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N.Nagarani et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.

2(7), 2010, 2839-2845

EXPERIMENTAL HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS ON ANNULAR CIRCULAR AND ELLIPTICAL FINS .


N.Nagarani,
Professor , Mechanical Engineering Department, Anna university of technology ,Coimbatore, K.S.R College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637 215, Tamilnadu, India. Phone: +910 94423 88332, jothirani2004@yahoo.com.

K.Mayilsamy ,
Head of the Department, Mechanical Engineering , Anna university of technology ,Coimbatore Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode.Tamilnadu ,India. Phone : +910 94439 87778. Abstract: Most of the engineering problems require high performance heat transfer components with progressively less weights, volumes, accommodating shapes and costs. Extended surfaces (fins) are one of the heat exchanging devices that are employed extensively to increase heat transfer rates. The rate of heat transfer depends on the surface area of the fin. Radial or annular fins are one of the most popular choices for exchanging the heat transfer rate from the primary surface of cylindrical shape. In this paper the heat transfer rate and efficiency for circular and elliptical annular fins were analyzed for different environmental conditions.. Elliptical fin efficiency is more than circular fin. If space restriction is there along one particular direction while the perpendicular direction is relatively unrestricted elliptical fins could be a good choice. Key word: surface area ,heat transfer rate, Elliptical fin, circular fin. Introduction: Finned tube heat exchangers are widely used in many industrial applications such as, air conditioning, chemical processing systems, Heat exchangers for refrigeration and in storage tanks of waste nuclear materials etc. In general the augmentation of heat transfer from tubes carrying stream of hot fluid to the surrounding cold gases is attainable by attaching arrays of annular fins to the outer surface of the tubes. The selection of any particular type of fin depends mainly on the geometry of this primarysurface.Radial or annular fins are one of the most popular choices for enhancing the heat transfer rate from the primary surface of cylindrical shape. It is well known that the rate of heat transfer from the fin decreases with the increase of fin length and hence, the entire heat transfer surface of a fin may not be equally utilized. For this reason, there is a continuous effort by the designers to determine the optimum fin that will maximize the rate of heat transfer for a specified fin volume or minimize the fin volume for a given heat transfer.

