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Presentedat2007VirginiaAWWA/WEAWaterJAM THEDESIGNELEMENTSOFSTATEOFTHEARTTREATMENTTECHNOLOGY:MBR WASTEWATERTREATMENTSYSTEMS AnnCopeland,PE,*HamptonRoadsSanitationDistrict KirkCole,Ph.D.,PE,**McKim&CreedPA RaymondBarrows,PE,CommonwealthofVirginia,Dept.ofEnvironmentalQuality JamesC.Pyne,Ph.D.,PE,BCEE,HamptonRoadsSanitationDistrict *Presenter **PrincipalAuthorandContactforQuestions Abstract TheVirginiaWaterQualityImprovementActof1997wasenactedinresponsetotheneedto financethenutrientreductionstrategiesbeingdevelopedfortheChesapeakeBayandits tributaries.PursuanttotheAct,theCommonwealthestablishedintheStatetreasuryaspecial permanent,nonrevertingfundknownastheVirginiaWaterQualityImprovementFund.

nd. Legislationpassedduringthe2006legislativesession(SB644Watkins)amendedtheWater QualityImprovementFundwithrespecttoseveralissues.Notably,SB644includedachangeto thenumericalconcentrationlimitsingrantagreementssothattheyarebaseduponthe technologyinstalledatthefacility(technologybasedlimits).Tofurtherfacilitateandassure anequitablegrantprocess,DEQdevelopedguidancememorandum(GM)#062012.Boththe GMandthewasteloadallocationregulation(9VAC2582010)currentlydefinestateoftheart nutrientremovaltechnologyastechnologythatwillachieveanannualaveragetotalnitrogen effluentconcentrationof3mgL1andanannualaveragetotalphosphoruseffluent concentrationof0.3mgL1,orequivalentloadreductionsintotalnitrogenandtotalphosphorus throughrecycleorreuseofwastewaterasdeterminedbytheDepartment.Theproven technologiesforcompliancewiththisdefinitionincludebiologicalnutrientremovalwith supplementalcarbonandphosphorusremovalbyusingaphysiochemicalprecipitationprocess. Amembranebioreactor(MBR)isawastewatertreatmentprocessthatcanbecoupledwitha biologicalnutrientremovalandphysiochemicalprocesstomeettheneedforsupportingthe WaterQualityImprovementAct.Currently,theteamcomprisedofHRSD,DEQandMcKim& CreedhasidentifiedtheminimumdesignrequirementsofaMBRWastewaterTreatment Systemtocomplywiththepermittedeffluentrequirementsforthewastewatersystemandthe currentstateoftheartnutrientremovalrequirementsfornitrogenandphosphoruslimits.This paperwilladdressthefundamentaldesignrequirementsneededfortheMBRwastewater treatmentsystemscompliancewiththeregulatedeffluentlimitsandincludeadiscussionof technicalissuesthatwereaccountedforintheprocessanalysis.Thepaperwillalsoincludea discussionofbiologicalmodelingasameanstohelpevaluatethedesigncriteria.The informationpresentedinthispapershouldhelpengineers,regulatoryagencies,andowners addresstheminimumrequirementsforinitiatingaMBRwastewatertreatmentsystem.

