Sie sind auf Seite 1von 87

FUNCTIONS OF THE ENGINEERING SERVICES DIVISION

D.K. Rohitha Swarna Director (Engineering Services), RDA

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
Pre British Colonial Period Prior to 1796 2 British Colonial Period 1796 to 1948 3 Post Colonial Period 1948 to date
1

Period

Agency primarily responsible for Highway / Bridge Construction


Quarter master Generals

Other Agencies that were involved in the Bridge Construction


Royal Engineers

1796-1815

1815-1842
1842-1845 1846-1851 1851-1862 1863-1876 1877-1938 1938-1968 1968-1971 1971-1978 1978-1986

Civil Engineer and Surveyor Generals Department sometimes also referred to as colonial Engineer and land Surveyors Department
Civil Engineer and Surveyor generals Department Commissioner of Roads Civil engineers Department. Commissioner of Road Department Civil engineer and Commissioner of Roads Department Public works Department Public Works Department Public Works Department Highways Department Territorial Civil Engineering Organization and Highways Department Highways Department

Royal Engineers. Ceylon pioneer lascars later called the Military Corps of pioneers
Pioneer Corps Pioneer Corps Pioneer Corps and Government Factory (from 1858) Pioneer Corps. Government Factory Government Factory. (Pioneer Corps ceases to exit in 1877) Formation of a bridges Organization under C.E. (Bridges) in 1938 . Government Factory C.E. Bridges. Government Factory. State Development and Construction Corporation Newly formed Bridges Organization under a Deputy Director Bridges. S.D. & C.C., S.E.C. and some other private organizations RC&DC(Presently abolished),Maga Neguma SD&CC,SEC,CECB and some other private organizations

1986 to date

Road Development Authority

BACKGROUND
From the inception of the RDA in 1986, for over a period of about 12 years, the Engineering Services Division, has been responsible for the overall management of the execution of specialized functions namely:
Traffic Engineering and Road Planning Highway Designs Bridge Designs Bridge Inspection & Assessment Land Acquisition and Shifting of Utility Services for project implementation

For the execution of each of the above specialized functions, there were separate offices consisting of Engineers with supportive staff for both technical & administrative functions and each of them was managed by a Deputy Director. However at present, of the five offices, only the Bridge Designs office comes under the purview of the Director, Engineering Services.

ENGINEERING SERVICES DIVISION


Director General
ADG (C/D)

Director (E/S)

DD (B/D)

SDE

SDE

SDE

SDE

DE

DE

DE

DE DOA

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

DE (T)

AA Dmans (10)

Supporting Staff

Present Functions of the Division


The Primary Responsibility of the Division
plan the designing of bridges and the approach roads for bridge improvement and rehabilitation projects process the acquisition of land and relocation of infrastructure of public services required to facilitate the implementation provide advisory and support services to the relevant implementing divisions of RDA in implementing bridge projects.

Following Routine and Periodic Activities are Involved


Preliminary investigations of bridges to identify the level of rehabilitation. Preparation of preliminary designs and cost estimates for bridge projects for project formulation and feasibility analysis and project appraisals. Developing optimal basic designs for bridge projects and deciding on the design standards to be adopted in the design. Finalization of detailed designs, drawings, BOQQ and estimates for bridge projects. Preparation and finalization of documents for land acquisition acquisition plans, tenement particulars etc.

Diagnosing problems in implementation of bridge projects and amending designs as required to suit the site conditions during construction. Providing advisory services and guidance in bridge designs to Provincial Directors and Chief Engineers. Providing advisory and support services to relevant Implementing Divisions in implementation of bridge projects.

Developing and updating of standard designs for bridge beams and other bridge components to satisfy requirements of current standards and code of practice and finalization of type plans for same. Implementation of design policy review of design standards and practices and recommending amendments/changes for updating them in keeping with recent developments and current trends and their adoption. Preparation of rates for items of works relevant for construction of bridges and updating of the same periodically.

Providing training for RDA Engineers in Bridge Designs to enable them to partially fulfill the requirements to obtain professional qualifications. Preparation of project proposals for the consideration of External Resources Department to seek foreign funds for implementation

The following obligatory functions are also involved


Participation

at progress review meetings and providing advisory and support services where required for projects implemented by the Project Management Units under foreign funds. Participation at discussions with Foreign Mission /Expatriate Consultants in connection with bridge rehabilitation projects to be implemented under foreign funded programs.

Providing

counter part services to Foreign Missions, Expatriate Consultants etc. such as providing data/information, appraising of local conditions, reviewing of basic designs and detail engineering work, making observations and suggestions.

Monitoring, review and acceptance of detail engineering work executed by Consultants for bridge projects. Checking of alternative designs submitted by Contractors in the process of executing the bridge projects awarded to them to decide on adaptability of same.

oProviding consultancy services in bridge designs to outside Government Departments and Private Agencies. oExecution of structural assessments of bridges and providing designs & specifying repairs/strengthening needed for bridges for transport of abnormally or extra heavy loads such as Electric Generators, Gas Turbines and grant approval for the movement of those on specific trailer arrangements.

