 Rotating Electrical Machines. Part 4: Methods for Determining Synchronous Machine Quantities from Tests, and our own experience in the study of others generators, the next tests have been made: - Open circuit test. - Stator resistance test. - Short-circuit test. - Constant speed test: V-I Curves. - Constant load test: V-Speed Curves. - Constant voltage test: I-Speed Curves. Now, we will take a look at each one of them, focusing on the methodology and the results. Open circuit test The objective of this test is to know the open-circuit performance of the generator, i.e. without any load. This is a typical test for generators, and can also be a possible operational mode in case of any failure in the electronic parts. In this case, the characteristic curve U0 vs. rotational speed is shown. As there is not current in the stator the output voltage is only dependant of rotational speed.

80

VOLTAGE (Vac)

SPEED (r.p.m.)

Fig.5. Open circuit test results The methodology used here has been to measure the output voltage increasing the rotational speed by means of a frequency converter. The test has been made decelerating the rotational speed, but the differences are not appreciable. With the help of a digital analyzer it can be possible to obtain the results and also store them for several minutes, enough time to carry out the tests. Viewing the results, it is remarkable how, as it was expected, the relationship between voltage and speed is completely linear. On the test, the rotational speed was allowed to grow up to 1000 rpm, where a 70 volts value was obtained for the open-circuit voltage. Stator resistance test The objective of this test is to measure the stator resistance (in order to estimate the losses). Another conclusion that could be interesting is to prove if there were considerable differences among the three windings, so it would be necessary to rewind the stator. In order to achieve this, the idea is to input DC current by two of the three statorwindings. In this way, the winding reactance effect will be null, because the current frequency is zero. Then if the voltage is measured between these two windings, and from the relationship between the voltage and the current (Ohms Law) the resistance of the windings is calculated. And repeating the process for the three cases, the three resistances are obtained.

STATOR RESISTANCE

0.28 0.24 0.2 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.04 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CURRENT

Fig.6. Stator resistance test results So the values for the three windings resistance are: R1 = 0.1331O; R2 = 0.1262 O; R3 = 0.1314 O

RESISTANCE (O)

R1 R2 R3

The results are quite similar, but there is an aspect to notice. The graphic above should be three horizontally lines, but the heating of the winding hasnt been considered. Short-circuit test In the case of an abrupt short circuit, there is a risk of irreversible damage. This could be the demagnetization of the permanent magnets in the rotor, due to a strong opposite magnetic field induced by the short circuit current in the stator windings [5]. The purpose of short circuit test is to evaluate the performance of the electrical machine in this state. The characteristic curve, the current in short-circuit vs. rotational speed, has been measured. In this case, the operation test has been different to normal short-circuit cases in the wind turbine. That means, if the wind turbine is going to be short-circuited, the generator is generating, and then, the fault occurs. In the test, firstly the generator has been short-circuited, joint the three phases, and then, the drive motor has begun to move it. Its important to be sure that the current doesnt go up to two times the nominal current at each speed. Really, the hard short-circuit as its explained in the standard is not necessary in this case, because its thought for greater synchronous machines then Bornay 1500. Three ampere meters were set on in each phase, in order to test if the current was the same in each one. In other case, it would mean that the rotor would be unbalanced, and it had to be rewound. The characteristic curve obtained for the current with the generator working in the short-circuit mode is shown, now.

70 60 50

Current (A)

Speed(rpm)

Fig.7. Short-circuit test results It clearly shows that the generator gets into a saturation level, around 60 Amperes. Constant speed test: V-I Curves In these three next tests, the generator is exposed to similar conditions than in its normal operation. During the realization of constant speed test, the procedure has been to measure the output voltage, current and power for different resistive loads, and varying the speed in the same range with the frequency converter. Then a family of curves for different speeds is generated. First, lets take a look at the V-I curves, which provide us with the essential information on the synchronous generator. They are depicted in the following figure:

VOLTAGE-CURRENT CURVES

100-110 rpm

70

200-210 rpm

60

300-310 ropm

Voltage (V)

50

400-410 rpm

40

500-510 rpm

30

600-610 rpm

20

700-710 rpm

10

800-810 rpm

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

900-910 rpm

Current (A)