Introduction TheVirginiaWaterQualityImprovementActof1997wasenactedinresponsetotheneedto financethenutrientreductionstrategiesbeingdevelopedfortheChesapeakeBayandits tributaries.PursuanttotheAct,theCommonwealthestablishedintheStatetreasuryaspecial permanent,nonrevertingfundknownastheVirginiaWaterQualityImprovementFund. Legislationpassedduringthe2006legislativesession(SB644Watkins)amendedtheWater QualityImprovementFundwithrespecttoseveralissues.Notably,SB644includedachangeto thenumericalconcentrationlimitsingrantagreementssothattheyarebaseduponthe technologyinstalledatthefacility(technologybasedlimits).Tofurtherfacilitateandassure anequitablegrantprocess,DEQdevelopedguidancememorandum(GM)#062012.Boththe GMandthewasteloadallocationregulation(9VAC2582010)currentlydefinestateoftheart nutrientremovaltechnology(SOA)astechnologythatwillachieveanannualaveragetotal nitrogeneffluentconcentrationof3mgL1andanannualaveragetotalphosphoruseffluent concentrationof0.3mgL1,orequivalentloadreductionsintotalnitrogenandtotalphosphorus throughrecycleorreuseofwastewaterasdeterminedbytheDepartment.Theproven technologiesforcompliancewiththisdefinitionincludebiologicalnutrientremovalwith supplementalcarbonandphosphorusremovalbyusingaphysiochemicalprecipitationprocess. Themembranebioreactor(MBR)wasawastewatertreatmentprocessthatcanbecoupledwith biologicalnutrientremovalandphysiochemicalprocesstomeettheneedforsupportingthe WaterQualityImprovementAct(WQIA). GiventheKingWilliamWastewatertreatmentplant,locatedinKingWilliamCounty,Virginia, providesservicetoseveralsmallcommercialestablishments,acarwash,andresidential dischargers,aneedwasidentifiedtoexpandtheexistingfacilityasasmallwastewatersystem. Currently,theflowisabout15,000gallonsperdayandhasbeenidentifiedtobeexpandedto 100,000gallonsperdayforservicetoprimarilyresidentialgrowth.Duetothestringent environmentalregulation,conventionalwasteactivatedsludgewastewatertreatmentplants maynotprovidetheleveloftreatmentrequiredtocomplywith3mgL1nitrogenand0.3mgL1 phosphorusintheeffluent.CoupledwiththeneedformeetingthenewWQIAdischargelimits wastheneedfor:handlingvariableflow;providingareasonableeconomicsolution;successin treatinghighammoniawastewater;andsatisfyingthepotentialrelocationofthetreatment works,thusinvolvinganabandonmentoftheexistingtreatmentplantsiteinthefuture.A projectgoalwasestablishedtodeployaSOAtreatmentsystemthatwouldcomplywiththese conditionsthroughuseofaMBRwastewatertreatmentsystem. TheMBRwastewatertreatmentsystemhasgainedwideuseintheUS(Yangetal.,2006)andits applicationwouldachievethedesiredperformancebasedontheinfluentconditionsand wastewatercharacteristics.Previousstudyforsmallwastewatertreatmentsystemsindicated thattheMBRwastewatertreatmentsystemswereeconomicalandcouldmeetvariableinfluent characteristics,performanceobjectives,andsiteconstraints(Cole,2002).TheMBRtreatment systemhasbeendemonstratedto:reduceBODgreaterthan98%(Kishinoetal.,1996);reduce COD84%(FanandHaung,2002),94%(Bracklowetal.,2007)(Wangetal.,2005),95% (Rosenbergeretal.,2002),97%(Badanietal.,2005)(Atigaetal.,2005)to98%(AlMalacketal.,