Bridge Designs Principles

By

D.K. Rohitha Swarna Director (Engineering Services) Road Development Authority 08.12.2011
14

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF BRIDGES


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Historical Development of Bridges Important Old Bridges in Sri Lanka Investigation of Bridges Classification of Bridges Various types of Steel Bridges Bridge Loadings Bridge foundations Super Structure Various deck types
15

Historical Development of Bridges


Timber Logs A rope tied between two supports and a floor system was suspended 3. Masonry Arches idea obtained from the naturally formed rock arches or caves 4. Long span arches with cast Iron
1. 2.
The 1st iron bridge in the world was built in England known as Coalbrookdale in 1779 over the river Severn with a span of 100ft.

5.

Wrought Iron bars & cables Girders which can take tension

Later in 1820 the worlds first suspension bridge built with iron bars and cables known as Menai bridge with a span of 580ft which consist of timber decking and this has stood for 115 years. In 1832 1st Wrought iron girder bridge was built. Since the wrought iron was maleable ,ductile and much stronger in tension it could be riveted.
16

6. Open web girders, trusses with the advent of steel 7. Rfd concrete/Pre-stressed Concrete
First patent for reinforced concrete was published by England in 1808 and Portland cement concrete was invented in 1824. The first portland cement concrete bridge to be built was the Grand Maitre Aqueduct across river Vane in France built in 1874. Fressinet developed prestressing and the application was adopted in late 1930.

8.

Suspension Bridges, Cable Stayed with the advent of high strength steel

17

Boat bridge across Kelani Ganga constructed in 1822

18

Old Victoria Bridge Over Kelani river in 1895 ( Replaced by Sri Lanka- Japan friendship bridge in 1992)
19

Old Ulapane Bridge

20

21

Old Steel Truss Bridge at Gampola Over Mahaweli River in 1926 (Replaced by 100 m long Post Tension Bridge in 2004)

22

Mawanella Brick Arch Bridge constructed in 1832 over Maha oya

71.6 m

23

Peradeniya Satinwood Bridge constructed in 1833 over Mahaweli River


24

Artistic Impression

25

Present Steel Arch Bridge at Peradeniya constructed in 1905 over Mahaweli River

68.4m

26

Investigation of Bridges
Topography Catchment area Hydrology Geo-Technical data Navigation Construction Resources Nearby Bridges Traffic Data
27

Structural components of a bridge


(i)Super structure (ii)Sub structure Abutments, piers, wing walls (iii)Foundation
Super structure

Abutment Pier

Foundation
28

Super structure

Abutment Pier Wing wall

Foundation Abutment

Wing wall
29

Elements of a bridge could be further categorized as follows 1.

Primary elements

structure form, spans, piers and abutments and their founding requirements and the physical context.

2.

Secondary elements
texture of finish, colour

parapets, wing walls,

It is very important to consider what visual impact the finished structure will have on the environment, on the people who use them & those who will be seeing them

30

Type of Material
Steel Concrete Timber

Type of construction
Arch Slab Beam

& Slab

Open

Structural Behavior
Simply Supported Continuous

Web girders Suspension Cable Stayed

Box

Girder Bridges

Cantilever and Suspension

Purpose of construction
Permanent

Bridges High level Bridge (All weather Bridge) Submersible Bridge Temporary Bridges
Pontoon Bailey Timber
31

Design Flood discharge for Bridges


The determination of the required waterway is the first and most important factor in design of a bridge. Hence the required opening has to be calculated with a capability of passing the peak flood without overtopping the banks or endangering the structure

Contribution factors to the flood flow Rainfall intensity duration Terrain Characteristics Catchment area, shape, slope ,Nature of soil, Vegetation types Stream Characteristics Slope of the Stream nature of bed Since the occurrence of flood depends on combination of above factors its prediction becomes far from exact science.

32

Methods of Determination of Flood Discharge


(i) Empirical Method - Simplest and oldest method and formulae have been derived based on observed data. Suitable for larger catchment areas. (ii) Statistical probability Method (Frequency Method) - Based on the actual observations at the site over a period of at least 25 to 30 years and applying statistical probability design flood is arrived fro a desired return period of 50 or 100 years (iii) Rational Method - More suitable for smaller catchment (25 sq. km). Make use of factors covering intensity of rainfall and catchment characteristics. Two methods are available (a) Slope area method - Get reliable data by enquiring from reliable people for HFL & determine the discharge as for an open channel.

(b)

Unit Hydrograph Method

More rational & a latest method which needs actual observations of the discharge at the site for same period and also the rainfall data spread over some years.

Scour depth calculation


Scour is the result of the erosive action of water, excavating and carrying away material from the bed and banks of stream. Different materials scour at different rates. Loose granular soils are rapidly eroded by flowing water, While cohesive soils are more scour resistant.