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N.Nagarani et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 2839-2845 Alternatively, given a fin profile, dimensions are obtained that satisfy the optimization conditions. The resulting fin profile achieved through the first criterion of the above two optimization techniques is always difficult to manufacture. Moreover, the fins with optimum profile are long and narrow, they need larger space and are weak near the tip. From the application point of view, the second kind of optimization approach is more popular. Antonio Acosta, Antonio campo (1) demonstrated that approximate analytic temperature profile and heat transfer rate are easily obtainable without restoring the exact analytic temperature distribution and heat transfer rate embodying modified Bessel function. Prasanta ku.Das (2) stated that reduce of fouling on the external surface of tubes is reason for selecting noncircular geometry .It is established by numerical modeling that elliptic tubes will have a reduced rate of fouling due to its lower frontal area and small wake region. Dutta proposed different non circular geometries of heat exchanger tubes where the force of gravity can be exploited to reduce the thickness of the condensate film. Due to higher thermal resistance in gas flow a specified heat transfer coefficient and given ambient temperature could be the appropriate condition for the other boundary. B.Kundu,P.K.Das (3) reported that the performance of elliptic disc fin has been analyzed using a semi analytical technique .It has been shown that the efficiency of such fin can also be predicted very closely using sector method. Optimum elliptical fin dissipate heat at higher rate compared to annular fin when space restriction exists on both sides of the fin. Even when the restriction is on one side only, the performance of elliptical fin is comparable to that of eccentric annular fin for a wide parametric range. B.Kundu,P.K.Das(4) in their paper compiled that obtaining two simple correlation equations which express the optimum heat transfer rate and optimum radii ratio of the fin as a function of the fin volume and Biot Number with uniform thickness. Chine-Nan lin, Jiin-yuh jang(5) stated the two dimensional analyses for the efficiency of an elliptic fin under dry, partially wet and fully wet conditions of different range value for axis ratio, biot-number and air humidify. Ahmet N.Ereslan,Turgut Tokdemir(6) in their paper stated that the variable thickness annular fin mounted on a hot rotating rigid shaft is considered. Thickness of fin varies radially in a continuous variable non liner elliptic form. The heat transfer and deformations in the fins subjected to both centrifugal force and radial temperature gradients. Mi sandar Mon, Ulrich Gross (7) reported that the effect of fin spacing on four row annular finned tube bundles in staggered and inline arrangements are investigated by 3D numerical study. To investigate the velocity and temperature distribution between fins. The flow behavior of the developing boundary layer, the horse shoe vortex system, and thermal boundary layer developments in the annular finned tube banks will be visualized. HanTaw Chen , Wei-Lun Hu (8) reported that the finite difference method in conjunction with the least-squares scheme and experimental measured temperatures is applied to predict the average heat transfer coefficient and fin efficiency on a vertical annular circular fin of finned-tube heat exchangers for various fin spacing in forced convection. Esmail M.A. Mokheimer (9)investigated the performance of annular fins of different profiles subject to locally variable heat transfer coefficient. The performance of the fin expressed in terms of fin efficiency in the form of curves known as the fin-efficiency curves for different types of fins. These curves, have been obtained based on constant convection heat transfer coefficient. Antonio Acosta-Iborra , Antonio Campo (10)explained the salient feature in the quasi one-dimensional differential equation for annular fins of uniform thickness. It is demonstrated that approximate analytic temperature profiles and heat transfer rates of good quality are easily obtainable without resorting to the exact analytic temperature distribution and heat transfer rate embodying modified Bessel functions. For enhanced visualization, the computed temperature profiles, tip temperatures and fin efficiencies of approximate nature are graphed and tabulated for realistic combinations of the normalized radii ratio and the thermo-geometric fin parameter of interest in thermal engineering applications. Cihat Arslanturk(11) obtained Simple correlation equations for optimum design of annular fins with uniform cross section . The fin volume is fixed to obtain the dimensionless geometrical parameters of the fin with maximum heat transfer rates. The optimum radii ratio of an annular fin which maximizes the heat transfer rate has been found as a function of Biot number and the fin volume. The data from the present solutions is correlated for a suitable range of Biot number and the fin volume. The simple correlation equations presented in this work can assist for thermal design engineers for optimum design of annular fins of uniform thickness.

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N.Nagarani et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 2839-2845 Lien-Tsai Yu,Cha o- Kuang Chen(12) discussed the optimization of rectangular profile circular fins with variable thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer coefficients .The nonlinear conducting_convecting_radiating heat transfer equation is solved by the differential transformation method. It is shown that considering the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient are both constant for a given fin volume the optimum fin length is almost independent of the fin base temperature for pure convection However for both convection- radiation and pure radiation.The length of the optimum fins for higher temperatures is shorter than the length of the fins with lower temperatures. B.Paisarn Naphon,(13) explained the theoretical results of the heat transfer characteristics and the fin efficiency of the annular fin .Annular fin under dry-surface conditions, partially wet-surface conditions, and fully wet-surface conditions are investigated. The mathematical models based on the conservation equations of energy and mass are developed and solved by the central finite difference method to obtain temperature distribution along the fin. Effects of inlet condition of working fluids and the fin dimensions on the heat transfer characteristics and fin efficiency are considered.. There is a reasonable agreement between the results obtained from the present model and those obtained from the other model. However for my knowledge the forgoing literature review shows that no other work related to two dimensional analysis of elliptic fin circumscribing circular tubes by experimental has not been attempted so far. The objective is to find heat transfer rate and efficiency of annular circular fin and compare it with elliptic fin. Problem definition: Now a days compact heat exchanger with less weight, cost and space are required in food processing industries, chemical industries and refrigeration units. From [3]space restriction on one side and enough space in perpendicular directions elliptic fins will be better choice .

Fig .1 Circular and Elliptical fins in circular tube.