2007);produceaconsistentNH4+N+removalrate91%(Wangetal.,2005),94%(Kishinoetal., 1996),98%(FanandHaung,2002),and99%(Gaoetal.,2004a);exhibitaconsistentnitrate removalforwastewaterthroughdenitrification(Wasiketal.,2001),60%denitrification (Yamamotoetal.,1989),74%TNremoval(Wangetal.,2005),and82%nitrogenremoval (Rosenbergeretal.,2002);provide5logremovalofE.coli(Ottosonetal.,2006);andeliminate greaterthan97%phosphorus(Bracklowetal.,2007).MBRperformanceforwastewater containingammoniawasfoundtobecompletelyconvertedNH4+NtoNO3Nascomparedtoa conversionrateof95%forconventionalactivatedsludgeprocesses(Gaoetal.,2004b). DuetodifferencesinMBRwastewatertreatmentsystemsmanufacture,membranes,siteand operationalconstraints,severalobjectiveswereidentifiedforthedesignoftheKingWilliam Wastewatertreatmentsystem.ThekeyobjectivewastoidentifydesignelementsfortheMBR wastewatertreatmentsystemthatwouldprovidereasonableresulttowardaccomplishingthe establishedprojectgoal. TechnicalEvaluation BecausethereweremultipleMBRwastewatertreatmentsystemscapableofcomplyingwiththe project,thedesignelementsweredividedintothreeprimarycategories.Thesewereuseof existingfacilities,treatmentperformance,andportability. ExistingFacilities TheMBRSOAtreatmentsystemcriteriaconsideredthemaximumuseofexistingtreatment facilities.Theseconsiderationsincludedasystematicevaluationoftheconditionoftheexisting facilityfromtheplantintaketotheexistingoutfall,Figure1.Beginningattheplantintake, existingcoursescreeningworkswereidentifiedandthesescreenswereidentifiedtoremain. Thegravitypipelocatedfromtheintakeworkstotheexistingtreatmentfacilitieswaschecked toconfirmfuturecapacity.
Facility Perimeter Fence

N
Cascade Aerator

Resource Protection Area Lab

Screen Headworks

UV System Tertiary Treatment

Treatment Plant

Sludge Drying Bed

SITE LAYOUT
NOT TO SCALE

Figure1.ExistingWastewaterTreatmentFacilitySchematicDiagram DiagramBy:YasuhitoKai,NicoleTurnbull,JohnDonohue,RamPrasad CivilandEnvironmentalEngineeringDept.,OldDominionUniversity,Norfolk,May2004

Theexisting25,000gallonperdaywastewatertreatmentplantwasaconventionalwaste activatedtreatmentplantbuiltandinstalledinground.Theexistingtreatmentplantwas evaluatedfor1)useduringconstructionofthenewMBRfacilities,2)materialcondition,and3) futureuse.Basedonassessmentoftheexistingfacility,itwasdeterminedthatitsbestvaluefor usewasthatofanequalizationfacility.TheMBRSOAsystemcannormallytoleratevariable flowsandloadingrates(Stepehsonetal.,2000)anddoesnotnormallyrequireflows equalization;however,theperceivedadvantageforuseoftheexistingtreatmentplantas tankagewasincluded,Figure2.

Figure2.MBRProcessSchematic. Theexistingsanddryingbedswerenotconsideredtobeneededforsolidshandling,as operationsintendedtousetrucksforhaulingsolidsonaroutinebiweeklybasis.Otherexisting facilitiesthatwouldnotbeneededfortheMBRsystemincludeduseoftheexistingUV disinfectionsystem,sandfilterslocateddownstreamofthewastewatertreatmentplant,andthe aerationstepslocatedaheadoftheoutfall.Theconcretesteppedaeratorwouldbeconvertedto aflowchamberforuseasacompliancemonitoringsamplepointthathelpedtoimproved hydraulicperformanceatincreasedplantflow.Outfallpipingwascheckedtoconfirmthatthe linewassuitableforfutureflows.

TreatmentPerformance ThetreatmentperformanceoftheMBRtomeettheprojectgoalwasidentifiedbyindicatingthe criteriaforeffluentlimits.MBRsystemshavebeenprovensuccessfultomeetstringenteffluent requirementsandthishasbeendemonstratedbyreuserequirements(Ernstetal.,2007)that exceedwastewaterpermitrequirementsandwastewatersthatcontainsurfactants(Dhouibetal., 2005).TheMBRwastewatertreatmentsystemdesignelementsincludethoseparametersin Table1forthelimitsforwastewatereffluent:

Table1 MBRSystemEffluentParameters Value Initial StartUp 30,000 Flow AverageDailyFlow 100,000 MaximumDaily 200,000 Flow PeakHourlyFlow 250,000 Influent: 208to674 Effluent 10(Monthly Average) Effluent 15(WeeklyAverage)

Parameter Dailyflow,gpd cBOD5,mgL1

Remarks (CarbonaceousBOD) cBOD5mustbereduced byatleast85%of influent.