Factors affecting scour

Slope and alignment of the natural stream Bed material of stream and flood plains Changes or potential changes in the prevailing conditions in the stream or the catchment, whether man-made or natural. Depth, velocity and alignment of flow through the constriction. Alignment and layout of the bridge and training works. Accumulation of debris. Size, shape, orientation and arrangement of piers, footings and piles. Amount of bed material in transport.
34

AFFLUX
This is another term to be familiar with design of bridges and it can be defined as a rise or heading up of water level on the upstream side of the bridge. It is caused when the effective linear waterway at the obstruction is less than the natural width of the stream immediately in the upstream side of the bridge. As such the afflux that can be produced by piers and projecting abutments has to be calculated in order to determine the finished road level of the bridge. The afflux should be kept minimum and limited as far as possible to 150mm in order to avoid upstream flooding and inundation.

In order to arrive the design flood discharge, it is recommended to use at least two of the above methods and arrive at a figure which is maximum of the two or 1.5 times the minimum whichever is less.
35

36

Bridges should be able to resist the effects of the loads & actions as listed below
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) Dead loads Live Loads Braking / Traction Centrifugal Force Skidding force Earth and Surcharge Pressure Floating Debris & Log Impact Wind Temperature Shrinkage & Creep Buoyancy Effect Seismic forces

37

Bridge Live Loads


To be followed as per BS 5400 part 02 & RDA Bridge Design Manual. Vehicular HA & HB Bridge live loads consists of Pedestrian HA Represents normal Traffic and consists of uniformly distributed load and a knife edge load. Loading is given per notional lane (which is 2.3 3.7 m) W = 151(1/L) 0.475 KN K.E.L = 120kN Per Lane Pedestrian Loading = 4 kN/m2

Load per m of lane (w) 30

30 Loaded length (m)

380
38

Type HB Loading
HB is an abnormal loading which consists of 4 axles and each axle weighs 25 Tons 45 Tons
1.0 m 1.0 m 1.0 m 6.0 m 1.8m 1.8m 3.5 m wide

Direction of Travel

Contact Area:- Wheel load is assumed to be uniformly distributed over a circular contact area to give an effective pressure of 1.1 N/mm2
39

Classification of Soil
Cohesive soil Presence of clay minerals, eg; clays, plastic silt

Cohesionless soil composed of bulky grains, eg; non-plastic silts and gravel
40

When the soil is subjected to direct compression, shear stresses develop. Shear stresses will develop even in tension, but not relevant since soil fails in tension.
Failure in soil occurs by relative movement of particles and not by breaking of the particles. Shear strength is the principal engineering property which controls the stability of a soil mass under loads.
41

Shear strength governs following properties.


1. Bearing capacity of soil

2. Stability of slopes

3. Earth pressure against retaining structure

42

Earth pressure theories


A soil mass is stable when the slope of the surface of the soil mass is flatter than safe slope. Hence in case of places where the space is limited, a retaining structure is required to provide the lateral support to the soil mass.

43

In order to design the retaining structure determination of following are needed. 1. The magnitude depends on - mode of movement of the wall - flexibility of the wall - properties of the soil - drainage conditions 2. The line of action of the earth pressure
Hence, this is a soil structure interaction problem & anyhow since it is Complicated to analyse it is assumed that retaining wall is rigid & soil structure Interaction is neglected.
44

Theories adopted

Coulomb theory (1773)


Rankine theory (1857) Terzaghi theory (1941) more improved from other two with general conditions, but more complicated
45

Different types of lateral earth pressures


Could be grouped in to 3 depending on the movement of the retaining wall with respect to the soil backfill. 1.At rest pressure known as elastic

equilibrium state equilibrium

2.Active

pressure it is a state of plastic pressure when the soil tends to

3.Passive

compress horizontally

46

Basement slab

At rest pressure

No movement

Active pressure

Passive pressure Movement towards left

Earth pressure

B
A
At rest Active Passive

Movement

Movement away from fill

No movement

Movement towards fill

48

Loads on the Abutment


Bearing Pressure is calculated due to the service Overall stability against overturning and sliding should be checked at the base loads.
P
Vehicle Surcharge

Dead + Live

Traction / Breaking

Ka = (1-sin) / (1+sin) as per Rankines theory


PRESSURE DUE TO SURCHARGE ka. P
EARTH PRESURE ka.r.H

V H

M e

H
49

Loads on the Pier


Dead + Live Dead + Live
Bridge Deck Traction / Braking

H.F.L.

ELEVATION OF THE PIER

Traction / Braking

Water current + Log Impact FLOW

PLAN VIEW OF THE PIER


50

Design of Gravity Type Pier


Loads for Pier Design Restoring Loads All Vertical Loads


Dead Load from the Superstructure Dead Load of the Capping Beam Dead Load of the Pier HA & HB Loads from the Superstructure Pedestrian Live Loads Superimposed Live Loads

Restoring Loads All Vertical Loads


Associated Secondary Live Loads Tractive Force (80% of Total Tractive Force) Water Current Load Load due to Debris Load Due to Log Impact