Fig.8. Voltage- current curves From the data used in this figure, we can plot another one, Power vs. Voltage, which is particularly interesting for PMG applied to Small Wind Turbines, because voltage control is the usually employed for the regulation of the PMG: in the case of direct coupling battery charging applications, its the battery that fixes the voltage; in the case of DC/DC converter, its the converter that regulates the working point. These graphs should be necessary for the efficient design of the SWT and its connection to any system. In the graph below (Figure 9) the measures and the tendency polynomic lines are shown

5000 4500 4000 1 1 rpm 00-1 0 200-21 rpm 0 300-31 rpm 0 400-41 rpm 0 500-51 rpm 0 600-61 rpm 0 700-71 rpm 0 800-81 rpm 0 900-91 rpm 0 Polinmica (200-21 rpm) 0 Polinmica (300-31 rpm) 0 Polinmica (1 1 rpm) 00-10 Polinmica (400-41 rpm ) 0 Polinmica (500-51 rpm ) 0 Polinmica (600-61 rpm ) 0 Polinmica (700-71 rpm ) 0 Polinmica (800-81 rpm ) 0 Polinmica (900-91 rpm) 0

Power (kW)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Voltage (Vac)

Fig.9. Power-voltage curves Constant load test: V-Speed Curves

In this test, the objective is to obtain how voltage varies as a function of speed, with the same load. And this test has been repeated for different resistive loads. The curves in open circuit and short circuit operation are also shown. During the tests, several loads are connected to the generator output, and then the speed is continuously going up until the rated nominal voltage. In this case, a higher speed has been reached, in order to prove the generator in other range. The results are exposed below (Figure 10):

VOLTAGE-SPEED CURVES

80 70 60

Voltage (Vac)

Speed (rpm)

Fig.10. Voltage- speed curves Constant load test: I-Speed Curves This is the last test made with a load connected. The objective of this test is to know, how the current varies with the speed. This is very important because if the wind turbine is finally connected to a battery bank through a rectifier, with a more or less constant voltage, the input current to this battery is going to be in a limited range in order to enlarge the cycle life of both battery bank and rectifier. Its also significant if there are some protections before the rectifier. The procedure to make the test is very simple. Several resistive load are connected to the output voltage The results are commented and expose in the next graphic. (Figure 11)

CURRENT-SPEED CURVES

70

60

50

CURRENT (A)

40

30

20

10

200

400

800

1000

1200

Conclusions A PMG test is presented, mainly focused on its use in small wind turbines (SWT), as one of the main components in actual SWT. With these tests, the main characteristics of the PMG are obtained: the Open Circuit Voltage vs. Rotational speed curve; the resistance of the wounded stator; the short circuit current vs. Rotational speed curve, and the Voltage-Current Curves, for different Rotational speeds. From this information, the main parameters of the electrical generator model are derived. As a general conclusion, it is remarkable that, for the use of these PMGs in small wind turbines, it is possible to increase the delivered power by the wind turbine if some control is applied, such as a speed control, or at least, the working voltage is chosen according to the curves of the PMG. The information provided by a test like the one introduced here, seems to be essential for the correct design of the whole wind turbine, in order to match perfectly the rotor, the generator and the load. If not, some mismatch may be introduced in the system. Bibliography [1] Arribas LM, Cano L, Soria E, Avia F. Bornay 1500 Inclin Neo Wind Turbine Power Curve Determination. CIEMAT Nov. 2004 (In Spanish). [2] Standard IEC 60034-4. Rotating Electrical Machines. Part 4: Methods for Determining Synchronous Machine Quantities from Tests. Jun 1997 [3] Chalmers BJ. Developments in Electrical Machines using Permanent Magnets. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 157/158. (1996) 131-132. [4] Grauers A. Design of Direct-driven Permanent-magnet Generators for Wind Turbines. Chalmers University. Sweden. Technical Report n 292. 1996. [5] Thelin P. Short Circuit Fault Conditions of a Buried PMSM Investigated with FEM. Department of Electrical Engineering, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm, Sweden. August 2002. [6] Johnson G.L. Wind Energy Systems. Electronic Edition. Manhattan KS. Chapter 6. Asynchronous Generators. November, 2001. [7] Benavente R. and others: Mtodo de ensayo de un generador sncrono de imanes permanentes. Resultados sobre el alternador del aerogenerador Inclin 1500 NEO 24 V de J.Bornay. CIEMATs internal study. [8] Gieras J.F., Wing M. Permanent Magnet Motor Technology. Designs and Applications. 2002

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