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Week Two Discussion Questions What are emotions? Do you believe that human emotions are universal?

? Why or why not? Emotions, often called feelings, include experiences such as love, hate, anger, trust, joy, panic, fear, and grief. Emotions are related to, but different from, mood. Emotions are specific reactions to a particular event that are usually of fairly short duration. Mood is a more general feeling such as happiness, sadness, frustration, contentment, or anxiety that lasts for a longer time. Although everyone experiences emotions, scientists do not all agree on what emotions are or how they should be measured or studied. Emotions are complex and have both physical and mental components. Generally researchers agree that emotions have the following parts: subjective feelings, physiological (body) responses, and expressive behavior. Generally, I think human emotions are universal. Facial expressions and physical gestures are can typically determine the emotion a person is feeling. Laughter or smiling would determine that the person is happy or jovial. If a person is angry or frowning, it would possibly indicate that person is feeling upset. How a person reacts to certain situations may determine the emotions. However, everyone deals with things differently. For example, when I am extremely nervous or fearful, I start laughing. The sign of me laughing does not mean I am happy in that situation, however, if a person knows me and knows how I deal with stressful situations that causes me to nervous he or she will understand the laughter, but a person that does not know will be sort of confused. What is stress? Why do some ethnic groups have higher stress levels than others? How do individuals manage stress? Stress is your body's way of responding to any kind of demand. It can be caused by both good and bad experiences. When people feel stressed by something going on around them, their bodies react by releasing chemicals into the blood. These chemicals give people more energy and strength, which can be a good thing if their stress is caused by physical danger. But this can also be a bad thing, if their stress is in response to something emotional and there is no outlet for this extra energy and strength. There is a couple of ways to handle stress; self-help exercises, stress management or medications. Self-help exercises would be breathing, counting to certain number, listening to music, removing yourself from the stressful situation, talking about the problem, changing eating habits, or using relaxation techniques. Stress management can help you to either remove or change the source of stress, alter the way you view a stressful event, lower the impact that stress might have on your body, and teach you alternative ways of coping. Stress management techniques can be gained if you read self-help books, or attend a stress management course. You can also seek the help of a counselor or psychotherapist for personal development or therapy sessions . Doctors will not usually prescribe medications for coping with stress, unless the patient has an underlying illness, such as depression or some type of anxiety. If that is the case, the doctor is actually treating a mental illness. In such cases, an antidepressant may be prescribed. Week Three Discussion Questions How do you define normal and abnormal behavior? What factors influence your definition? Why? There is a fine line between normal and abnormal behavior. I say this because how a society views normal or abnormal behavior would be result of social or cultural norms. Abnormal behavior would a behaviors deviate from social norms. Normal behavior would be demonstrated behaviors that are socially acceptable. How we perceive normal or abnormal behaviors would derive from our environment. It is possible ones perception of the way another person acts is distorted due to different cultural backgrounds. A great example I read in an article in was that of the Sannyasin of India who leads a life seeking enlightenment (Moksha). The Sannyasin would renounce himself from all sin by stripping off his clothes and world possessions, and walks naked to the next down. Community members in the next town would embrace him and care for him. This would be a