51

Cont.. Gravity Type Pier

Water Current Load


Max. Pressure
W K
= =

v2 P KW 2g

Lo ad

30

Cut Water

Unit Weight of Water Factor depend on Cut Water

Debris Load(Use above eq. with K = 1) Log Impact Load


Impact Load
W
=

Maximum Pressure at water surface and zero pressure at the Bed

Consider force exerted by a minimum depth of 1.2 m debris


P 0.1Wv
Weight of drifting Item (2T)
52

Cont.. Gravity Type Pier

Consider Both the cases High Buoyancy and Low Buoyancy

Calculate FOS for Stability and Stresses at all critical sections of the pier for all critical Load cases
Calculations are same done in Abutment Design
53

Different Regions in the Hammerhead Pier


Cantilever Region Statically Determinate Support Region Statically Indeterminate

54

Design of Wing Walls

Wing wall design is almost same as Abutment Load for Wing wall Design
Restoring Loads All Vertical Loads
Dead Loads of the Wing wall Superimposed Dead Loads Weight of the Soil Backfill Surcharge Load

Overturning Loads All Horizontal Loads


Soil Lateral Pressure Surcharge Lateral Pressure
55

Types of Bridge Foundation

Mainly two categories are available


Shallow foundation Deep foundation

Shallow foundation Open excavation possible


Design as a direct load bearing structure. Excavation depth will have practical limitations depending on the type of soil and depth of subsoil water level.

56

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS


(A)

Allowable bearing Pressure has to be evaluated & settlement can be estimated using soil properties (C ,, values) In order to do the structural design of the foundation B.M. & S.F. need to be estimated. Two methods are used; Rigid Method of Analysis Flexible method of Analysis Soil is assumed to be of infinite no of springs Elastic const. of spring (coeff. Of sub grade rea) Settlement of the soil &

(B)

Assume the fdn to be rigid Find Soil pressure dis & it is a straight line Calculate B.M. & S.F. Soil structure interaction is not its influence Accounted.

Foundation is accounted.

57

Deep foundation Either pile or well Foundation (caissons)


Piles can be either timber, steel or concrete. Based on construction method piles can be categorized as precast driven piles and bored piles.

Based on how the load is transferred, pile foundations are divided as; i. Bearing pile ii. Friction pile iii. Friction cum bearing pile End bearing piles are generally taken up to hard strata such as bed rock. Friction piles are suitable for cohesive soil not subjected to heavy scour. Friction cum bearing piles are used in mixed type of soils.
58

Well Foundation
TYPICAL SECTION OF WELL FOUNDATION
PIER CAP PIER

CYLINDER CAPPING BEAM TOP PLUG SAND FILL BOTTOM PLUG WELL STEINING WELL CURB CUTTING EDGE ROCK

Available in rectangular or circular sections. Rectangular sections are suitable for shallow depths and circular sections are suitable for larger depths. Can resist heavy vehicle loads and lateral loads. Only disadvantage is very time consuming process. Sufficient grip length is required after allowing for scour.

In the design, Three aspects to cover Depth of well Size(diameter) of the well Thickness of the well steining
59

Depth of scour There should be adequate grip length (to resist horizontal forces)

Size of the well is mainly governed by the allowable bearing pressure of the soil. Size of the steining depends on (i) Adequate working space (Minm 1.8 m is preferred) (ii) Steining will get subject to various stresses during sinking. (iii) Thickness of well steining should be such that it should be able to overcome the skin friction during sinking.

Depth of well is governed by


60

SOIL TYPE

BEARING CAPACITY (KN/M2)


150 200 800 50

SILT (Sandy/elayer) Clay (Soft) Clay (Stiff) Sand (Compact Coarse) (loose gravel) Gravel Sand mixture Saft Rock (Broken bedrock) Sedimentary Rock (Sandstone, limestone Siltstone) Medium AVERAGE BEARING TYPICALhard rock Hard Rock VARIOUS SOIL TYPES (Dolomite, gneiss, granite)

400
1000

2500
4000 CAPACITIES OF 8000

61

Superstructure -Design Aspects


The structure of the bridge which directly takes the load and transmits to the abutments and piers through bearings

The superstructure design depend on the different types of bridges that is based on type of construction, floor arrangement (in case of steel bridges) and structural behavior
The design of a superstructure of a bridge is similar to that of any structure except that a bridge has to carry a moving load in combination with other loads like wind, temperature, seismic, longitudinal and lateral forces

62

Types of Steel Trusses Based on Travel Surface Configuration


(a) DECK TRUSS

(b) PONY TRUSS

(c) THROUGH TRUSS

63

64

100 m long Langer Truss (Modified Warren Truss) at Muwagama over Kalu Ganga

65

9800 Overall width 1200 Foot walk. Type pre cast uprights and hand rails as per Drg:No:T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x75 thick R.C.cover slabs with R/F T10 @ 100 crs. both ways. Pre cast kerb. Drg:No:T/B/106 -Rev. 1. Rain water catch pit. - Refer detail. 450 50mm 75 Chamfer 350 400 150x50 insitu lower kerb. Conc:Grade 20(14). Minimum 50 mm. 50 Thick wearing surface.
Slope 1 in 60
2 2 2 4 5

7400 Carriage way.

1200 Foot walk.

DETAILS REPEATS ABOUT CENTRE LINE.

c L
Minimum 110

Wearing surface not shown for clarity. Infiller concrete in Grade : 40 (20) 32 R 6 . 2 . 300. 24 T 10 . 3 . 300.

