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ME3251 Chapter One: Example Applications of Engineering Materials o Structural vs Functional o Product requirements vs Cost Design Considerations and

Materials Properties o Design for Dimensional stability/accuracy o Design against fracture/failure (often localized phenomena) Stresses and Strains o Normal stress o Nominal (Engineering) stress o True stress o o o o o o o o Shear stress Nominal shear stress True shear stress Normal strain Nominal strain True strain Engineering shear strain Strain energy

Deformation of materials under Tension o Elastic Deformation o Plastic Deformation o Necking and Fracture o Elastic Behaviors Youngs Modulus and Yield Strength o Physical Basis of Youngs Modulus Stretching and bending of bonds Bond types vs approximate E Covalent cross-link density vs E Ceramics, Metals, Polymers, Composites vs E Ceramics, Metals, Polymers, Composites vs Yield Strength

Structure of Materials o Polycrystalline Metals and Ceramics o Crystal Structures and Crystallography

Amorphous Solids Glass (3D network with no crystal structure) Amorphous polymers (tangled mass of chain-like molecules)

Modulus of Polymers o Modulus of tensile strength vs Temperature (Glass transition temperature) o Modulus of elasticity vs Temperature Composites o E vs volume fractions of stiffener Design against Yielding (or Plastic Deformation) o Physical Basis of Yield Stress Stress to move dislocations Strengthening mechanisms: ways to increase the yield strength of materials Dislocations in crystals Movement of dislocation and slip of crystal Deformation of single crystals Yield or ultimate tensile strength vs different kinds of steels o o o o o o Principal strengthening mechanisms in some common structural materials Measurement of Youngs modulus The hardness test Density vs Ceramics, Metals, Polymers and Composites Material Cost Elastic Moduli Case Studies

Chapter Two: Static Fracture Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Fatigue Failure Stress Corrosion Cracking Effect of Elevated Temperature on Polymers Creep and Creep Rupture Joints Surface Engineering and Coating

Chapter Three: Engineering Alloys Ferrous Alloys: Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Tool Steels Stainless Steels Cast Iron Steels o Common Terminology of Steels Rimmed Steels Killed Steels Clean Steels Free-machining Steels General Properties of Steels Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Mill Products of Carbon Steels Cold-finished (Cold-worked) largely for low-carbon steel Hot-finished Equilibrium Microstructure of Plain Carbon Steels Austenite (Soft and Ductile; can be hot-worked readily) Ferrite (Soft and Ductile; can be cold-worked readily) Cementite or Iron Carbide (Hard and Brittle with Ductility ~ Nil) Pearlite (Ferrite and Cementite in lamellar structure; spacing depends on cooling rate; strength decreases with increased spacing) Resultant microstructures from Austenitising Eutectoid steel (Pearlite) Hypo-eutectoid steel (Primary or proeutectoid Ferrite + Pearlite) Hyper-eutectoid steel (Primary or proeutectoid Cementite + Pearlite) Non-equilibrium phases from heat treatment Bainite Martensite Tempered Martensite

o o

TTT Diagram (Time-Temperature-Transformation) Eutectoid Steels (0.8%C) Hypo-eutectoid Steels Hyper-eutectoid Steels Effects of C Content on TTT diagrams

CCT Diagram (Continuous Cooling Transformation) Constructed under constant cooling rates Heat Treatments of Steels Annealing Processes for Ferrous Alloys o Full Annealing (usually for hypo-eutectoid steel) o Normalising o Recrystallisation Anneal o Stress Relieving Anneal o Spheroidising Hardening by Quenching and Tempering of Eutectoid Steel Hardenability (how easy can you form martensite) Hardenability Curves o Carbon Steels o Different Steels o For Practical Purposes Effect of carbon content on quenching and tempering of plain carbon steels o Martensite start and martensite Finish o Hardness of martensite o Time for pearlite transformation o Hardness of tempered martensite Major Problems with quench hardening of plain-carbon steels Solutions o Martempering o Austempering

Summary on Plain Carbon Steels Effect of Alloying Elements Modify tempering characteristics Grades Carburising Grades (Low-alloy steel) H Steels