The advantages of elliptical fin from (2)and (3) are i)In cross flow, the aerodynamically shaped tubes will reduce the pressure drop of the external fluid to a great extent in the sub critical range. ii)In general the tubes are given an elongated shape with their major axis oriented towards the direction of flow, such a design also increases the area of outer surface thus improving overall heat transfer. This has promoted heat transfer and hydrodynamics studies on non circular tubes and tube bunks. iii)Reduction of fouling on the external surface of the tubes is reason for selecting non circular geometry. iv)During film wise condensation effective drainage of the condensate film from the external surface of the tube increases the rate of heat transfer. The above mentioned advantages intituted to do the experimental work. The following assumptions are considered for solving the problem .

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N.Nagarani et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 2839-2845 Fin materials is homogenous and its thermal conductivity is the same in all directions and it remaining constant. The temperature of medium surround the fin is uniform. The thickness of the fin is small compared with its height &length, so that the temperature gradient across the fin thickness and heat transfer from the edge of the fin may be neglected. Temperature at the base of the tube is uniform. No heat transfer in axial direction.

Experimental analysis: Fig 2a and 2b are the schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus used in the present study for the estimation of heat transfer on annular fin at one tube. The various dimensions required for the setup are taken from the reference (8). The annular circular and elliptical fin made of aluminum is vertically mounted on the circular tube. The circular fins have the outer diameter of 99mm ,thickness 1mm and the space between the fin is 5mm . The horizontal circular tube is placed on two supports which is 98 mm above the experimental table to avoid ground effect. Length, diameter and thickness on the horizontal circular pipe made of aluminum are 400mm,32mm and 3mm. Electrical heating coil with 0.5 kW capacity is kept inside the tube. Size of the box is 500x300x300mm . Thermal conductivity of aluminum is 237 W/mK. The process is done with free convection .The temperature of air entering test specimen is measured as the ambient temperature and test fin temperatures are measured using K type thermocouples at the base and fin tip. The temperatures of the circular tube at inlet and outlet are measured using a thermocouple.

Fig.2a experimental set up for circular fin.

Fig.2b elliptical fin.

For elliptical fin the major and minor axis ratio are 2.7 with same circular tube dimension. Surface area of both fin are equal . The readings are taken for one month at different environmental condition like morning, afternoon and evening and reading for both fins are tabulated. For circular and elliptical fin the following formulas are used for calculating heat transfer coefficient and shaped tube efficiency. The atmospheric temperature in the morning time 303.5 oK ,in afternoon and evening time is 305oK. The following formulas are used to calculate heat transfer coefficient and Shaped tube efficiency. Actual heat input Q = IV surface area for circle As = 4[2(r22-r12)]+r12, Surface area for ellipse As = 4[2(ab-r12)]+r12 Heat transfer coefficient h = Q / As(Ts-T) Shaped tube efficiency x = [Ts - T] / [Tb-T]

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N.Nagarani et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 2839-2845 Result and discussion: For circular fin the isotherms are radically symmetrical, fin surface area temperature gradually reduces only along its radial direction so heat transfer rate is equal in all directions. For elliptical fins the radial geometry of temperature field disappears slightly away from the tube wall, the temperature field is symmetric about the axes. Along the major axis, the isotherms have their extremum and their trend changes from fin base to fin tip. Along the minor axis slightly away from the base the isotherms have never close to the axis. This bring out the two dimensional effect in heat conduction.

Fig-3 Base temperature and heat transfer co efficient.

Fig. 4 Base temperature Vs surface temperature

Fig. 5a

Fig. 5b

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N.Nagarani et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 2839-2845

Fig. 5c
Fig. 5a, 5b , 5c Heat transfer coefficient and Shaped tube efficiency.