Foot walk in Grade : 25 (20) Lower kerb. Concrete: Grade 20(14)


6

24T10.4.300. 3 T10.6.200.
6 5 6

24 T 10 . 5 . 300. T10 Shear connectors at 600 crs. To be filled with cement mortar after fixing bolts.

10mm Fall
Service duct

570

100

Drip

110mm dia. PVC pipe rainwater outlets at 2300 crs.

50 mm dia. PVC drain pipe at 2300 crs. 610 100 50 610 110

15 nos. 7010 mm. (23'-0") long PSC beams Drg: No: T / B / 030. 6841

6 mm. dia. wire links to be provided to tie rods and top reinforcement along the groove. 20 dia. stainless steel dowels at fixed ends only.

15 R 20 . 1 . 460. Tie bars.

610 110 50

610 100

GENERAL DETAILS

CROSS SECTION OF DECK.


1 : 30.

R. C. DETAILS

7 m long PSC Beam Deck

66

9800 Overall width. 1200 Foot walk. Type pre cast uprights and hand rails as per Drg:No:T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x100 thick pre cast R.C. slabs. 425 75 50
Service duct.

7400 Carriageway.

1200 Foot walk. Foot walk in Grade : 25 (20) R.C. Ties at foot walk -Refer detail. 64 T10 . 3 . 150. 32 T10 . 2 33 T10 . 6 . 300. Lower kerb. Concrete: Grade 20(14) 33 T10 . 5 .300.

c L

10

350 500

425 10

18 Nos.9 500 mm long Pre cast kerb. Drg:No:T/B/106 -Rev. 1. (finished length) PSC. beams as per Drg:No: T/B/507 Rain water catch pit. -Refer detail. 150x50 insitu lower kerb. Conc:Grade 20(14). Minimum 75 mm. 50 Thick wearing surface. Slope 1:60. Minimum 135mm screed concrete

DETAILS REPEATS ABOUT CENTRE LINE.

Wearing surface not shown for clarity. Infiller concrete in Grade : 40 (20)

230

745

340

Service duct.

9.5m. long.
200

5mm.fall.

300

380

100

50 50 100 80 75 500 25

Pockets for fixing uprights.

100 110

110 dia. PVC. pipe rain water outlets at 3250 crs..

50 dia. PVC. drain pipes at 3250 crs.. 205 500 7170

20 dia. stainless steel dowels at fixed ends only.

22 R 20 .1. 450. Tie bars.

64 T 10 . 4 .150. 110 500

15 T12 . 7 64 T 10 . 8 . 150 205 500

Drg: No: T/B/507. CAST LENGTH = 9.42m. FINISHED LENGTH = 9.5m.

500

GENERAL DETAILS.

CROSS SECTION OF 9 500 LONG DECK


1 : 30.

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS.

9.5 m long PSC Beam Deck

67

9800 Overall width. 1200 Foot walk. Type pre cast uprights and hand rails as per Drg:No:T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x100 thick pre cast R.C. slabs. 425 75 50 10 350 500 425 10 Pre cast kerb. Drg:No:T/B/106 -Rev. 1. Rain water catch pit. -Refer detail. 150x50 insitu lower kerb. Conc:Grade 20(14). Minimum 75 mm. 50 Thick wearing surface. Slope 1:60. Minimum 135mm screed concrete 7400 Carriageway. 1200 Foot walk. Foot walk in Grade : 25 (20) DETAILS REPEATS ABOUT CENTRE LINE. Wearing surface not shown for clarity. Infiller concrete in
Grade : 40 (20)

c L

R.C. Ties at footwalk-Refer detail. 77 T10 . 3 . 150. 32 T10 . 2 38 T10 . 6 . 300. Lower kerb. Concrete: Grade 20(14) 38 T10 . 5 .300.

10 mm. fall Service duct.

230

11.5m. long.
Service duct.

815

340

200

5mm.fall.

Pockets for fixing uprights.

300

100 110 dia. PVC. pipe rain water outlets at 3250 crs.. 50 dia. PVC. drain pipes at 3250 crs..

450

100

120 50 100 80 75 500 25

26 R 20 .1. 450. Tie bars. 20 dia. stainless steel dowels at fixed ends only. 7170

77 T 10 . 4 .150. 77 T 10 . 8 . 150 110 705

15 T12 . 7 500

Drg: No: T/B/506. CAST LENGTH = 11.42m.. FINISHED LENGTH = 11.5m.

500

205

500

110

GENERAL DETAILS.

CROSS SECTION OF 11 500 LONG DECK


1 : 30.

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS.