B Steels High-Strength Sheet Steels High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Mill-Heat Treated Steels Ultrahigh-Strength Steels Austenitic Manganese Steels (Hadfield Steels) Summary on Carbon and Low-alloy Steels Tips on Application of Carbon and Low-alloy Steels Review of Heat Treating Thermal Cycles for Carbon and Low-alloy Steels Some Practical Aspects of Quenching Prediction of Hardness Profile Case Hardening

High Alloy Steels Tool Steels Effects of alloying elements Main characteristics of Tool Steels o High austenitising temperature o Secondary Hardening o Temper Embrittlement Different Categories of Tool Steels o Cold-worked Tool Steels W-grade (Water hardening) O-grade (Oil hardening) A-grade (medium-alloy, Air hardening) D-grade (high C and high Cr, air-to-oil hardening) S-grade (Shock resisting tool steel) Hadfields Manganese Steels (12% Mn, 1% C) Special Purpose Tool Steels o Hot-work Tool Steels H-grades (Hot-work die and mould steels) Cr-type Mo- and W- types High Speed Steel (T- or M-grade) Mold Steel (P grade) Considerations in Selection of Tool Steels o Hardening Characteristics Safety in hardening Depth of hardening required Distortion in hardening Resistance to decarburization o Use Characteristics

Resistance to heat softening Wear resistance Depth of hardening required Distortion in hardening o Other considerations Toughness Machinability Weldability Cost factor Comparisons of tool steel properties Useful tips Selection and designing with tool steels o Working hardness o Avoidance of crack-sensitive shapes o Stock size (scale removal and finish grinding allowance) o Heat treating (stress relieving) o Avoidance of man-made defects/mistakes Grinding burns Electrical discharge machining damage Hydrogen embrittlement Standard specifications for a tool steel part in an engineering drawing o Rough machine o Stress relieve o Finish machine leaving grinding allowance o Harden and temper to XXXHRC o Finish grind to tolerances

Stainless Steels Passivation and Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels Effects of Alloying Elements Types of Stainless Steels and their properties o Ferritic S.S (16-20%Cr, <0.2%C) o Martensitic S.S (12-18%Cr, up to 1.2%C) o Austenitic S.S (16-25 Cr, >= 8 Ni + Mn) o P.H alloys Martensitic P.H Semi-austenitic P.H Austenitic P.H o Duplex alloy o Proprietary alloys Designation of Stainless Steels Why at times stainless steels corrode?

o Sensitisation/weld decay of Stainless Steels o Pitting of Stainless Steels o Stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel Different grades of Stainless Steels o Grades of Austenitic S.S o Grades of Martensitic S.S o Properties and cost comparison Applications of Stainless Steels

Cast Iron (iron with >2.1%C + other alloying elements) Types of cast iron o Gray Iron o White Iron (Chilled Iron) o Malleable Iron o Ductile (noduluar) Iron o Alloy iron (mainly gray or white irons altered by alloy additions to make them harder or more corrosion resistant) White Cast Iron (2-4%C, 0.5-2%Si, 0.5%Mn) o 3 reactions upon cooling from the liquid phase Grey Cast Iron (2-4%C,1.0-3.0%Si) o 3 reactions upon cooling from the liquid phase o Subsequent heat treatment of gray cast iron Normalizing Annealing Stress-relieving Quench-hardening o Alloy Classification o General Properties of Gray Iron o Applications of Gray Cast Iron Malleable Iron (2-3%C, 1-1.8%Si) o Properties of Malleable Iron o Alloy Designation (5 digits) Ductile (nodular) Iron (2.2Si + small amounts of MG/Ce) o 3 reactions o Subsequent heat treatment similar to grey cast iron o Alloy Designation o Properties of ductile iron Cast Iron with other matrix structures o Bainitic Gray Iron o (Bainitic) Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) o Austenitic Gray Iron (Fe-3C-2Si-20Ni-2Cr) o Austenitic Ductile Iron (Fe-3C-2Si-20Ni+Mg/Ce)