218to744 10(Monthly Average) Effluent 15(WeeklyAverage) TSSmustbereduced byatleast85%of influent. Zero DissolvedOxygen,mgL1 Influent(Estimated) Effluent 5.0 pH 0to14S.U Influent 6.8to7.5 Effluent 6.0to9.0 E.Coli,n/100mL Influent Unknown Effluent 126(geometricmean) Nitrogen,mgL1 Influent TKN 25.9to186 TKN(average) 71.3 NH3 7.5to74.6 NH3(average) 40 Effluent 3.0(Monthly Permittedvalue Average) Effluent 4.5(Weekly Average) 1 Influent 5.9to41.1 TotalPhosphorous,mgL Influent(average) 10.4 Effluent <0.3 Permittedvalue Temperature,C Influent 12to25 Effluent Ambient

TSS,mgL1

Influent Effluent

Alkalinity,mgL1asCa Influent 117to362 CO3 Influent(average) 264.9 Effluent 75 Thesystemconfigurationtomeettheseeffluentlimitsgenerallyconsistedoftwoindividual 50,000gallonperdayMBRs,includingallbiologicaltanks,membraneoperatingtanks,influent screeningandanUVdisinfectionsystem.TheMBRsystemwasidentifiedtocontain membranetankwithmanifoldsandsupportsforcontainingthemembranesandthe membranescomprisedofeitherproprietary,PVDF,orpolyethylenematerialswithaporesize notmorethan0.1micronorasrequiredtomeettheprojectconditions.Thesystemwouldalso berequiredtocontainafiltrationmanifold,airmanifoldandmixedliquormanifold.Eachof themembranetankswastobelargeenoughtocontaintherequirednumberofmembranes, sizedtoremovethemembranesforreplacementorservice,andbeseparatedfromthe remainderoftheprocessvolumefortherequiredbiologicalreactions.Themembranetanks couldformpartoftheaerobicbiologicaltreatmentvolume.Themixedliquorwasidentifiedto befedtothemembranetanksfromtheremainderofthebiologicalsystemalongwithair.The MBRsystemconfigurationwastypicalinthatallmembraneswereconnectedtoacommon permeateheaderandpumps,withpermeateultimatelypassingthroughthemembranestothe existingwastewaterplantoutfall.Thesystemalsoincludedinplacechemicalcleaningwiththe neededpipingandvalvestoallowautomaticflushingofallmembranemanifoldsand appurtenanceswithcleaningchemicals.Automationinthesystemscontrolandmonitoring functionswasdevisedtoassistinthereductionofstafftimeonsite. ComputerModeling Manydesignsandprocessesarepossibleandthecalculationsusedtosupportthesedesignscan becomplex.Tohelpdevelopasystematicmethodforinterpretationoftheprocesseswiththeir respectivecalculationsandresults,computermodelingwasused.Thiscomputermodeling includesallmajorunitprocesses,calculations,andresultsindicatinginfluentdataand compliancewitheffluentrequirements.ComputersoftwaresuchasBioWin(version2.2)by EnviroSimAssociatesLtd.usesageneralActivatedSludge/AnaerobicDigestionmodelwhichis referredtoastheBioWinGeneralModel.Themodelincludes50statevariablesand60process expressionswheretheseexpressionsareusedtodescribethebiologicalprocessesoccurringin activatedsludgeandanaerobicdigestionsystemsandseveralchemicalprecipitationreactions. Althoughthemodelwasnotcalibrated,themodelhelpstoprovideabenefitforusein predictionofthesystemperformance,futureoperationsanddecisionmaking.Thearrangement processesuniquetotheBioWincomputermodelwouldbesimilartoFigure3.