11.5 m long PSC Beam Deck

68

9800 Overall width. 1200 Foot walk. Type pre cast uprights and hand rails as per Drg:No:T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x100 thick pre cast R.C. slabs. 425 75 50 10 350 500
10 mm. fall

7400 Carriageway.

1200 Foot walk. DETAILS REPEATS ABOUT CENTRE LINE. Wearing surface not shown for clarity. 90 T10 . 3 . 150. Infiller concrete in Grade : 40 (19) 32 T10 . 2 Foot walk in Grade : 25 (19) R.C. Ties at footwalk 46 T10 . 6 . 300. Lower kerb. Concrete: Grade 20(14) 46 T10 . 5 .300.

13.5m. long.
200 195 50 100 80 75 500 25

425 10

18 Nos.13500 mm long (finished length) PSC. beams Pre cast kerb. Drg:No:T/B/106 -Rev. 1. as per Drg:No: T/B/505 Rain water catch pit. -Refer detail. 150x50 insitu lower kerb. Conc:Grade 20(14). Minimum 75 mm. 50 Thick wearing surface. Slope !:60. Minimum 135mm screed concrete

c L

Service duct.

230

890

5 mm. fall.

325

450

Service duct.

Pockets for fixing uprights.

100 50 dia. PVC. drain pipes at 3250 crs.. 205 500 110

275

Displacers to be curtailed at 300 either side of pipe

110 dia. PVC. pipe rain water outlets at 3250 crs..

150 dia. displacers of polythene -tubes filled with light materials such as saw dust paddy husk etc. 7170

20 dia. stainless steel dowels at fixed ends only.

30 R 20 .1. 450. Tie bars. 90 T 10 . 4 .150. 110 500

15 T12 . 7 90 T 10 . 8 . 150 205 500

500

GENERAL DETAILS.

CROSS SECTION OF 13500 LONG DECK

1:30.

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS.

13.5 m long PSC Beam Deck

525

100

Drg: No: T/B/505.


CAST LENGTH=13.42m. FINISHED LENGTH=13.5m.

69

1 200 Foot walk. Type pre cast uprights and hand rails as per Drg:No:T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x100 thick pre cast R.C. slabs.

9 800 7 400

Overall width. Carriage way.

14.5m long.
1200 300 450 450 100 200 120 50 225 100 80 500 25
Drg: No: T/B/503/A.
CAST LENGTH = 14.42m. FINISHED LENGTH = 14.5m.

c L
Wearing surface not shown. Infiller concrete in Grade : 40 (19) 97 T 10 . 3 . 150. 44 T 10 . 2. 55 R.C. Ties at footwalk 49 T 10 . 6 . 300.

450 75 10

450 600 100 10mm. fall.


service Duct.
5mm. fall.

300 10

17 nos. 14 500 long PSC. Pre cast kerb. Drg:No:T/B/106 -Rev. 1. beams Drg:No: T/B/503/A. Rain water catch pit. -Refer detail. 150x50 insitu lower kerb. Conc:Grade 20(14). Minimum 75 mm. 50 Thick wearing surface.
Slope 1 : 60.

Foot walk in concrete Grade: 25 (20) 49 T 10 . 7 . 300. 49 T 10 . 5 . 300.

Minimum 135mm screed concrete

55 Lower kerb. Concrete: Grade 20(14)

535

965

Service Duct.

Pockets for fixing uprights. 500

50 dia. PVC. drain pipes at 4000 crs.. 400 500 160

Displacers to be curtailed at 300 either side of pipe

300

110 dia. PVC. pipe rain water outlets at 4000 crs..

225 dia. displacers of polythene -tubes filled with light materials such as saw dust paddy husk etc. 6680

20 dia. stainless steel dowels at fixed end only.

32 R 20 . 1 . 450.

STAGE: 1. EDGE BEAM INFILLER CONCRETING HAS TO BE DONE IN THREE 49 T 10 . 4 . 300. STAGES. REFER NOTES. 20 T12 . 8. 500

325

100

160 1:30.

500

400

GENERAL DETAILS.
NOTES:
CONCRETING SEQUENCE OF EDGE BEAM.

CROSS SECTION OF 14500 LONG DECK.


STAGE -1: AFTER LAUNCHING THE BEAM IN POSITION: GRADE 40 (20) CONCRETE UP TO THE BOTTOM OFSERVICE DUCT.

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS.
STAGE- 3: SEVEN DAYS AFTER STAGE TWO: BALANCE(FOOT WALK) TO BE DONE WITH GRADE 25 (20) CONCRETE.

STAGE -2: SEVEN DAYS AFTER STAGE ONE : 500mm THICK GRADE 40 (20) CONCRETE UP TO TOP OF SCREED LEVEL.

14.5 m long PSC Beam Deck

600

STAGE: 3. STAGE: 2.

70

1 200 Foot walk. Type pre cast uprights and hand rails as per Drg:No:T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x100 thick pre cast R.C. slabs. Pre cast kerb. Drg:No:T/B/106 -Rev. 1. Rain water catch pit. -Refer detail. 150x50 insitu lower kerb. Conc:Grade 20(14). Minimum 75 mm. 50 Thick wearing surface.

9 800 7 400

Overall width. Carriage way.