socially acceptable behavior, because everyone in this area treats this behavior as a common practice of releasing sin. If you put the same person in a metropolitan city in the United States, people would have called police and have this man institutionalized. In a major city in the U.S., this is not a common practice and would be considered abnormal behavior. The factors that influence my definition would be cultural differences, perceptions of people by their age, environment, gender and ethnicity. What are culture-bound syndromes? What are some examples of culture-bound syndromes? Are culture-bound syndromes reflective of universal trends? Why or why not? According to, culture bound syndrome (CBS), A generic term for any of a number of recurrent, locality-specific patterns of aberrant behavior and troubling experience, many of which cannot be linked to a particular DSM-IV diagnostic entity; they are generally limited to specific societies or culture areas and are localized, folk, diagnostic categories that frame coherent meanings for certain repetitive, patterned, and troubling sets of experiences and observations. Culture bound syndromes may represent acting-out behaviors unique to certain, often primitive, societies and are commonly accompanied by strong superstitions, and considered to be a universal trend for several cultures. Examples of CBS would be anorexia nervosa (North America, Western Europe): severe restriction of food intake, associated with morbid fear of obesity. Other methods may also be used to lose weight, including excessive exercise; ghost sickness: (American Indian groups) preoccupation with death and the deceased sometimes associated with witchcraft. Symptoms may include bad dreams, weakness, and feelings of danger, loss of appetite, fainting, dizziness, fear, anxiety, hallucinations, loss of consciousness, confusion, feelings of futility, and a sense of suffocation; and shin-byung: (Korea) syndrome characterized by anxiety and somatic complaints (general weakness, dizziness, fear, loss of appetite, insomnia, and gastrointestinal problems), followed by dissociation and possession by ancestral spirits. Reference: Glossary of Culture-Bound Syndromes(2011). Retrieved from

Team DQ: Looking back at your last assignment, what things do you consider went well, what things did not go well, and what will you do differently next time?

Week Four Discussion Questions What is fundamental attribution error? Why do you think individuals make attribution errors? The fundamental attribution error is a common type of cognitive bias in social psychology. Essentially, the fundamental attribution error involves placing a heavy emphasis on internal personality characteristics to explain someone's behavior in a given situation, rather than thinking about external situational factors. The flip side of the fundamental attribution error is the actor-observer bias, in which people tend to over-emphasize the role of a situation in their behaviors and under-emphasize the role of their own personalities. Some people think of this cognitive bias as one of the root principles in social psychology. It certainly illustrates several interesting things about cognitive biases, like the fact that people tend to consider their own behavior in a different light than the behavior of others. It also illustrates the brain's genuine desire to comprehend a situation and the behavior which occurred in that situation in a logical way. The fundamental attribution error can also lead to other cognitive biases.

Many people want to understand the reasons for human behavior, out of a natural curiosity and in an effort to avoid uncomfortable situations. Cognitive biases are one way that the brain processes human behavior; although a cognitive bias is often wrong, it can provide quick information about a situation which will allow you to make a rapid decision. However, people should be careful to be aware of cognitive biases, so that they can consider that a behavior might have more than one explanation. To avoid making the fundamental attribution error, one of the best things you can do is put yourself in the other person's shoes, as the old saying goes. By thinking about what you might do in the same situation, you might come up with some situational factors for a behavior which could shed more light on the subject. Awareness of this common cognitive bias can help you look for hidden behavioral factors, making you a better observer and better able to read people and situations. Finally, when you are trying to explain your own behavior, avoid indulging the actor-observer effect, and make sure to give your personality some credit for your actions. How do the concepts of personal space and territoriality differ across cultures? How is human territoriality different from that of nonhuman species? Personal space is that area within which a person allows only select friends, or fellow workers with whom personal conversation is mandatory. This space is different according to the culture. In a classroom, when personal space is violated, people can react with shift of postures, attempts to move away or defensive gestures. Hall (1959) has defined three types of space: fixed-feature, semi-fixed feature and informal. The space configuration of the classroom can be described in terms of fixedfeature. The use of the classroom space influences the way students talk, behave, feel and work. Territoriality is a means of achieving a desired level of privacy. It involves the exclusive control of a space by an individual or group. This control implies privileges and may involve aggressive actions in its defense. For the individual, territorial control provides security and identity and is communicated through personalization and definition. Animals show space requirements are influenced by their environment. Territoriality is behavior by which an animal lays claim of an area and defends it against members of its own species. It also fulfills several biological functions like feeding, mating, and rearing the young. Personal distance is the normal spacing that non-contact animals maintain with their species. Week Five Discussion Questions What is the value of understanding cross-cultural psychology? How can cross-cultural psychology be applied to other fields? Please provide a specific example in your response. In addition, discuss at least 1 concept learned in cross-cultural psychology which you can apply in your professional life. Team DQ: Looking back at your last assignment, what things do you consider went well, what things did not go well, and what will you do differently next time?