Figure3.TypicalprocessarrangementBioWincomputermodelforMBRwastewater treatmentsystem.CourtesyofReidEngineeringCompany,Inc.(5403718500). Portability Theexistingactivatedsludgewastewatertreatmentplantwasconstructedcirca1999.The facilitywithlandsarecurrentlyleasedfromtheCounty.Thesitewassmallandlimitedinthe amountofspacethatcouldbebuiltout.Thesite,however,wasfoundtobeofanadequatesize toaccommodateaninitial100,000gpdMBRtreatmentfacilitysuitableforadesignlife expectancyof20yearswithanexpansionofanadditional100,000gpdMBRtreatmentplant. Futureflowstothetreatmentplantbeyond200,000gpdwillrequireexpansionbeyondthe capabilityoftheexistingsitetosupportanyfurtherexpansion.Shouldtheplantrequire additionalspaceforexpansion,thenewMBRtreatmentplantwillberelocated.Asadesign elementtotheproject,theMBRwastewatertreatmentsystemwasrequiredtoincorporate portability.TheportablenatureoftheMBRwastewatertreatmentfacilitygenerallyincluded removingallprimarysystems.Thisportabilitywasalsodemonstratedbythemethodsusedfor installation,Figure4.

Figure4.PortabilityoftheMBRWastewaterTreatmentSystem asDemonstratedbyInstallationMethod.

Conclusions ThedesignelementsidentifiedforaMBRwastewatertreatmentsystemwerefoundsuccessful forfacilitatingstartupandoperationofthefacility,andformeetingtheintendedwastewater effluentqualityobjectivesandresults.Alleffluentrequirementsidentifiedhavebeensatisfied. UseofexistingtreatmentfacilitieshavebeenfoundtoenhanceoperationoftheMBRsystem.In additiontocompliancewithstringentregulatorydischargerequirements,thesignificantbenefit gainedfromtheuseofMBRtreatmentsystemwasprojectschedule.Thetotaldurationfrom projectconceptiontosubstantialcompletionwasapproximately11months.Otherinherent valueoftheMBRtreatmentsystemwastheportabilityofthesystemthatwasalsoidentifiedas criticaltowardthesystemstotalsuitabilityforuse.AstheMBRtreatmentsystemeffluent qualityhasbeenfoundtoexceedregulatoryrequirementsandprojectexpectations,thesystem canberelocatedinthefutureforuseatotherlocationsasasatelliteorscalpingplant. Throughouttheprojectdevelopment,frominitialconception,design,shopdrawingreview,to installation,itwasnotedthatastrongteamcomprisedoftheOwner(HRSD),Engineer(McKim &Creed,PA),RegulatoryAuthority(DEQ),Contractor(MEB),andMBREquipment Manufacturer(Heyward,Inc.)wascriticaltowardtheprojectsoverwhelmingsuccess.In particular,opencommunicationsandawillingnesstoparticipateinvalueengineeringbyall teammembersturnedthisverygoodprojectintoanexcellentproject. ThedesignelementsselectedfortheMBRwastewatertreatmentsystemresultedinasystem thatmetandexceededtheestablishedprojectobjectivesandgoal.Thebenefitsgainedfromuse ofanMBRSOAsystemwillimproveourenvironmentandhelpmeetregulatoryrequirements wellintothefuture. References Yang,W.,Cicek,N,andIlg,J.(2006)Stateoftheartofmembranebioreactors:Worldwide researchandcommercialapplicationsinNorthAmerica.JournalofMembraneScience270,201 211. Cole,S.K.(2002)PreliminaryProcessFeasibilityEvaluation,MembraneBiologicalReactor (MBR)InstallationforWestPointandUrbannaWastewaterTreatmentPlants,CE895, MembraneWater/WastewaterCivilandEnvironmentalEngineeringDept.,OldDominion University. Kishino,H.,Ishida,H.,Iwabu,H.,andNakano,I.(1996)Domesticwastewaterreuseusinga submergedmembranebioreactor.Desalination106,115119. Fan,B.,andHuang,X.(2002)CharacteristicsofaSelfFormingDynamicMembraneCoupled withaBioreactorforMunicipalWastewaterTreatment.EnvironmentScience&Technology36, 52455251.

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