15.5m. long.
1200 300 450 450 100 200 170 50

650

Foot walk in Grade : 25 (19) Wearing surface not shown. 104 T 10 . 3 . 150. Minimum 135mm screed concrete Infiller concrete in Grade : 40 (19) 55 55 44 T 10 . 2. 53 T 10 . 5 . 300. 53 T 10 . 6 . 300. Lower kerb. Concrete: Grade 20(14) 53 T10 . 7 .300.

225
100 80 500 25

c L

75 50

450 10

450 600
10mm. fall.

300 10

Drg: No: T/B/502/A. CAST LENGTH = 15.42m.. FINISHED LENGTH = 15.5m.

1015

585

service Duct.

Slope 1 : 60.

STAGE: 3. STAGE: 2.
Service Duct.

STAGE: 1. EDGE BEAM INFILLER CONCRETING HAS TO BE DONE IN THREE STAGES. REFER NOTES.

5mm. fall.

325
100 50 dia. PVC. drain pipes at 4000 crs. 160 400 500

Pockets for fixing uprights. 500

Displacers to be curtailed at 300 either side of pipe

300

110 dia. PVC. pipe rain water outlets at 4000 crs..

225 dia. displacers of polythene -tubes filled with light materials such as saw dust paddy husk etc. 6680

17 nos. 15 500 long PSC. beams Drg:No: T/B/502/A.

34 R 20 . 1 . 450. 160 500

53 T 10 . 4 . 300. 20 T12 . 8. 400 500

GENERAL DETAILS.

CROSS SECTION OF 15500 LONG DECK.

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS.

15.5 m long PSC Beam Deck

71

1 : 30. 1 200 Foot walk. Type pre cast uprights and hand rails as per Drg:No:T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x100 thick pre cast R.C. slabs. Pre cast kerb. Drg:No:T/B/106 -Rev. 1. Rain water catch pit. -Refer detail. 150x50 insitu lower kerb. Conc:Grade 20(14). Minimum 75 mm. 50 Thick wearing surface.
Slope 1 : 60.

700

17 nos. 14 500 long PSC. beams Drg:No: T/B/503/A. Wearing surface not shown. Minimum 135mm screed concrete Infiller concrete in Grade : 40 (19)

Foot walk in Grade : 25 (19) 111 T 10 . 3 . 150. 44 T 10 . 2. 55 55 56 T 10 . 5 . 300. 56 T 10 . 7 . 300. 56 T 10 . 6 . 300. Lower kerb. Concrete: Grade 20(14)

225
100 80 500 25

c L

300

450

450 100

220
Drg: No: T/B/501/A.

9 800 7 400

Overall width. Carriage way.

16.5m. long.
1200 200 50

450 75 50

10

450 600
10mm. fall.

300 10

CAST LENGTH = 16.42m. FINISHED LENGTH = 16.5m.

service Duct.

STAGE: 3. STAGE: 2.
Service Duct.

1065

635

STAGE: 1.

5mm. fall.

Pockets for fixing uprights. 500

100 50 dia. PVC. drain pipes at 4000 crs.. 400 500 160

Displacers to be curtailed at 300 either side of pipe

300

110 dia. PVC. pipe rain water outlets at 4000 crs..

225 dia. displacers of polythene -tubes filled with light materials such as saw dust paddy husk etc. 6680 1 : 30.

36 R 20 . 1 . 450. 20 T12 . 8. 20 dia. stainless steel 160 dowels at fixed end only. 500 400 500

EDGE BEAM INFILLER CONCRETING HAS TO BE DONE IN THREE STAGES. 56 T 10 . 4 . 300. REFER NOTES.

325

GENERAL DETAILS.
NOTES: CONCRETING
SEQUENCE OF EDGE BEAM.

CROSS SECTION OF 16500 LONG DECK.


STAGE -1: AFTER LAUNCHING THE BEAM IN POSITION: GRADE 40 (20) CONCRETE UP TO THE BOTTOM OFSERVICE DUCT.

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS.
STAGE- 3: SEVEN DAYS AFTER STAGE TWO: BALANCE(FOOT WALK) TO BE DONE WITH GRADE 25 (20) CONCRETE.

STAGE -2: SEVEN DAYS AFTER STAGE ONE : 500mm THICK GRADE 40 (20) CONCRETE UP TO TOP OF SCREED LEVEL.

16.5 m long PSC Beam Deck

72

Type pre cast uprights and hand rails as per Drg:No:T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x100 thick pre cast R.C. slabs.
75 450

1 200 Foot walk.

9 800 7 400

Overall width. Carriage way.

c L

1200

Pre cast kerb. Drg:No: T/B/106-Rev. 1.


450 10 600 100 300 10

Wearing surface not shown. Infiller concrete in Grade: 40 (20)


55 55

56 T 10 . 7 . 300. R.C. Ties at footwalkRefer detail. 56 T 10 . 5 . 300. 56 T 10 . 6 . 300.

Rain water catch pit. - Refer detail. 150x50 Insitu lower kerb. 50 mm thick wearing surface. Conc.Grade: 20(14) Minimum 135 mm screed concrete. Minimum 75 mm.