Fig.3 shows the comparison of base temperature , and heat transfer co-efficient for circular and elliptical fins along the tube profile using experimental setup reading taken for different environmental condition. Base temperature goes on increases, heat transfer co-efficient goes on decreases .Heat transfer co-efficient of elliptical fin is less than circular fin at all temperature and different environmental condition. Variation in heat transfer coefficient is less at morning when compared to afternoon and evening. Change in heat transfer coefficient for both fins are same in the morning. In evening variation for both fins are between the two curves .For same surface area, heat transfer coefficient for circular fin is greater than elliptical fin .Based on environment condition heat transfer co efficient varies ,greater variation occurs in the afternoon when compared to morning and evening for both fins . Fig.4 shows the comparison between the base temperature and surface temperature for circular and elliptical fin.For different environmental condition Elliptical fin surface temperature is greater than circular one. Heat transfer coefficient for elliptical fin better and transfer more amount of heat. Fig. 5a, 5b , 5c shows the comparison between the Heat transfer coefficient and Shaped tube efficiency for circular and elliptical fins. Efficiency curve, for elliptical fin is greater than circular fin. Heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing efficiency. In morning heat transfer coefficient is lesser than in afternoon and in the evening and efficiency is in morning . Efficiency of elliptical fin is 3.75% greater than circular fin in morning ,9.79% in afternoon and 3.83% in the evening . It shows that the efficiency of the fins is changed according to the environmental condition. Conclusion: In present work the rate of heat transfer from elliptic fin circumscribing circular tube was analyzed by experimental method. Fin efficiency is higher for elliptical fin than circular fin. If space restriction is along one particular direction, while the perpendicular direction is relatively unrestricted elliptic fins could be a better choice. Normally heat transfer co-efficient depends upon the space ,time , flow conditions and fluid properties. If there are changes in environmental conditions, there is changes in heat transfer co-efficient and efficiency also.

References:
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Antonio Acosta , Antonio campo Approximate analytic temperature distribution and efficiency for annular fins of uniform thickness,May 2008. Prasanta ku. Das Heat conduction through heat exchanger tubes of non-circular cross section, Journal of Heat transfer vol .130,January 2008. B.Kundu, P.K.Das, Performance analysis and optimization of elliptic fins circumscribing a circular tube, International journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 50 (2007)173-180. Kundu .B, Das.P.K Performance analysis and optimization of straight taper fins with variable heat transfer coefficient, May2002. Chine-Nan lin, Jiin-yuh jang A two dimensional fin efficiency analysis of combined heat & mass transfer in elliptic fins.international journal of heat and mass transfer 45( 2002.)3839-3847. Ahmet N.Ereslan ,Turgut Tokdemir, Thermo elastic response of a fin exhibiting elliptic thickness profile international journal of thermal science 47(2008)274-281.

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N.Nagarani et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 2839-2845
Mi sandar Mon, Ulrich Gross Numerical study of fin spacing effects in annular finned tube heat exchanger , International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2004) 19531964. [8] Han Taw Chen, Wei-Lun Hsu, Estimation of heat transfer co efficient on the fin of annular finned tube heat exchangers in natural convection for various fin spacings, International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer(2007) 1750-1761. [9] Esmail M.A. Mokheimer Performance of annular fins with different profiles subject to variable heat transfer coefficient International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 36313642. [10] Antonio Acosta-Iborra , Antonio Campo Approximate analytic temperature distribution and efficiency for annular fins of uniform thickness International Journal of Thermal Sciences (2008), doi:10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2008.05.012 [11] Cihat Arslanturk Simple correlation equations for optimum design of annular fins with uniform thickness Applied Thermal Engineering 25 (2005) 24632468. [12] Lien-Tsai Yu,Cha o- Kuang Chen.Optimization of circular fins with variable thermal parameters Journal of The Franklin Institute 225B "0888# 66_84. [13] B.Paisarn NaphonStudy on the heat transfer characteristics of the annular fin under dry-surface, partially wet-surface, and fully wet-surface conditionsInternational Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 33 (2006) 112 121 [14] Nag .P.K (2005) Heat and mass transfer . [15] [15] Q.D Kern, D.A Kraces, Extended Surface Heat transfer, McGraw Hill, Newyork,1972. [7]

Nomenclature: a b - length of the semi-major and semi-minor axes respectively of an elliptical fin. h -surface convective heat transfer co efficient (w/m2k) K -thermal conductivity of the fin material (w/m k) r2 -outer radius of circular fin (m) r1 -inner radius of the circular fins Ts - surface temperature Tb -base temperature T-ambient temperature. c1,c2,c3 -circular fin at different environmental condition. e1,e2,e3 elliptical fin at different environmental condition.

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