111 T 10 . 3 . 150. 44 T 10 . 2.

Foot walk in concrete Grade: 25 (19)

50mm Chamfer. Pockets for fixing uprights.

635

75

1065

Service Duct.
300

200

450

825

100

345
50 6680 160 500 400 500 25 500
SECTION OF BEAM
SCALE:-1:5

50 dia. P.V.C. drain pipes at 4000 crs.


500 400

100 160

500

GENERAL DETAILS.

CROSS SECTION OF 19 000 LONG DECK.

1 :30.

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS.

19 m long PSC Beam Deck

73

25

110 dia. PVC. pipe rain water outlets at 4000 crs.

Displacers to be curtailed at 300 either side of pipe.

225 dia. displacers of polythene -tubes filled with light materials such as saw dust paddy husk etc.

17 nos. 19 000 long PSC. beams Drg:No: T/B/508.

20 dia. stainless steel dowels at fixed end only.

36 R 20 . 1 . 450.

56 T 10 . 4 . 300. 20 T12 . 8.

225
100 80 25

Type pre cast uprights & hand-rails. Drg: No: T/B/102 A&B. 500x450x75 thick pre cast RC. cover slab. 30mm Chamfer.
75

9800 Overall width of Deck. 1200 Foot walk. 7400 Carriage way 1200 Foot walk.

Pre cast kerb. Drg:No: T/B/106-Rev. 1.


350 500 350

DETAILS REPEATS ABOUT CENTRE LINE. Wearing surface not shown for clarity. Concrete: Grade 40(20)
Clear cover 35 mm.

Rain water catch pit. - Refer detail. 150x50 Insitu lower kerb. Conc. Grade: 20(14)
200

Lower kerb in. Conc. Grade: 20(14)

505 T 16 . 1 . 100. (252 bottom, 253 top.) 81 T 12 . 2 . 250. 40 bottom, 41 top.)

50 Thick wearing surface.


210
170

Foot walk in Conc:Grade 40(20) 4 T 12 . 4 85 T 10 . 3 . 300. 85T10.5.300.


50 50 60

Clear cover 50 mm

400 300
c L

50

510

50 dia. P.V.C. drain pipes at 3500 crs. 110 dia. PVC. pipe rainwater outlets at 3500 crs. 9 nos. 25000 long PSC.beams Drg:No: Top of Capping beam. Bearing plinth & pad to detail.
970 160 970

1120 440

570

280

50

1 3030 80

20 thick permanent form work.

RC. deckslab.

10 315

80 120160120

30

910 970

30

CROSS SECTION OF BEAM.

970 30 30

970 30

970 9230 30

970 30

970 30

970

160

970

GENERAL DETAILS.

CROSS SECTION OF 25000 LONG DECK

1 : 30

R C. DETAILS.

25 m long PSC Beam Deck

74

250

250

100

1040

550

1040

550

1040

550

1040

550

1040

550

1040 16940

550

1040

550

1040

550

1040

550

1040

550

1040

CROSS SECTION OF DECK SHOWING GENERAL DETAILS.

30 m Box Beam Deck

75

CARRIAGEWAY
620 520

78T12-13-150 190R6-12-300 (T & B) 13 13 95R12-1-300 T12-5 95R6-2-300 50 MM THICK WEARING SURFACE

50 x 150 LOWER KERB CONCRETE GRADE 20 (14)

150

225
725 65

455
55

95R10-14-300

8T12-10 END BEAM

8T12-11 INTERMEDIATE BEAM


2000 1390

2000

CROSS SECTION THROUGH DECK


SCALE 1 : 20

76

UP STREAM
1200

10400

DOWN STREAM
8000 1200

c L
450 460 290 50 Thick wearing surface 290 460 450

505

210

230

280
200 30 50

50

30

155 230 155 2500 2500 230

2500

CROSS SECTION OF DECK - GENERAL DETAILS

c L

R. C. DETAILS OF DECK

575

77

DOWN STREAM UP STREAM

c L

CROSS SECTION OF DECK

78

79

FAILURE OF PARAGASTHOTA STEEL BRIDGE

BACKGROUND
Initial Construction:
Has been carried out in 1965-1966 by PWD, using removed timber deck (Brotherhood truss) from Kalaoya Bridge Site at Anuradhapura Padeniya rd.(A028) supported at the other end.

Type : Simply Supported at one end and roller


Length : 164 ft. , Width : 18 ft. Height : 10 ft. 8 in.

Timber decked, old steel truss (Brotherhood truss) Supported on Abutment Founded on Bored piles Max. allowable load : 10 Ton Single load at the middle at a time

Bridge deck was repaired and opened back to the public in year1990

Bridge was Collapsed

1999 10th July afternoon

THE INCIDENT :

This was revealed by the experimental result been observed for the member no. 17 at the mid of the span

Present Condition
Construction of a new bridge of 3 spans, simply supported P S C Beam deck

Length of a Span: 16.5 m


Overall width :7.3m Foundation :Pile Foundation

Present Condition

Thank You